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Full text of "Conservation and industry"

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CONSERVATION w INDUSTRY 

A Bi-Weekly Publication of the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol. V 



JANUARY 1, 1928 



No. 1 



Beginning with this issue, the Depart- 
ment's publication, formerly known as 
"Natural Resources," is changed to "Con- 
servation and Industry." 

This alteration is made with the hope 
that the usefulness of the publication can 
be extended farther. With many added 
duties of the Department, it is thought 
that the new name sets out more fully all 
of its functions and will appeal to a great- 
er number of people. 

As the official publication of the Depart- 
ment, it is the function of the leaflet 
to represent every phase of its activity ; 
to inform the public as to what it is under- 
taking; and to promote, in general, the 
purposes of conservation and development. 



PUBLIC OWNERSHIP OF FOREST 
LAND AS APPLIED TO STATE 



The Federal Government has from time to time 
announced its public policy for the acquisition 
and administration of forest land. Beginning 
back of 18Q1 when Congress authorized the set- 
ting aside of publicly owned forest lands for for- 
est reserves and Presidents Harrison and Cleve- 
land created the first reserves, the people have 
recognized the public's interest in timber produc- 
tion, stream protection, public recreation, pro- 
tection of wild life and other benefits connected 
with large forest areas. 

Our first public forests were in the west where 
the Nation owned large areas of wild land but 
before the beginning of this century a movement 
was inaugurated to establish by purchase similar 
National Forests in the East. North Carolina 
was foremost in this movement, the then State 
Geologist, Dr. Jos. A. Holmes, and a leading 
Ashevillc citizen, Dr. C. P. Ambler, being two of 
the chief movers. A bill authorizing and provid- 
ing for the purchase and administration of Na- 
tional Forests in the East was introduced into 
Congress in 1901 but through lack of public 
interest it was not until ion that the Weeks 
Act became a law. The avowed object of this 
measure is the protection of the headwaters of 
navigable streams. It is under this law that the 
present area of 380,000 acres of National Forest 
has been acquired in the Mountain region of 
this State. 

Large Areas Purchased 

Under the Weeks Law the Federal Government 
through the National Forest Reservation Com- 
mission has purchased a total of 2,800,000 acres 
at an average price of less than $5.00 per acre. 
These lands are situated in the twelve States 
which include the White Mountains of New Eng- 
land and the Southern Appalachians. The Pis- 
gah and Nantahala National Forests which com- 
prise North Carolina's share of these purchases 
lie in some IS mountain counties and contain 
together some 380,000 acres. The headquarters 
office of the Pisgah is in Asheville, M. A. 
Mattoon, Forest Supervisor, while Arthur A. 
Wood, Supervisor of the Nantahala is located 
dt Franklin. 

The administration of these forests consists in 
(£ontinued on Page J) 



NEW MINERAL DEVELOPMENT 




Development of minerals of all types that is being brought about in North Carolina 
is further typified thorugh the construction of this huge clay and sand gravel plant by the 
Southern Sand and Gravel Co., Sanford. The plant is located in Harnett County on a tract 
of 350 acres to which a siding has been constructed from the Atlantic & Western Railroad. 
Engineers have estimated that the available supply of sand and gravel on the property 
amounts to approximately eight or ten millions tons of marketable materials. 



GAME FARM IDEA IS 

ENDORSED BY GROUP 

OF BOARD MEMBERS 



Lastest of the projects that have been pro- 
posed for the rehabilitation of game in North 
Carolina is the establishment of a game farm 
for the propagation of quail, pheasants, and wild 
turkeys. 

Recently a definite project submitted by offi- 
cials of Randolph County for the creation of a 
game farm of a tract of land carved out of the 
county farm, about two miles south of Ashboro, 
was approved by the members of the Game Com- 
mittee of the Department Board, who will sub- 
mit it to the entire Board for action at the meet- 
ing on January S. 

The site has been inspected by Col. W. B. 
Coleman, Superintendent of the Virginia Game 
Farm, who is generally acknowledged to be an 
(Continued on Page 3) 



CO-OPERATION VOTED 

BY SECRETARIAL BODY 

FOR NEW PROGRAMS 



By formal action expressed in resolutions, the 
Secretaries of the Clumbers of Commerce of 
North Carolina at their annual meeting last 
month at Wilson, endorsed and urged the hearty 
co-operation of each individual organization with 
the pro-ram that is being undertaken by the 
Division of Commerce and Industry of this 
Department. 

This action on the part of the booster organi- 
zations of the State brings the Secretaries into 
closer contact with the Depart merit and will, 
therefore, be a step toward the attainment of 
one of its objects, the serving of these organiza- 
tions and, incidentally, the progress of the State 
l hereby. 

The resolutions read: 

Resolved, That we. the Secretaries of the 
Chambers of Commerce of North Carolina, in 
(Continued on Page 4) 






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.■»** 






CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



LOSS OF THE STATE 

Removal of H. L. McClaren, Charlotte, 
member of the Board of Conservation and 
Development and Chairman of its Com- 
mittee on Commerce and Industry, to 
Racine, Wis., where he will head the Ajax 
Rubber Company, takes one of the most 
progressive and active business men from 
the State. 

A member of the Conservation Board 
since its organization, Mr. McClaren's 
energies and ability have been a distinct 
contribution to the progress of North 
Carolina. His service with the Department 
was directed particularly toward the crea- 
tion and planning of the program of the 
Division of Commerce and Industry in 
which he played a leading part. 

This work, considered a new departure 
in a State Departmental program, espec- 
ially in the South, has attracted national 
attention and has brought to North Caro- 
lina additional recognition although it 
has been launched only six months. It 
is especially regrettable that business rea- 
sons required the removal of Mr. McClar- 
en to another state before the full fruits 
of his endeavors have had time to mater- 
ialize fully. 

i members of the Board, Mr. 
\f ' s service to the State has been 

without financial remuneration and mater- 
ial gain; but his service has been rewarded 
by a realization of a job well done and the 
performance of public-spirited service. 

Public recognition of the efforts of Mr. 
McClaren in promoting the interests of 
the State has been given by Governor 
A. W. McLean and Director Wade H. 
Phillips. 



DEPARTMENT PLANS GAME FISH 
PROGRAM BY STOCKING LAKES 



Both economy and efficiency in the stocking 
-of inland waters with game fish will be accom- 
plished, and the day of maximum sport oppor- 
tunities for angling will be speeded with the con- 
summation of plans that have been mapped out 
under the direction of Director Wade H. Phillips 
and Assistant Director J. K. Dixon. 



This program, briefly, involves the widest pos- 
sible distribution of the fry from the State hatch- 
eries and their most effective use. It also em- 
phasizes the need of active co-operation on the 
part of large development companies, counties, 
municipalities, and sport groups. 

The aim of the Department is to develop every 
body of water within the State into inviting 
fishing grounds by stocking with game fish. With 
this purpose in view, it is the object of the 
officials of the Department to conduct this spring 
a survey of all available bodies of water in the 
State, including the natural lakes and those that 
have been created by large hydro-electric com- 
panies. 

This survey will involve the determination of 
the suitability of each body of water for the 
variety of fish life which it would best support 
and which would thrive most readily in each 
location. Questions to consider in this survey 
will be the size of the body of water, the quality 
of the water, and the temperature. 

Co-operation Sought 

Upon the determination of these qualities, the 
next step will be in securing the active co-opera- 
tion of the owners and interested persons. An 
efficient stocking program will necessitate the 
construction of nursery ponds in which the baby 
fish can be raised to such a size that will enable 
them to survive the change of environment from 
the hatcheries where they are fully protected 
against their natural enemies in the free state. 

These nurseries should be constructed near the 
larger bodies of water that are to be their per- 
manent homes, and will afford them to a great 
extent similar environments to which they will 
be subjected when they, as fingerlings, are re- 
leased into the waters that are to be stocked. 

Enlargements of the capacities of the various 
hatcheries will provide means by which the out- 
put will be increased, and the Department will 
be enabled to extend the scope of its activities 
in the distribution of the fry. 

In addition to furnishing the stock, the Depart- 
ment will be able, through its fish cultural ex- 
perts, to provide advice regarding the location, 
construction, and care of the nurseries, and also 
in regard to transporting and planting the fish. 

The development of many huge hydro-electric 
lakes and reservoirs has in the last several years 
provided opportunities for magnifying the at- 
tractiveness of North Carolina as an angler's 
paradise. 

Many Are Interested 

a number of officials of the power 
have expressed interest in this pur- 
pose of the Department and have signified their 
willingness to co-operate. In virtually every 
case, their developments are open to the public 
for the enjoyment of sport, and the improvement 
of fishing opportunities shows promising indica- 
tions of being worked cut. Planting of fish in 
these waters will bring the maximum degree of 
service to the public, and thus forward the policy 
of distribution where the fishing will be available 
to the largest number of people. 

Experiments by the United States Bureau of 
Fisheries and many landowners and sport clubs 
have proved the efficiency and necessity of releas- 
ing the larger fish in preference to the small fry. 
The final goal of distribution of game fish from 
the State hatcheries is that all will be raised to 
a size at which they will be able to care for them- 
selves before being released into the larger bodies 
of water. 



Already 
companies 



Some interesting developments regarding the 
range of migratory wildfowl is brought out in 
an announcement by the United States Biologi- 
cal Survey that a tern which was banded in the 
summer of 1927 in Labrador was taken near 
La Rochelle, France, the same fall. The short- 
est distance between the point where the tern 
was banded and where he was taken is 4,200 
miles, says the Biological Survey. 



CENSUS BUREAU TO 

SEND EXPERT HERE 

IN INDUSTRY COUNT 



Assignment of an expert from the Bureau of 
Census, Department of Commerce, in Washington 
to arrive in Raleigh on January 9, marks the 
formal beginning of the co-operative census of 
manufactures for 1927 to be taken by this De- 
partment for the Federal organization. 

Fred W. Coil, special agent, who has been 
designated by the Director of the Census to 
assist the Department, will assist Park Mathew- 
son, Department Statistician, who has been desig- 
nated by Director Wade H. Phillips to have 
active charge of the work, and who has been 
appointed as chief special agent by the Director 
of the Census for the enumeration. 

Although the census taking work will be for- 
mally started with the arrival of the expert from 
Washington, preliminary preparations have been 
underway for some time. A list of 4,200 manu- 
facturers has been furnished by the Federal Bu- 
reau to the Department. 

These names, divided into districts, have been 
referred to Chambers of Commerce, who have 
pledged their co-operation with the Department 
in taking the census. The secretaries are being 
requested to check the lists, bring them up to 
date from their records, and to add others that 
may not be included or that have been estab- 
lished since the date of the last census. 

Census to be Thorough 

In this manner, the Department expects to 
have every manufacturer in the State, large and 
small, represented in the survey. It is believed 
that with the aid furnished by the Secretaries of 
Chambers of Commerce and their forces that a 
more complete coverage and analysis of manu- 
facturing activities of the State will be accom- 
plished than if the census enumeration were made 
entirely from Washington. 

One of the biggest advantages to accrue from 
'.he census taken under the direction of the State 
organization is that the business and manufactur- 
ing interests will have access to the information 
as rapidly as it is collated in Raleigh. This ob- 
viates the necessity of North Carolina data hav- 
ing to take its regular turn with those from the 
i-7 other states. 

An economy for both governmental agencies 
:-hould be accomplished through the elimination 
of duplication of efforts in the assembling and 
collating of census data. 



DEPARTMENT STARTS 

EDUCATIONAL EFFORT 



Starting this month, the Department is launch- 
ing a broad educational campaign which will 
carry the message of forest, game and fish con- 
servation into all Eastern counties which are 
maintaining forest fire protective organizations, 
and which is designed finally to extend into every 
county in the State. 

The campaign will be centered, at first, among 
the rural population — those whose contacts with 
the forests and wild life are the closest. Schools 
will be principal mediums in getting across the 
message to the people. 

District No. 3, southeast, will be the first in 
which the program will be carried out, extending 
from there into other sections of the State. A 
complete motion picture machine and slides that 
illustrate the most striking points will be used, 
while the speaker will make short explanations 
of each view. H. M. Sebring, District Forester, 
Lenoir, will have charge of the first tour and 
later E. P. Simmons, Chief Forest Warden, 
Craven, will travel through the northeastern part 
of the State. 

This program, according to plans of the De- 
partment, will, as rapidly as possible, be ex- 
tended to every part of the State. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



PUBLIC OWNERNSIP OF FOREST 

LAND AS APPLIED TO STATE 

(Continued from Page 1) 
protecting them from fire and in making them 
of the greatest use to the public. Trails and 
roads have been constructed, camp sites provided, 
recreation encouraged, and the surplus timber 
made available for use either through purchase 
or to needy residents through free use. The 
practice of the Government in reimbursing the 
counties 25 per cent plus 10 per cent of the gross 
receipts to compensate them for any loss in tax- 
able values is proving popular and will before 
long meet all the county requirements. 

Has Public Approval 

This Federal policy has been carried out with 
the full approval of people of North Carolina 
since the movement was inaugurated and put 
across largely by them. But since the people 
of the mountains are reaping the chief benefit 
from these forests the people of the East have 
voiced a demand for public forests in the Coas- 
tal Plain region. A bill was introduced into the 
last General Assembly empowering and directing 
the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment to study forest problems of Eastern North 
Carolina with special reference to the selection 
of areas especially suitable for State demonstra- 
tion forests. No appropriation was suggested for 
purchasing such areas, the idea being that these 
would be acquired and administrated either by 
the Federal Government or by the State. In 
other words they would be publicly owned for- 
ests. At the present time the State has no defi- 
n ; te policy for the acquisition of forest lands for 
*>.ne production of timber, the protection of 
streams or for the pleasure and recreation of our 
people but such a policy is fast developing. The 
last General Assembly authorized the Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development through 
the State Game Warden to acquire suitable 
areas for game refuges and game farms. This is 
certainly one important feature of a State land 
policy. The administration of State Parks, three 
of which are already established, is also placed 
in the same Department. With this as a begin- 
ning it should not be difficult to develop a broad 
and constructive public forest policy. 

Policy Announced 

Within the past two years the Chief Forester, 
of the United States has publicly announced a 
fairly definite policy for the ownership and ac- 
quisition of forest lands. He has recently restated 
this policy in a letter to the State Forester in 
the following form: 

"1. About one-third of the potential forest land 
in the United States should be publicly owned. 

"2. The additional areas to be acquired by 
public agencies is approximately 60,000,000 acres, 
including 5,000,000 acres already in State owner- 
ship but not yet under forest administration, 

"3. The Federal Government should undertake 
as its part of this program to — 

"a. Add to the National Forests the two or 
three million acres remaining in the unreserved 
public domain which are chiefly valuable for tim- 
ber growing. 

"b. Consolidate present Western National For- 
est holdings under our exchange authority, as 
far as practicable. 

"c. Acquire approximately four million acres 
of forest land in the east under the Weeks Law, 
to complete the National Forest units previously 
approved, under that act by the National For- 
est Reservation Commission. 

"d. Acquire approximately five million acres in 
the Northern Lake States and the Southern Pine 
Region, mainly under Section 6 of the Clarke- 
McNary Law, with reference primarily to the 
reforestation of denuded and cut-over lands and 
the establishment of demonstration forests." He 
supplements this with the statement that: 

"The suggestion that one-third of the poten- 
tial forest land in the United States should be 



publicly owned was purely tentative. The ulti- 
mate proportion may be materially less than one- 
third, depending mainly upon the progress made 
in forestry under private land ownership." In 
other words the policy though definite now is 
subject to modification by conditions which may 
hereafter arise. This is as it should be for the 
carrying out of all policies should be adapted 
to conditions as they change. 

Purposes of Forests 

The interesting feature to North Carolina about 
this policy is that it is proposed to purchase 
"with reference primarily to the reforestation of 
denuded and cut-over lands and the establish- 
ment of demonstration forests," small National 
Forests in the Southern Pine region. Here seems 
to be an opportunity for the people of our east- 
ern counties which lie within this region to have 
established two or three Federal demonstration 
forests which will be administered by the Gov- 
ernment, like the National Forests in the moun- 
tains, for the benefit of local residents as well 
as the general public. Incidently this policy if 
carried out will furnish a much needed market 
for cut-over forest land which the owners them- 
selves may be unable or unwilling to bring back 
into a full state of forest timber production. 

So much for a Federal policy ! The Chief 
Forester in his pronouncements has referred defi- 
nitely to a State policy which would in like man- 
ner contemplate the acquisition and administra- 
tion of forest land for the benefit of the peo- 
ple of the State. Such State Forests would be 
somewhat smaller in extent than the National 
Forests and would be scattered throughout the 
State so that the whole population would receive 
full benefit from this State property. The three 
State Parks mentioned above are a beginning in 
the effort to secure free recreation areas for our 
people and to protect historic and scenic fea- 
tures as the permanent property of the people. 
The Finley State Forest in Wilkes County is the 
only area owned by the State which is so far 
devoted primarily to experiments and demon- 
strations in forestry. This is too small, only 100 
acres, for economical administration but is well 
suited for demonstrations in the management of 
our hardwood forests. If the policy enunciated 
by Colonel Greeley is to be accepted as a basis 
for action, the State of North Carolina with its 
21 million acres of forest land should eventually 
have transferred to public ownership something 
like 7,000,000 acres. At the present time there is 
less than half a million acres of land owned by 
the public. We have, therefore, a long way to 
go before this proposed program can be nearly 
completed. 

Some Problems 

The transfer of six and one-half million acres 
of privately owned forest land to ownership by 
the State, the Federal Government, the counties 
or municipalities is undoubtedly not soon to be 
realized; some people may feel that it is not 
even desirable. However, our farmers who are 
bearing an unjust proportion of annual taxes are 
looking for some practical way to reduce their 
load. The counties are already having to take- 
over land for the failure to collect tuxes. The 
policy of public ownership of forest lands which 
are now or will become unprofitable to the owner 
has already been adopted by some of the other 
States and should be carefully considered by our 
public men here. The assistance which such pub- 
lic forests would be in stablizing and supplement 
ing a supply of raw material for our wood-using 
industries would it is thought be sufficient justi- 
fication for definitely undertaking such a policy. 

While no radical departure from our present 
policy of gradual development and assistance to 
private owners is contemplated a policy such as 
is outlined above will undoubtedly gradually 
develop and will probably help to solve many 
of the problems which we are now only begin- 
ning to recognize as difficuties which have to be 
met in the near future. 



GAME FARM IDEA IS 

ENDORSED BY GROUP 

OF BOARD MEMBERS 

(Continued from Pap: 1) 
authority on game propagation, and has been 
approved by him as being suitable for the pur- 
pose. 

Preliminary Figures 

Preliminary figures that have been obtained by 
K. I). Cranford, Ashboro, member of the Board, 
and Director Wade H. Phillips show an estimated 
cost of $14,100 of permanent equipment, which 
would include a home for the superintendent, 
wire and lumber for rearing pens, a truck, and 
incubators. Stocking the farm, under the first 
estimates, would cost about $5,055, makintf a 
total investment of $19,155, should the proposal 
be carried through at the original figures. 

After the original investment is made, approxi- 
mately .$8,000 has been considered as an annual 
budget to care for the operating expenses. This 
would include salary for a superintendent and 
his helpers, food for the game and incidental 
expenses. 

With the investment and annual outlay upon 
which the estimates were made, it is believed that 
game worth $16,265 can be raised annually at 
the farm. That the farm could produce 5,000 
quail annually is believed to be practicable. 
Under plans of the committee, quail and wild 
turkeys would be the specialty of the proposed 
farm and the principal output, while experiment 
would be made with other species that miidit 
be found adaptable to North Carolina covers. 
Expected returns from the sale of eggs and birds 
that are not stocked in the State would cut 
down the annual cost of operation. 

Famous Quail Section 

Randolph County, where the farm is contem- 
plated, is in the center of a nationally known 
quail territory, which extends into several ad- 
joining counties. There are seven hunting lodges 
in the county, which attract annually a consid- 
erable number of non-resident hunters. 

Besides its use for propagation of game birds, 
a definite educational service will be performed, 
since it would be expected to attract thousands 
of visitors. For their benefit, it is contemplated 
that an exhibit of all varieties of game that 
are common to the State would be made at the 
farm. The committee that inspected the site and 
recommended the establishment of the farm in- 
cluded: Director Phillips, and E. D. Cranford, 
J. Q. Gilkey, and Santford Martin. 



TAR HEEL MINERALS 

WILL HAVE DISPLAY 



Tar Hell minerals will be displayed before geo- 
. engineers, consumers, and other interests 
that are concerned with the development of these 
resources, who attend the annual meeting of the 
American Ceramic Society at Atlantic City, X. 
j .. on Februarj 5 1 1 

The collection will be made under the direc- 
tion of the Asheville Chamber of Commerce and 
State Geologist H. J. Bryson, who is making a 
special trip into the mountain section for the 
purpose of gathering specimens. 

Minerals that are now in general use in cera- 
mic trade of the world will form an important 
part of the display, while others that are exper- 
iencing increased interest because of prospects of 
future development will also receive a prominent 
place. 

The mineral samples display will be under the 
personal supervision at Atlantic City of a per- 
son who is familiar with the resources of the 
State who will be prepared to give information 
regarding quality and supply of each variety. 
It i- believed that this work will stimulate in- 
terest in the undeveloped deposits and those that 
are now being exploited. 



69802 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



CEMENT MILL WILL 

BE BUILT IN STATE 

AT AN EARLY DATE 



North Carolina is to have her first cement 
plant, according to announcements that have 
been made recently by the officials of the newly 
organized Carolina Cement Company. 

The mill, which will turn out a standard grade 
of Portland cement, will be located within a short 
distance of New Bern between the Trent River 
and the Pembroke Road, a location which will 
provide adequate water, rail and highway trans- 
portation. 

According to plans announced by J. A. Acker, 
president of the new company, the plant will 
represent an expenditure of approximately three 
million dollars. With the beginning of opera- 
tions, it will have a rated capacity of 1,500,000 
barrels a year and will employ two hundred or 
more men in its operations. A payroll of up- 
wards of $300,000 a year is contemplated. 

Building Started 

Word has come from New Bern that the com- 
pany's office building has already been erected 
at the building site and that rights-of-way have 
been obtained from the railroads of the vicinity 
for spur lines to the site. Properties that will 
be used for the plant have been leased by the 
company from Senator F. M. Simmons and 
others. 

Officers of the Carolina Cement Company are 
J. A. Acker, Port Huron, Mich., president; F. R. 
Patterson, vice-president ; and R. O. Clark, secre- 
tary-treasurer. Mr. Acker is at present chief 
engineer of the New Egyptian Portland Cement 
Co., of the Michigan City. Mr. Clark is a native 
of Kansas, but both will make their home in 
this State in the future. Both Mr. Acker and 
Mr. Clark have had mature experience with the 
cement industry. Mr. Patterson is a Detroit 
contractor, engaged in general construction on a 
large scale. 

In deciding upon the location of the plant at 
the selected site, the officials have been largely 
guided by thorough surveys of the territory by 
State Geologist H. J. Bryson in which he ex- 
pressed the opinion that the materials out of 
which the cement will be prepared existed in 
adequate quantities, his report indicating a belief 
that the supply will last the proposed plant for 
a period of ISO years. 

Geologist Bryson, since assuming office, has 
pointed out the need of a cement 
plant in North Carolina and has done consider- 
k to interest prospective developers. He 
has repeatedly expressed the opinion that the 
section which ras been chosen by the new cor- 
poration is the most suitable in the State for 
the purpose for which it was chosen. 

Already a quantity of the cement has been 
prepared and has been throughly analyzed and 
tested by expert chemists, who declare that the 
quality is equal to the best grade of Portland. 
Dr. E. E. Randolph, professor of industrial 
chemistry, State College, has made some of these 
tests. 

Business interests of the State ieel that the 
cement mill will fill a well defined need, since 
there is no other in North Carolina nor in the 
adjoining State of South Carolina. This State's 
consumption of cement ilone amounts to approx- 
imately 4,000,000 barrels annually. 



Director Wade H. Phillips and State Forester 
J. S. Holmes are thanked personally for their in- 
terest in forest problems of the United States in 
a letter from Secretary of Agriculture W. M. 
Jardine. "These problems are complex and diffi- 
cult, and your counsel and assistance have been 
of marked value," writes Secretary Jardine. "I 
shall look forward to their continuance in the 
future." 



CO-OPERATION VOTED 

BY SECRETARIAL BODY 

FOR NEW PROGRAMS 

(Continued from Page 1) 
annual convention assembled, do recommend the 
hearty and careful co-operation of all secretaries 
and members of the Chambers of Commerce of 
the State with the State Department of Conser- 
vation and Development in its taking of the pro- 
posed State census by the Wood Utilization Com- 
mittee of the Department of Commerce of Wash- 
ington, and do commend both Departments for 
this important forward step, alike beneficial to 
the interests of our business men, the State and 
National Governments. 

Secretaries of the Chambers of Commerce of 
North Carolina. 

Attest: N. S. Starnes, Secretary. 

Resolved, That we, the Secretaries of the 
Chambers of Commerce of the State of North 
Carolina, in annual convention assembled, do 
recommend the hearty and careful co-operation 
of all secretaries and members of the Chambers 
of Commerce of the State with the State Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development in its 
taking of the forthcoming Biennial Census of 
Manufactures of North Carolina, in conjunction 
with the Bureau of the Census of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce of Washington, and do com- 
mend both Departments for this important for- 
ward step, alike beneficial to the interests of our 
businessmen, the State, and the National Govern- 
ments. 

Secretaries of the Chambers of Commerce of 
North Carolina. 

Attest: N. S. Starnes, Secretary. 

North Carolina is particularly fortunate in pos- 
sessing a group of Chamber of Commerce sec- 
retaries who are capable, energetic, and zealous 
in promoting the best interests of their communi- 
ties and the State at large. One of the primary 
objects of the creation of the Deparement's Divis- 
ion of Commerce and Industry was to assist these 
organizations in their endeavors, and their offers 
of co-operation makes possible a broader service 
for this program of advancement. 



SCIENTIFIC FORESTRY 

ASSURES FARMERS OF 

CONTINUOUS INCOME 



Practice of scientific forestry with large lum- 
ber companies on their own holdings is growing 
into a well established practice, but for a large 
wood-using industry to carry the message of 
conservation to property owners of antiguous 
territory is a new departure in this State in this 
field of natural resources. 

This feature is exemplified by the Halifax 
Paper Corporation, Roanoke Rapids, N. C, one 
of the largest pulp companies in the South, also 
amply deserving to be called one of the most 
progressive. 

The program, which is being carried out under 
the direction of F. M. Brown, president and 
general manager, consists of selective purchasing 
which protects the forest supply, advice concern- 
ing conservation of this natural resource, and 
wisely timed buying. The policy has the virtual 
assurance that a plentiful supply of timber will 
always be available within a 25-mile radius of 
the mill and that the farmers in that area will 
have a continuous source of income. As told 
by Mr. Brown, the firm is operating under the 
following plan: 

The policy of this mill in buying its supply 
of pulp wood is determined with the object of 
maintaining a constant supply of pulp wood for 
the operation within a minimum distance from 
the mill. 

Fills Idle Time 

The farmers in this district grow principally 
cotton, and all have a large proportion of their 
land covered with suitable wood for making 



pulp. They are practically idle after completion 
of ginning, until they plow again in April. They 
also have a short idle space after their crop is 
laid-by in August. During these times, we ar- 
range to take the wood as fast as they bring 
it, at a set price, which is sufficient to show them 
a profit on their own labor, at a time when they 
would be doing nothing. We insist now that the 
wood shall be barked as soon as cut. In this 
way, it lasts longer on our yard, and enables us 
to carry a much heavier supply of wood. It 
also means that any wood cut down can be im- 
mediately brought to the mill and turned into 
money, whereas, previously, farmers would cut 
a large quantity of wood, leaving it for three 
months to worm-bark, and then if they were 
busy farming, they might or might not deliver 
all of the wood that was cut down to the mill. 
Any not delivered would be left over for a year 
and go to waste as being unfit for our purpose. 
At any time we stop taking wood from the far- 
mers, we give them thirty day's notice so that 
all cut wood can be delivered and the woods 
cleaned up. 

We are instructing them to the best of our 
ability to use the small branches for their fuel 
wood, in order to keep the woods as clean as 
possible. We are impressing upon them the fact 
that where the trees are thick they should thin 
the woods out, thereby improving their stand of 
timber. 

Income for Many 

We do not, if we know it, buy pulp wood from 
people who buy a tract on stumpage basis and 
slash the woods down, as we consider that they 
ruin a lot of young stuff. Last year we had 
126 white people and 176 colored hauling wood 
to this mill, and we figure that by having the 
wood come from as large a number of farms as 
these people represent that the yearly quantity 
of pulp wood they deliver is not as much as the 
natural growth of the young stuff. 

We have had demonstrations before, and are 
having another one in January by the Forestry 
Department, to show farmers how to thin out 
properly a tract of timber. We have tried to 
impress on the people here that the Forestry 
Department is their friend, and the object of 
their instructions as well as the information we 
can give them, is not done with a desire to pick 
out their best timber, but to enable them to 
sell so much pulp wood every year, and treat 
this business in the same way that they treat 
their cotton crop. In other words, give the far- 
mers a twelve-month job. 

A large number of farmers in 1927 stated to 
us that they paid for fertilizer and other expenses 
of the cotton crop with money received on pulp 
wood brought to the mill between Christmas and 
April 15. 



The man who builds a machine may know 
only the craftsman's satisfaction over a job well 
done, but the man who plants a tree becomes a 
partner with God in a creative act, for we can- 
not build trees; we can only preside at the mys- 
tery of their growth. — Glenn Frank, President of 
University of Wisconsin and former editor of 
"The Century Magazine." 



The first electric generating plant in the United 
States was built in New York City in 1882. This 
plant supplied power for several hundred 16- 
candle-power bulbs, all within one block. 



J. J. Rhyne of the University of North Caro- 
lina says that 51.2 per cent of the mill workers 
of North Carolina have previously been farmers. 



In 1902 only $504,000,000 was invested in the 
electric industry in the United States, but this 
figure had climbed to $7,350,000,000 by 1925. 



CALL FOR TAR HEEL OYSTERS. 
STATE PROVIDES THE BEST OF 
SHELLFISH. 



THIS 
THIS 






CONSERVATION w INDUSTRY 

A Bi-Weekly Publication of the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol. V 



JANUARY 15, 1928 



No. 2 



CONSERVATION BOARD 

MAPS OUT WIDENED 

PROGRAM OF WORK 



Reviewing the activities of the Department for 
the previous six months and mapping out new 
features of work for the ensuing year, the Board 
of Conservation and Devolopment, meeting on 
January S in the office of Governor A. W. Mc- 
Lean, held one of the busiest sessions of its exist- 
ence. 

The report by Director Wade H. Phillips on 
the work of the Department through its various 
Divisions gave a picture of the activities during 
the preceding six months period and a compre- 
hensive idea of what is planned for the coming 
year. 

In reviewing the movements that have been 
made toward the establishment of Game Pre- 
serves, the Board committed itself to the policy 
of requiring a definite proposition in a concrete 
form before considering further preserves. In 
the future, by decision of the Board, each indivi- 
dual proposition will be referred to the Game 
Committee for a thorough investigation and 
study of the location before it is submitted to 
the body as a whole for action. By this system, 
the Board will have complete information with 
a recommendation from the Committee before 
being asked to take definite action. 

It was also decided that all consideration of 
proposed changes in Game regulations within 
control of the Board would be left over until 
the next meeting in order that all interested per- 
sons may be given an opportunity to study the 
requirements for the best interest of game con- 
servation and to make proposals at that time. 
A number of changes have been suggested so 
far, and by deferring consideration until the 
coming meeting a further study can be made of 
the needs and best interest of game conservation. 

Authority for Changes 

Under legislative authority, the Board is given 
power to change bag limits and seasons within 
the first and last limits that were established in 
the Sutton Game Law. So far no changes have 
been made, since the members of the Board 
desired to sec how the existing regulations oper- 
ated. 

Further development of the State-owned lakes 
of Eastern North Carolina in order that the 
public may receive the greatest benefit through 
enjoyment of recreational facilities afforded by 
these bodies of water was stressed by the Board. 
These bodies of water include Lake Waccamaw, 
White and Black Lakes, Suggs Millpond, and 
others. 

As a measure for increasing the efficiency and 
economy of restocking waters with fish from 
State Hatcheries, the Board committed itself to 
the policy of rearing the baby fish from the fry 
or infancy state to the fingerling or youth size 
before distribution. The action of the Board 
directed that the Department, to the extent of 
its financial ability, begin the construction of 
nurseries or rearing ponds with what funds as 
are now available for this purpose. 

Two game preserves, one on municipal and 
private land near Greensboro, and the other in 
Nantahala National Forest, Macon County, were 
(Continued on Page 3) 



FISHERIES PATROL BOAT, "ALBEMARLE 




The "Albemarle," a unit of the Department's fisheries fleet which is engaged in the 
administration of the fisheries laws, snapped while plying through Bogue Sound after a visit 
to Morehead City from headquarters at Manteo. Capt. L. A. Quidley, commander of the 
"Albemarle," is Assistant Fisheries Commissioner working under Capt. J. A. Nelson, More- 
head City, Fisheries Commissioner. Capt. Quidley's headquarters are at Manteo. and his ter- 
ritory consists of Albemarle, Croatan, and Roanoke Sounds. 



WATER RESOURCES DIVISION 
PRESENTS RECORD ACTIVITY 
DURING SIX-MONTH PERIOD 



While new Divisions and functions had been 
added to the duties of the Department, one of 
the older Divisions, Water Resources, has been 
steadily advancing on the broadest program 
which has been attempted along this line, and 
its report of activities for the six months ending 
December 31 shows a tremendous enlarged 
scope of activity and of accomplished work. 

Stream gauging, one of the oldest established 
functions of the Division, has not only been car- 
ried on to the usual extent but has increased in 
volume. 

The report shows that five new stations have 
been put in operation during the last six months, 
making a total of 47 stations, of which 24 are 
equipped with automatic water stage recorders. 
Both the Federal Government through the United 
States Geological Survey, and various cities, and 
power companies are co-operating in the instal- 
lation and operation of stations. 

The Division is now operating 11 gauging sta- 
tions in co-operation with the cities of Asheville, 
Charlotte, Durham, Greensboro, and Raleigh, 
and applications are pending from the cities of 
Greenville, Burlington, Winston-Salem. High 
Point, and Waynesville. In fact, so many appli- 
cations have been made for the installation of 
(Continued on Page 3) 



DOCTOR PEARSON POINTS 
OUT GAME BENEFITS 

FOR NORTH CAROLINA 



"North Carolina, largely because of its climatic 
conditions," said Dr. T. Gilbert Pearson. New 
York City, President of the National Association 
of Audubon Societies and also President of the 
World Committee, organized through eighteen 
countries for the preservation of the bird life 
of the world on a recent visit to this Department, 
"Is one of the best natural breeding grounds 
for game birds and animals in the United States. 

"Buffaloes and wild turkeys were once found 
in great numbers within it.- borders and I can 
recall the time when ii was possible to find as 
many as twenty-five conveys of quail in a day 
in central North Carolina. Currituck. Albemarle, 
..ml Pamlico Sound- constitute one oi the three 
mot important areas for wildfowl in the United 
States. 

"It is an unfortunate characteristic of our 
American people that but little interest i> taken 
by the general public in the preservation of wild 
life until this wild life has SO decreased in num- 
bers that a real alarm for its total disappearance 
spreads among the populace." 

Praise Game Liw 

"North Carolina, although delaying a long 

time in taking steps to preserve adequately its 

wild life, has fortunately provided for one of 

(Continued on Page 3) 



2 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



PROVEN PROTECTION 



The results that may be obtained 
through the protection of game are dem- 
onstrated in the annual report for 1927 
of M. A. Mattoon, Supervisor of Pisgah 
National Forest, in which Pisgah National 
Game Preserve is located. 

The report gives the number of deer in 
the preserve toward the end of last year 
at 4,100, while the previous year's enum- 
eration gave only 3,200; 1925, 2,750; and 
1924, 2,500. 

Elk increased during the year from 30 
to 35; bears from 80 to 90. Supervisor 
Mattoon also gave the following as num- 
bers of other types of game contained by 
the refuge: buffalo, three; turkey, 200; 
grouse, 600; quail, 500; fox, 400; mink, 
75; opossum, 1,200; and raccoons, 2,400. 

That the deer supply from the perserve 
is also helping to restore game in areas 
surrounding the preserve is pointed out by 
an estimate that 700 deer drifted from 
the preserve and were killed by men and 
dogs in surrounding counties. 

Attention is called in the report to the 
desirability of seeking the return of the 
beaver to the preserve area. This is one 
of the most valuable fur-bearing animals 
that is native to this section and in com- 
paratively recent months there has been 
an agitation in game circles to seek the 
restocking of suitable areas of North Caro- 
lina with this animal. This recommenda- 
tion on the part of Federal officials is in- 
teresting and deserves serious considera- 
tion. 



M'CLAREN IS PRAISED 

BY BOARD RESOLUTION 



In appreciation of his efforts and service to 
the State through his capacity as member of the 
Board of Conservation and Development, the 
Board at its last meeting, by resolution, expressed 
the following sentiments toward H. L. McClaren: 

Resolved, That the Board of Conservation and 
Development has learned, with much regret, of 
the resignation of Mr. H. L. McClaren, Chairman 
of the Committee on Commerce and Industry 
of the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment. 

The constructive program which Mr. McClaren 
outlined for an industrial survey of the State, 
we believe, will lay a solid foundation for the 
development of the industrial resources of North 
Carolina and his leadership was of unusual and 
far-reaching value. 

The valuable assistance given by Mr. McClaren 
in his service on the Board will be greatly missed. 

Resolved, Further that the members of the 
IBoard extend to Mr. McClaren, in his new work, 
iheir congratulations and best wishes. 



FOREST PROTECTION 

GROWS IN EFFICIENCY 



Growing efficiency of the Forest Fire Pre- 
vention activities of the State is further exempli- 
fied by the report of December, which although 
showing about a 20 per cent increase in the num- 
ber of fires over the same month of last year, 
records a greatly reduced average destruction. 

For the month there were SS fires in the co- 
operating counties as against 44 for the preced- 
ing year, but the success in keeping the flames 
to small areas is reflected through the average 
of acreage covered and the amount of estimated 
fin-ncial loss. 

While the December fires of last year covered 
only 2,392 acres and caused estimated damages 
of $2,722, those of December of the preceding 
year swept over 7,853 acres and entailed a loss 
of $18,181. The area coverage per fire for De- 
cember, 1927, was 43 acres, and the average dam- 
age, $50; and the average coverage per fire for 
December, 1926, was 178 acres, and damages, 
$413. 

Campers, fishermen, and hunters were the 
largest contributors to the fires, being credited 
with the origin of 15; smokers are blamed with 
seven; four came from brush burnings; four 
from railroads; eleven from miscellaneous causes; 
nine are described as being of unknown origin ; 
three came from lumbering operations; and two 
were declared to be of incendiary origin. 



NEW SLOGAN IS GIVEN 

FOR DOE PROTECTION 



"If you can't see his horns, she is a doe." 
This is the new slogan for deer hunters, which is 
suggested by H. H. Brimley, Curator of the State 
Museum and one of the most ardent sportsmen 
in the State, for strict observance of the closed 
season on does. 

Under the new game laws, it is unlawful to 
kill a doe for the next five years. This law was 
passed as a conservation measure in order that 
the supply of deer may be increased to create 
more attractive hunting facilities. 

Some sportsmen have complained that they 
have had some difficulty in distinguishing at a 
distance, the sex of the deer, but by following 
the suggested slogan of not firing until the antlers 
are distinguishable, mistakes which might result 
In the killing of forbidden game will be avoided. 

According to reports reaching the Department, 
deer hunting has been better than usual in the 
State this year, and, as a result of the better 
protection, it is expected that the animal will 
multiply more rapidly than has been the 
case before, and will be a means of helping to 
re-establish North Carolina as one of the best 
stocked of all game States. 



EDITOR COMPLIMENTS 

ACTIVITIES OF STATE 



Pleasure over the progress that is being made 
in conservation of game and other natural re- 
sources in North Carolina is expressed in a letter 
from Dr. W. A. Bruette, editor of Forest and 
Stream, one of the country's outstanding out- 
door publications, to Director Wade H. Phillips. 

"North Carolina is a great old State," writes 
Doctor Bruette. "I have been going there for 
more than thirty years. North Carolinians have 
a way of doing a good job of anything they 
put their hands to." 



CALL FOR NORTH CAROLINA OYSTERS 
AT YOUR FISH DEALER'S, AND HELP 
BUILD UP ONE OF THE MOST IMPOR- 
TANT INDUSTRIES OF THE STATE THAT 
IS BASED ON NATURAL RESOURCES. 



FISHERIES OF STATE 

ESTABLISH A RECORD 

FOR BIG SHIPMENTS 

Markets for North Carolina fish developed, 
from the standpoint of carlot shipments, last 
year more than ever before, according to a report 
made by Capt. J. A. Nelson, Fisheries Commis- 
sioner. 

The Fisheries Commissioner also reports prog- 
ress in the State's public health work in con- 
nection with the shellfish industry, and a better 
condition in the oyster market than has been 
experienced since 1924. The observations of 
Captain Nelson also reveal increased supplies of 
escallops. 

His report, in part, reads: During the latter 
part of the summer and fall, the food fishing 
all over the sounds was better than for several 
years, but the prices were low, the reason for 
which I cannot explain unless it was on account 
of the low-priced cotton and tobacco. Most of 
our fish are sold in the Eastern and Piedmont 
sections of our State and, therefore, anything that 
affects the staple crops of these sections natur- 
ally affects the demand for our fish. However, 
I may state that we have shipped more fish out 
of the State in carload lots this fall than ever 
before. 

Quality Good 

The oyster season opened with the best qual- 
ity of oysters and the best raw market that we 
have had since 1924, but on account of the warm 
weather the latter part of November and the 
first part of December, the raw market fell down 
somewhat, but it started in briskly again during 
the cold weather just before Christmas. I am 
quite sure that output of oysters for this season 
will be normal. 

Escallop season was fixed for January 1 but 
on account of the great quantity of escallops in 
this country and on account of the scarcity of 
them elsewhere in the United States, the fisher- 
men and fish dealers petitioned for allowing 
escallops to be taken three days to each week up 
until the week before Christmas, when only one 
day was allowed, and the week after Christmas 
when two days were allowed. The first week in 
January, they may be caught three days out of 
each week. 

Up to the present the fishermen have been 
catching all the market will stand, even with the 
limited time given them. Large escallops have 
been bringing on the local market from two to 
two and a half dollars per gallon ; medium escal- 
lopes, one dollar and a half to a dollar and sev- 
enty-five; and small escallops from one dollar 
to one dollar and a quarter per gallon. The 
prospects now are that we shall have the best 
escallop season we have ever had. 

Promising for Clams 

The clams have, on the whole, been in good 
condition this season and indications are that we 
shall have a normal suply. They are bringing 
two dollars per bushel on our local market. 

The menhaden fishing this fall has been worse 
than for several years. The reason for this is 
that the big fish "run" as usual in November, 
but when they were here this season, the sea 
was so rough and the wind so high the fish 
passed without the fishermen getting a good 
chance at them. 

Captain Nelson reported that shellfish sanita- 
tion is in better condition this year than at any 
previous time. Many of the small shucking 
houses, he declares, are building anew, while 
others are putting in new stoves, sterilizers, 
strainers, sanitary containers, and other equip- 
ment required under the law. 



Wisconsin's Conservation Commission plans to 
bring the annual production of its forest nursery 
to 10,000,000 trees within three years and to 20,- 
000,000 within five years. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



WATER RESOURCES DIVISION 
PRESENTS RECORD ACTIVITY 
DURING SIX-MONTH PERIOD 

(Continued from Page 1) 
new gauging stations that they would tax the 
funds of the Division beyond its capacity. 

Gauging Important 

Although the gauging of the flow of water in 
North Carolina streams is carried on unostenta- 
tiously, the importance of the work as a pro- 
vider of basic information is not to be minim- 
ized. This is one of the most important of all 
of the operations of the Division and of the 
Department. 

Since the streams of the State hold the key 
to hydro-electric development, public health 
problems such as supplying water for municipal 
uses and disposal of sewage, and industrial devel- 
opment, it is vital that accurate data on stream 
flow, such as are obtained by means of the stream 
gauging operations, should be collected. 

The last six months witnessed the beginning 
of Coastal studies under the direction of the 
Division. These studies are intended to record 
the physical changes that are taking place along 
the coast, and to furnish information through 
which solutions may be had of some of the most 
pressing problems, which include erosion and ac- 
cretion on the beaches, changing of inlets which 
affect commercial fishing, and the conditions that 
have a bearing on navigation. 

Surveys were made between July and Septem- 
ber of the beaches at Writghtsville, Carolina, and 
Morehead City. Base lines were run and accur- 
ately tied in with the triangulation system of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. Cross 
sections of the beaches were made and some topo- 
graphy was taken. These surveys will enable 
the Division to measure, from time to time, the 
changes which are going on along the beaches, 
and indicate the best and most satisfactory 
methods of preventing the erosion which has 
caused concern at several points. A party is now 
making measurements of the effects of the severe 
storm of December on the coast. In carrying 
on these studies, co-operative funds have been 
provided by interests at Morehead City, and are 
expected to be furnished from Wrightsville Beach. 

Analyses Made 

As a result of the work of the Division, co- 
operating with the United States Geological Sur- 
vey, a total of 181 analyses of industrial waters 
of North Carolina has been made. 

These analyses have been tabulated and are 
now being published for aid in industrial develop- 
ment in North Carolina. These analyses have 
pointed out that water requirements for practi- 
cally all known types of manufacturing can be 
met in the State, and should be a guide to new 
industries and needed information to established 
enterprises. 

One of the most important achievements of 
the Department through this Division during the 
last six months was the organization, in co-oper- 
ation with the State Board of Health, of the 
State Stream Sanitation and Conservation Com- 
mittee. This Committee is composed of Dr. C. 
O'H. Laughinghouse, State Health Officer; H. E. 
Miller, Chief Sanitary Engineer of the Board of 
Health; Director Wade H. Phillips; and Thorn- 
dike Saville, Chief Hydraulic Engineer of the 
Water Resources Division. 

Under the agreement between the two Depart- 
ments which established the Committe, all 
stream pollution questions of any nature are re- 
ferred to this Committee. It is believed that 
this is a great forward step in the proper solu- 
tion of many problems of stream pollution where 
the interests of public health, fish life, and indus- 
trial development arc interwoven. 

Rainfall Map 
Another feature of the work of the Division 
•during the report period has been the comple- 
tion of a new rainfall map of the State. All 



DOCTOR PEARSON POINTS 

OUT GAME BENEFITS 

FOR NORTH CAROLINA 



(Continued from Page 1) 
its State Departments authority to work for the 
preservation of its wild bird and animal life. 
Although, of course, the buffalo has long since 
passed away, wild turkeys are to be found in 
wrnc numbers in all geographical sections of 
North Carolina. The bobwhite, which in a few 
sections exist today in number two decades ago, 
are still in sufficient quantity to constitute an 
adequate breeding stock which can be used for 
restocking depleted covers. 

"In common with all other friends of Ameri- 
can wild life, I am greatly delighted with the 
steps recently taken by the General Assembly 
Lo secure more adequate enforcement of the game 
laws, and I was much pleased to read in the pub- 
lic press yesterday morning that the State De- 
partment of Conservation and Development has 
taken steps for an immediate establishment of a 
game reservation. 

"Many of these 'cities of refuge' for game birds 
and game animals might well be established 
throughout the State. Experience in other States 
has abundantly shown that from these game re- 
fuges, when properly handled, game continually 
emerges to the surrounding country, thus in- 
creasing the chances for successful field sports 
in giving the farrriing element a better oppor- 
tunity to realize the terms for granting hunting 
privileges on their lands when they desire to do 
so." 

Expects Increase 

"I think that we all have every reason to ex- 
pect that during the next few years, a pronoun- 
ced increase of birds and animals of North Caro- 
will become apparent to a most profound extent." 

Doctor Pearson was the organizer and execu- 
tive officer of the North Carolina Audubon Soci- 
ty, which was cloaked with authority to admin- 
ister the only semblance of State-wide regula- 
tions which existed previous to the passage of 
the Sutton law. Revenue for the old statute was 
provided only through the sale of Non-resident 
licenses. 



HERRING MIGRATION 

COMES EARLIEST ON 

RECORDS OF COAST 



An early influx of herring into waters of the 
New River, Onslow County, during the second 
week in January has broken all records for their 
appearance at this time of the year, according 
to the observation of veteran fish dealers of the 
coast. 

The Department office in Raleigh was notified 
this week by Deputy Game and Fish Commis- 
sioner J. H. Stone, Wilmington, of the unusual 
run of the fish, which has caused wonder on the 
part of seasoned fishermen, but which has brought 



rainfall data, comprising records from 107 sta- 
tions, some of which extend over 40 years have 
been included in a chart. A temperature map 
of the State has also been completed. Both of 
these maps, in a preliminary form, will appear 
in the water analysis bulletin, which is to come 
from the press soon. Studies on seasonal rainfall, 
temperature, humidity, and other climatic factors 
in the State are in progress. 

Statistics on the power situation in the State 
were gathered by the Division and will be printed 
early this year. These statistics show a complete 
picture of electrical development in the State 
such as the total installed horse power, the total 
output of electrical energy, and a vast amount 
of other important information concerning the 
condition, growth, and comparative position of 
the power producing and distributing agencies 
as compared with other states. 



CONSERVATION BOARD 

MAPS OUT WIDENED 

PROGRAM OF WORK 



(Continued from Page lj 
authorized by the Board for immediate establish" 
ment. The State's first game farm was also 
authorized for establishment in Rai inty. 

Special attention is to be paid to migratory 
wildfowl in the Eastern part of the State a- a 
result of the appropriation of . s.000 for this 
purpose. A special committee was nami 
carry forward this program, and the planting 
of wild rice and celery for food lor these 
as a measure for attracting more of these birds, 
was especially recommended to the committee. 

Interested in Stocking 
By directing a conference with Gen. A. J. 
Bowley, commander of Fort Bragg, on the sub- 
ject of stocking the military reservation with 
deer, the Board expressed hope of extending the 
range of this animal in the State and to incri 
hunting facilities on surrounding lands. The 
reservation is already established by order of 
its commander as a game preserve, and stocking 
with deer which will be under protection of 
the authorities will result within a few years, 
it is thought, in a good stock in the preserve 
proper and the surrounding country. 

The Board, by resolution, endorsed the Mc- 
Nary-Woodruff bill, now pending in Congress, 
which would establish a ten-year program of 
acquisition of National Forest lands in Eastern 
North Carolina, and also the Newton Bill which 
would provide co-operative funds by which the 
United States Geological Survey would be able 
to assist various states in their Water Resources 
and Geological programs. By direction of the 
Board, the Department is to urge that every 
member of the North Carolina delegation in Con- 
gress support the two items of proposed legisla- 
tion. 

Seek jUnited States Co-Operation 
Efforts are to be made by the Department to 
obtain the co-operation of experts of the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries in mapping out a 
program of fish planting and nursery ponds. 

It was decided by the Board that the next 
meeting will be held at Morehead City in the 
office of Capt. J. A. Nelson, Fisheries Commis- 
sioner, the exact date to be fixed later. 

Attending the meeting were Governor A. W. 
McLean, Chairman, ex-officio; S. Wade Marr, 
Vice-chairman; Santford Mart in. F. S. Worthy, 
R. Burce Etheridge, Frank li. Stedman, E. S. 
Askew, Fred I. Sutton, E. D. Cranford, J. Q. 
Gilkey, Jas. G. K. McClure, Jr., George L. Hamp- 
ton; Wade H. Phillips. i ! .1. K Dixon, 
Assistant Director; Chas. H. England, Secretary 
to Governor McLean; and visiting delegations. 



an earlier income than was anticipated from this 
source. 

Commissioner Stone writes that it is estimated 
that the catch of herring in New River during 
the second week in January would reach ap] 
imatelv 150.000 fish. "A dealer." says Commis- 
sioner Stone, "who has been in the business at 
Sneads Ferry tor fortj years says that he has 
never known the herring to begin coming in so 
early -the fish usually show up around the first 
of March." 

The herring is one of the most valuable oi all 
North Carolina food fish, millions oi them being 
marketed in the State each year. It is oi" the 
anadromOUS species. which comes into fresh 
waters for spawning "After spawning very 
little is known oi the fish." says the publication 
Fishes of North Carolina, it is probable that 
they gradually drop back to the bays and to salt 
water, and on the advent of cold weather with- 
draw from the shore waters and occupy an ocean 
area off the fresh water in which they spawn, 
but nothing is definitely known of the winter 
abode of the fish." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



TWO NEW RESERVES 

TO BE ESTABLISHED 

BY ACTION OF BOARD 



Two new game preserves for North Carolina 
have been authorized as a result of the meeting 
of the Board of Conservation and Development 
held in the office of Governor A. W. McLean on 
January 5. 

One of the preserves is to be established in 
the Nantahala National Forest, Macon County, 
and will consist of between eight and ten thou- 
sand acres along the watershed of Wayah Creek, 
about eight miles west of Franklin, commencing 
at Arrowwood Branch. 

Details of the establishment of the new refuge 
are being carried out by Director Wade H. Phil- 
lips and Jas. G. K. McClure, member of the 
Board from Asheville, and M. A. Mattoon, A. A. 
Wood, and Z. B. Byrd, National Forest officials 
of that section. 

Owners of some private holdings in the pro- 
posed preserve area have agreed to turn their 
lands into the refuge, and members of the Nan- 
tahala Sportsmans Association, comprising some 
370 members, have signed pledges to co-operate 
with authorities in enforcing the game laws. 

Forest Service Co-Operates 

Other advantages that have been pointed out 
in favor of the establishment of the proposed 
preserve is the protection that the game will 
have from forest fires through the National For- 
est Service system. One permanent fire lookout 
is stationed near the area, besides a temporary 
one which is located within the territory. 

Surrounding the proposed refuge area, there 
are other National Forest lands for virtually the 
entire distance. These lands will afford public 
shooting grounds. It is estimated that there are 
already within the proposed preserve about 21 
deer and three flocks of wild turkeys. In order 
to build up the game supply further, the Board 
has appropriated $500 for stocking purposes. 

Only the completion of details and the exe- 
cution of an agreement between National For- 
est officials and the Department await the estab- 
lishment of the preserve. 

The first State Quail preserve is to be located 
in Guilford County on an area of land sur- 
rounding the municipal reservoir which will 
have a minimum of 1,465 acres and a maximum 
of 8,000. Use of the land is being given by the 
City of Greensboro and public-spirited citizens 
among whom are J. W. Cone, A. M. Scales, S. 
Schiffman, and J. Goldstein. 

Use of the lands upon which the refuge will 
be situated will be given to the State under ten- 
year leases. The smaller area, according to plans, 
will be in the refuge proper while efforts will be 
made to get as large an area up to the maximum 
of 8,000 as possible for public shooting grounds. 

It is also the plan of the Department to stock 
the proposed preserve with quail which will be 
raised at the new Game Farm located in Ran- 
dolph County. 

The committee which presented the petition on 
behalf of the City of Greensboro and individual 
landowners consisted of James F. Hoge, Secre- 
tary of the North Carolina Game and Fish 
Leaugue, Mayor E. B. Jeffress, Jos. J. Stone, and 
L. I. Strauss. Signed leases will be presented, 
according to the announced plans, to the Depart- 
ment shortly for approval. 



PUBLIC FOREST RETURNS 

Seventeen communes of the Department of the 
Aude, in Southern France, obtained a return of 
1,285,000 francs from their communal forests in 
1926. The average return was 2,000 francs per 
hectare. The village of Montfort, with a popula- 
tion of 490, received 247,200 francs from its 
woods. These communal forests are under for- 
est management. — Forest Worker. 



EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM 

STARTS TO SEEK FITTING 

ARBOR DAY OBSERVANCE 



Tree planting festivals, says the United States 
Department of Agriculture, dates back probably 
to first civilization; sacred trees and groves, 
planted avenues and roadsides, shaded academic 
walks and memorial trees were venerable insti- 
tutions before America was known to exist; but 
Arbor Day is an American institution. 

First conceived and originated in Nebraska in 
1872, Arbor Day was inaugurated and named 
by J. Sterling Morton, at that time a member 
of the State Board of Agriculture, and later 
United States Secretary of Agriculture. 

The idea, so happily conceived in a plains state, 
gained such wide publicity that more than a mil- 
lion trees were planted in the Cornhusker State 
on the first Arbor Day that was set aside by the 
legislature of that state. 

The sentiment spread rapidly until it is esti- 
mated that up to the present time that 300,000 
acres of trees have been planted in Nebraska, 
bringing the commonwealth from a status of be- 
ing virtually treeless to the point where the leg- 
islature has officially termed it as the "Tree 
Planter's State." 

Movement Spreads 

Other states have taken on the idea and today 
virtually every one celebrates or sets aside offi- 
cially a special day for the purpose, and more 
than half of the 48 have enacted statutes for the 
observance of Arbor Day. 

North Carolina's first law setting aside Arbor 
Day came into existence in 1915, at that time the 
day being set on the first Friday following No- 
vember 15. However, the 1927 General Assem- 
bly saw fit to change the time to the beginning 
of Spring, which was considered to be more ap- 
propriate. Going into effect only a few days 
before the time set for its observance, the occa- 
sion was not observed generally last year, but 
every effort is being made to bring its significance 
to the attention of every person in the State this 
year, when it falls on Friday, March 16. 

An educational campaign has already been 
launched by the Forestry Division of this Depart- 
ment to seek its universal observance in North 
Carolina this year. Letters and tree literature 
have been placed in the hands of principals of 
every high school in the State, urging that the 
children all be given an opportunity to partici- 
pate actively in some kind of exercise or program 
that teaches the significance of the day. 

State Forester J. S. Holmes, addressing the 
principals of all the High Schools in the State, 
says: "In accordance with the action of the last 
General Assembly, Arbor Day will fall this year 
on Friday, March 16. The change from fall to 
spring has been made advisable by the increased 
length of the school term which makes it possi- 
ble for practically every school in the State to 
observe this day while school is in session. 

More Suitable Time 
"The psychological value of celebrating Arbor 
and Bird Day in the spring when the trees are 
budding, the birds are nesting, and planting is 
in every ones thoughts, will appeal to all teachers. 
It should be much easier to secure the attention 
of the school children and enlist their co-opera- 
tion in proper observances than in former years. 
I hope that you can secure the assistance of one 
or more of your teachers and classes in getting 
up an Arbor Day program, which if possible 
should include the planting of one or more trees 
on the school grounds. It would be most ap- 



REMITTANCES FROM 

GAME LICENSES ARE 

COMING IN STEADILY 



Receipts from game license fees up to January 
1 had reached the sum of $162,757.75, according 
to figures compiled by the Game Division of 
this Department recently. 

Additional remittances from County Wardens 
and other selling agencies since the compilation 
of these figures have brought the total returns 
from hunting licenses up to beyond $180,000, 
but the latest receipts have not yet been tabu- 
lated by counties. 

Following are the receipts by counties, includ- 
ing the total amount of $162,757, to January 1: 

Alamance, $2,486; Alexander, $761.00; Alle- 
ghany, $312.00; Anson, $1,684.00; Ashe, $872.00; 
Avery, $308.00; Beaufort, $2,804.00; Bertie, $2,- 
355.00; Bladen, $881.00; Brunswick, $447.00; 
Buncombe, $4,525.00; Burke, $562.00; Cabarrus, 
$2,443.00; Caldwell, $883.00; Camden, $397.00; 
Carteret, $1,894.00; Caswell, $667.00; Catawba, 
$2,195.00; Chatham, $1,520.00; Cherokee, $1,- 
133.00; Chowan, $666.00; Clay, $185.00; Cleve- 
land, $2,037.00; Columbus, $1,798.00; Craven, 
$2,543.00; Cumberland, $1,455.00; Currituck, 
$302.00; Dare, $66.00; Davidson, $2,916.00; 
Davie, $1,123.00; Duplin, $1,953.00; Durham, 
$4,385.00. 

Edgecombe, $1,915.00; Forsythe, $7,744.00; 
Franklin, $1,150.00; Gaston, $5,578.00; Gates, 
$695.00; Graham, $839.00; Granville, $1,391.00; 
Greene, $1,266.00; Guilford, $5,883.25; Halifax, 
$3,940.50; Harnett, $1,045.25; Haywood, $715.00; 
Henderson, $1,107.50; Hertford, $1,554.00; Hoke, 
$301.50; Hyde, $506.00; Iredell, $2,064.00; Jack- 
son, $796.00; Johnston, $2,867.00; Jones, $769.00; 
Lee, $927.00; Lenoir, $2,836.00; Lincoln, $1,- 
248.00; Macon, $570.00; Madison, $337.00; Mar- 
tin, $2,043.00; McDowell, $1,209.00; Mecklen- 
burg, $4,722.00; Mitchell, $185.00; Montgomery, 
$672.00; Moore, $518.00; Nash, $3,873.00; New 
Hanover, $2,763.00; Northampton, $2,199.25; 
Onslow, $1,223.00; Orange, $1,270.00; Pamlico, 
$424.00; Pasquotank, $1,806.00; Pender, $635.00; 
Perquimans, $706.00. 

Person, $858.00; Pitt, $4,078.00; Polk, $429.00; 
Randolph, $1,101.00; Richmond, $1,403.00; Rob- 
erson, $2,566.00; Rockingham, $2,616.00; Rowan, 
$2,579.50; Rutherford, $1,241.00; Sampson, $1,- 
398.00; Scotland, $699.00; Stanly, $2,076.00; 
Stokes, $1,132.00; Surry, $1,734.00; Swain, $559.- 
00; Transylvania, $219.00; Tyrrell, $309.00; 
Union, $1,276.00; Vance, $1,327.00; Wake, $3,- 
796.00; Warren, $1,193.00; Washington, $804.00; 
Watauga, $630.00; Wayne, $3,032.00; Wilkes, 
$1,448.00; Wilson, $4,304.00; Yadkin, $705.00; 
Yancey, $394.00. 



FOREST PROTECTION 

Total of all forest lands in North Carolina 
upon which there is organized protection from 
fires, according to a report of the Forestry Divis- 
ion at the end of 1927, was 7,926,966 acres, and 
a total area of 377,515 in National Forest bound- 
aries, making a grand total of 8,304,481 acres. 

There are 14,881,204 acres of forest lands un- 
protected from fire, the report shows, making a 
grand total of 23,185,685 acres of forest lands. 



propriate for the graduating Senior class to spon- 
sor a tree. 

. "Should you need additional information on 
the trees or forests of the State, their protection 
from fire, or their replacement by planting, I 
shall be glad to send you such information as 
is available. I hope very much that you can 
arrange a suitable program for Arbor Day. I 
should be glad to learn of its successful obser- 
vance." 



CONSERVATION and INDUSTRY 

A Bi-Weekly Publication of the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol. V 



FEBRUARY 1, 1928 



No. 3 



TABULATIONS SET OUT 

WORK OF DEPARTMENT 



So varied and manifold are the duties 
of this Department, the youngest of the 
State government, that many North Caro- 
linians are not yet entirely familiar with 
what is being undertaken. 

In order to give a clear picture of its 
functions, a general resume of its activi- 
ties is presented in a tabulation that is 
given on the last page of this issue of 
"Conservation and Industry." 

This table shows a bird's-eye- view of 
the eight Divisions of the Department, and 
enumerates their principal activities. For 
the information of anyone who desires to 
ascertain just what the functions consist 
of, it is recommended that he study the 
tabulation. It is the desire of the Depart- 
ment and all of its various Divisions to 
give the most efficient service possible, and 
the co-operation of all agencies in the 
State concerned with the same problems 
that are being met by the Department is 
urged. 



GRIMES WILL DIRECT 
ACTIVITIES AT GAME 
FARM NEAR ASHBORO 






W. C. Grimes, a native of Randolph County 
and an experienced breeder of game, has been 
selected as the superintendent of the new State 
Game Farm, which will be established about two 
miles south of Ashboro. 

For several years, Mr. Grimes has been man- 
ager of the Tip Top Game Farm in Randolph 
County, owned by J. R. Mitchell, a wealthy New 
York sportsman. Owing to his contract under 
which he is working at this time, Mr. Grimes 
will not take active charge of the State farm until 
March I. 

During the several years in which he has man- 
aged the private game farm, Mr. Grimes has 
demonstrated his ability in the breeding of game. 
Recently, with E. D. Cranford, member of the 
Board from Ashboro, and Director Wade H. 
Phillips, Mr. Grimes visited the Virginia State 
Game Farm near Richmond, where members of 
the party made a close study of the system that 
is employed there. This farm, under the direc- 
tion of Col. W. B. Coleman, is known as one of 
the most successful in the country. 

Already the first shipment of quail which will 
be used for brood stock in the new farm has 
been received, and is being held at the home of 
Mr. Grimes until pens are constructed. These 
birds, numbering about 75, were trapped in 
Wilkes County. 

Plans are now being drawn up for the residence 
of the new superintendent of the farm and for 
pens and other improvements. The contract has 
been let for piping water to the location, and 
it is expected that all of the original permanent 
improvements will be completed within a few- 
weeks. It is the intention of the Department to 
raise the first brood of the birds this year. 



LATEST FOREST FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT 




When forest fires occur in the future in North Carolina counties that have organizations 
for the protection of timberlands, they will be combatted by modern equipment that is up 
to the standard of city fire departments. The trailer pictured above is a sample of equip- 
ment with which each of the five protective districts of the State is being provided. This 
trailer is attached to the rear of the automobile of the District Forester and taken to the 
scene of large fires in the district. Assistant State Forester W. C. McCormick designed the 
trailers, and they are being built by a North Carolina concern. The trailer shown in the cut 
is a part of the equipment of District No. 3, of which Charles H. Flory is District Forester. 



ANALYSIS OF TAXES 
POINTS OUT BENEFIT 
OF BUDGETING FUNDS 



Economy and efficiency of the State Govern- 
ment of North Carolina is pointed out by "An 
Analysis of the Taxes and Debts of North Caro- 
lina," a publication which is soon to be issued by 
the Commerce and Industry Division of this 
Department. 

The publication, which is now in the hands of 
the printer and which will soon be available for 
distribution, says that in 1Q26 the cost of main- 
tenance of the State government amounted to 
only $5.76 per capita or less than any other State 
with the exception of Alabama. 

"North Carolina," says the analysis, "in 1026 
paid only $5.70 per inhabitant toward the main- 
tenance of the State government, exclusive of 
capital outlay and interest charges, according to 
the Federal Department of Commerce. Only 
one State, Alabama, paid less, $5.66, and the 
other 4b paid more. 

"The National Conference Board places the 
corporations of 4.^ states as paying, in 1024. a 
higher rate of tax, federal, state, and local, from 
total net income, than that of North Carolina; 
while in only four states did they pay less, in- 
(Coutinucd on Page 3) 



NEW FIF.E TEST PLOT 
WILL PROVE EFFECT 
OF FOREST FLAMES 



There has been more or less conviction among 
laymen (although there has been virtually unani- 
mous agreement among foresters to the contrary) 
that some so-called light burning of forest lands 
at certain periods of the year does not injure 
forest growth. 

The F'orestry Division, by means of experi- 
ments carried on in this State, plans to prove 
conclusively and definitely that burning is always 
m enemy to fores) growth, even though it may 
be done at a selected period and to a limited 
extent. 

To carry through this purpose, the use i 
plot of ground for experimental purposes in Pen- 
der ("ount> has been given to the Department by 
the Cooper River Lumber Company, Wilmington. 
The demonstration will be carried on through a 
period of between -i\ and eight years by which 
time it is believed that convincing information 
can be obtained 

The tract will be divided into thn 
type surveys of all trec^ will be made: borings 
for growth and ace will be undertaken; soil 
analyses will be made; and photographs will be 
taken of the forest growth on each. 

One of the strips will be held, under the eye 
of a forest lookout, inviolate from tire and will 
(Continued ok P .. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



MINERAL LAW SERVICE 



Fruits of the 1927 mineral registration 
law are already beginning to be borne with 
the completion of an index of all producers 
and manufacturers of mineral resources in 
North Carolina under the direction of 
State Geologist H. J. Bryson. 

The new index is in the nature of a 
directory of persons and firms who are en- 
gaged in the production and the use of 
North Carolina minerals in manufactur- 
ing processes. It gives the names of these 
individuals and firms, their location, the 
type of materials that they mine or pro- 
duce, the county in which business is done, 
and postoffice address. 

In the directory, Geologist Bryson lists 
the following number of producers and 
manufacturers of the leading minerals: 
brick, 72; kaolin, 12; copper, 1; coal, 3; 
feldspar, 61; granite, 41; iron, 9; lime- 
stone, marble, and marl, 7 ; mica, 63 ; sand 
and gravel, 29; talc and soapstone, 5; pot- 
tery, 12; quartz, 2; crushed stone, 4. 

The worth of the compilation has al- 
ready been proved through the stimulus 
that has been given to mineral develop- 
ment and service to the industry. Several 
cases are already recorded where outside 
state consumers have been put in touch 
with producers in North Carolina and an 
additional demand met by the State in- 
dustries. Mining interests in the State 
have also been put in touch with new mar- 
kets for their products. 



TAR HEEL FORESTRY 

SYSTEM IS PRAISED 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES 

MAY ENLARGE STATION 



In an editoral calling attention to the need 
of a forestry program that will insure continuous 
timber crops, The Southern Lumber Journal, 
published at Jacksonville, Fla., in a discussion 
of the activities of the Florida State Board of 
Forestry, speaks highly of North Carolina's 
efforts in this direction. 

"Other Southern States," says the publication, 
"have just as much reason as Florida to grow 
timber crops for their own future needs. But 
two, however, North Carolina and Georgia, are 
off to a fine start in this direction. Pity that 
fruitful years should pass before this work gets 
under way in every Southern state, but it is 
only a question of time." 



The United States Bureau of Fisheries Labor- 
atory and Experimental Station at Beaufort, 
which co-operates fully with the Fisheries Divis- 
ion of this Department, will be able to extend 
the scope of its work and to serve more efficient- 
ly the interests of the commercial fishing indus- 
try, if the item carrying the sum of $20,000 for 
construction, alterations, and repairs to the build- 
ings, wharves, grounds, water supply and equip- 
ment, which has been included in the appropria- 
tion bill of the Department of Commerce, is 
enacted by Congress. 

This amount was placed in the appropriation 
bill at the request of Congressman Abernethy, 
New Bern, who during last Congress suggested 
that the improvements be made. 

The Biological Station has been of distinct 
value to commercial fisheries of North Carolina 
and elsewhere, among its most recent activities 
being terrapin propagation, oyster farming, 
studies for the protection of the mullet and grey 
trout or weak fisheries in North Carolina, and 
an investigation of escallop conditions. 



iO-FOOT TOWER WILL 

BE BUILT IN PENDER 



North Carolina's newest steel lookout tower is 
to be constructed in Pender County in co-opera- 
tion with the Cooper River Lumber Company of 
Wilmington. 

The tower is to be located toward the north- 
central part of the County and will command a 
range of vision of approximately IS miles in 
radious. On the east the scope will extend to 
the Atlantic Ocean and on the north and west 
to adjoining counties. 

The structure will be eighty feet in height and 
will be surmounted by a closed-in glass cabin 
in which a forest lookout will be maintained. 
Telephone lines will connect the Warden in the 
cabin with others stationed on the ground, who 
will be prepared to meet any emergency call. 

Cost of the tower will be approximately $1,500, 
which will be borne by the lumber company. 
It will be erected under the supervision of Dis- 
trict Forester C. H. Flory, Fayetteville. Detailed 
arrangements for the tower were worked out be- 
tween Assistant State Forester W. C. McCormic 
and S. C. Sweeney, Forester for the Cooper 
River Lumber Company. 



PENNSYLVANIA SETS 

FORESTRY EXAMPLE 



"After several years, we have renewed activi- 
ties in the enlargement of Pensylvania's forest 
domain. Only within the last few days 29,000 
acres of forest land have been acquired at a cost 
of $107,000. If the remainder of the half million 
budgeted for this purpose is as successfully ex- 
pended, and there is little doubt of that, the 
total acquisition by the Department of Forests 
and Waters will be in the neighborhood of 130, 
000 acres. 

"But approximately $300,000 more is made 
available from hunters' license fees and will be 
used for the purchase of game preserves, making 
another addition possibly of from 75,000 to 
80,000 acres. In addition to this $450,000 was 
appropriated for the purchase of the Cook For- 
est. It is no mean real estate deal to acquire 
considerably in excess of 200,000 acres at an 
outlay of a million and a quarter dollars. This 
work will go forward methodically and progres- 
sively until there are no longer l?ft any waste 
places on our hillsides and mountain ranges."- — 
Governor Fisher oj Pennsylvania. 



MARKET FOR OYSTER 
OF STATE EXTENDING 
INTO MANY SECTIONS 



The position of the North Carolina oyster on 
the markets of the State and in other parts of 
the country is better today than it has been 
through a span of years as a result of improved 
marketing conditions and the development of 
oyster markets in the western part of North Car- 
olina. 

Heretofore the western part of the State has 
been receiving its oysters largely from out-of- 
State shipping points, but now that the Tar Heel 
fisheries are offering such a high quality of native 
seafood, the western markets are turning to the 
east. 

Eastern North Carolina markets are fully pro- 
tected from a viewpoint of sanitary control, and 
the Sanitary Engineer in charge of shellfish sani- 
tation asserts that the houses throughout the 
producing section are turning out a product 
which not only measures up to health standards 
in cleanliness and wholesomeness, but warrants 
the patronage of the retail markets of the State. 

For the information of the oyster consuming 
public which demands the unexcelled Tar Heel 
oyster and for the dealers, the following list of 
approved wholesale and retail houses is given: 

Name Permit Address 

No. 

Bowden, G. W 5 New Bern 

Lupton Fish & Oyster Co. 6 New Bern 

Lupton, E. S 11 New Bern 

Davis, Stephen 31 Marshallburg 

Ford Oyster & Crab Co 19 Washington 

McCotter, S. W 12 Vandemere 

Robins Pkg. Co 58 Vandemere 

Piner Bros. 44 -Morehead City 

Travis, W. S 2 Oriental 

Rollins, J. W 14 Manteo 

Washington Pkg. Co 122 Washington 

Washington Fish & Oyster Co. 3 Washington 

Woodland Co. 1 .Morehead City 

Boyd, U. S 23 _Morehead City 

Wade, Duffy 50 JMorehead City 

Browne & Lowe 15 Beaufort 

Salter, Jas. T 39 Davis 

Lupton Bros. 56 Vandemere 

Boyd, A. M l(A)^_Morehead City 

Baker, Geo. 8 Belhaven 

Williams, Reubin Belhaven 



WAY AH BALD REFUGE 

FORMALLY SET ASIDE 



Formal establishment of the new Wayah Bald 
Game Refuge in Macon County will be marked 
February 1 by the closing of the area to hunting 
and the assumption of duties of Jesse Slagle, 
Franklin, as refuge keeper. 

The refuge is situated on National Forest lands 
and consits of 10,180 acres, including some pri- 
vately owned areas which have been turned 
over to the department to use for refuge pur- 
poses. Placards are to be prepared by the De- 
partment for use as posters around the borders 
and within the preserve area. 

A refuge committee consisting of C. N. Mease, 
Commissioner; and Zeke B. Byrd, and S. A. 
Harris, Franklin, committeemen, has been ap- 
pointed by Director Wade H. Phillips. The fol- 
lowing United States Forest Service employees 
have been named as deputy State game wardens 
to protect the game on the preserve: Gilmer 
Setser, Bryan Setser, Zeke B. Byrd, Theodore 
C. Fling, Adolph Zoellner, and John Cunning- 
ham, Franklin; Zeb Shope, Prentiss; Grant Wes- 
ser, and Henry Wright, Highlands. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



RULES OF FISHERIES 
DIVISION ATTRACTING 
FOREIGN ATTENTION 



Still another country is interested in the North 
Carolina system of commercial fisheries admin- 
istration and would profit by the example which 
this State has set along this line. 

Capt. J. A. Nelson, Fisheries Commissioner, 
has recently received a request from Hon. D. 
W. Dow, Official Secretary of the Commonwealth 
of Australia for all available information regard- 
ing the procedure in working toward the estab- 
lishment of an Australian Biological Institution, 
and for particulars relative to the preservation, 
transportation and distribution of fish. He has 
also requested copies of the laws under which 
the Fisheries Division of the Department oper- 
ates. 

"It is desired," said Mr. Dow, in writing Cap- 
tain Nelson, "to obtain all available data relative 
to the activities in your State regarding these 
matters. Any advice with copies of reports which 
you may be kind enough to furnish will be ap- 
preciated by the Government of the Common- 
wealth of Australia." 

In the fall of 1927, the Division of Fisheries 
headquarters at Morehead City was visited by a 
delegation of six officials from Russia, whose offi- 
cial mission was to gather information regarding 
the legislative, judicial, and executive functioning 
of the North Carolina fishing industry. Similar 
information has also been sought by the Kingdom 
of Netherlands. 

A strong appeal of the fisheries regulations of 
North Carolina to the foreign governments and 
also to those of a number of American States 
is the provision by which fishermen can initiate 
changes themselves by petition to the Board of 
Conservation and Development. 



KENTUCKY INTERESTED 

IN CONSERVATION WORK 



Manifesting an interest in the conservation and 
development program of North Carolina, Ken- 
tucky is entertaining an idea of undertaking 
activities on a similar scale. 

This interest is indicated by a recent request 
of Governor A. W. McLean from W. W. Thomp- 
son, Secretary of the Frankfort, Ky., Chamber 
of Commerce, for all available information re- 
garding this State's program. 

In his telegraphic request of Governor McLean, 
Mr. Thompson says: "For the benefit of Gover- 
nor Simpson and Chambers of Commerce, please 
send me immediately copy of legislation pertain- 
ing to State advertising, conservation, and in- 
dustrial and commercial development of your 
State such as Bureau of Commerce and Industry 
or State Publicity Bureau. Shall appreciate your 
kindness." 



NEW FIRE TEST PLOT 

WILL PROVE EFFECT 

OF FOREST FLAMES 



(Continued from Page 1) 
be preserved in its original state. On the second, 
light burnings will be conducted in January 
when the least harm is expected thereform, and 
the third will be burned in May or June when 
the most damage is expected. 

At regular intervals checks and observations 
will be made of the difference of condition of the 
growth on each of the areas. Photographs from 
various angles are to be employed to picture 
the differences. LoMolly and longleaf pine lands 
that have been protected against fires from the 
seedling stage are to be used for the purpose. 
A special study will be made of the undergrowth 
and undesirable species of trees that replace 
seedlings destroyed by fire. 



ANALYSIS OF TAXES 

POINTS OUT BENEFIT 

OF BUDGETING FUNDS 



(Continued from Page 1) 

dicating a healthy condition of industry and 
taxes in the State." 

Praises Budget 

Pointing out the economy and success of the 
Budget System, the publication says, "The Gov- 
ernor now realizes in fact the constitutional con- 
ception of Chief Executive. As Director of the 
Budget, he may keep informed of what each 
State agency is doing and what it requires. From 
this he gets a mental picture of the State as a 
whole, which is necessary if he would serve its 
interest efficiently. In this great enterprise of 
the State, the people are the stockholders; the 
members of the General Assembly, their voting 
trustees; the Governor, the Chief Executive Offi- 
cer. 

"Each of the more than sixty spending agencies 
in the State is required to submit to the Budget 
Bureau detailed estimates of the manner in which 
it plans to utilize its funds. In this way it is 
ascertained what each one of these numerous 
agencies proposes to spend during the biennium, 
the fiscal year, and each quarter of such year; 
for personal services, supplies, and projects. In 
addition, they show the revenues it is estimated 
they will collect. 

"Each unit is required to submit figures to the 
Budget Bureau, comparing the actual expendi- 
tures with those authorized and to measure actual 
revenues with those previously estimated, and 
thus to assure that the spending agencies operate 
within their income. It cannot happen that an 
institution is embarrassed by spending so much 
of its appropriation in the first few months of 
the year as to put it in straightened circumstances 
thereafter and invite a deficit. 

"For instance, total appropriations by the Gen- 
eral Assembly for the year ended June 30, 1926, 
were $12,983,678. The total budget revenues 
collected for that year and available for the 
amount of the appropriations were $12,972,183.97. 
If the maximum appropriations authorized for 
the period by the General Assembly had been ex- 
pended, there would have been a deficit on Julv 
1, 1026, of $11,494.03. 

Affects Saving 

"Instead of expending the maximum amount 
authorized by the General Assembly of 1925, the 
sum was curtailed, through budgetary control, 
to a total of $11,702,359.93 for the period, affect- 
ing a saving over the legislative appropriation of 
about ten per cent, or $1,270, 77S.07, and leaving 
in the State treasury a cash balance of $1,269,- 
S24.04 at the end of the fiscal year. It is inter- 
esting to note that the total expenditures for 
the year ended June 20, 1025, were $S85.598 
more than the total expenditures for the first 
year under the Budget System. 

"Most of the credit balance for 1926 was the 
direct result of savings in expenditures rather 
than the curtailment of important projects. The 
sum of $351,000 was due to the exercise by the 
director of the Budget of the authority vested 
in him of reducing the maximum appropriations 
authorized for the departments and institutions. 

"The Budget Acts direct him to do this if it 
should appear that the total revenues collected 
during the fiscal year will be inadequate to pay 
the aggregate of the maximum appropriations of 
the General Assembly for the same period or if 
the maximum appropriations are not necessary 
for the proper maintenance of any department 
or institution. 

"Budgeting taxes is of great importance from 
another angle, in assuring the taxpayer that the 



FOREST TOWERS ARE 
MANNED, PREPARING 
FOR OUTBREAK FIRES 



Preparing for the annual spring forest fire sea- 
son, lookouts have been stationed on all tower- 
in operation in Eastern North Carolina, and 
warden forces have been strengthened in antici- 
pation of the usual seasonal outbreak of fires. 

From the top of the Carolina Hotel at Pine- 
hurst, Towerman Marvin Black will keep a 
.vatchful eye on the forests of Southern Moore 
County in that territory embraced by the Moore 
County Forest protective area, and into parts of 
Hoke, Richmond and Montgomery Counties. 

The Cameron Hill tower in Harnett County 
is again being manned by Towerman \V. A 
Graham of Olivia. His range of vision extends 
over the western part of Harnett and parts of 
Lee, Moore, Hoke and Cumberland. 

Atop the new 60-foot steel tower in Cumber- 
land County, D. Nordan, Towerman, is scanning 
the horizon for fires in that county and in Har- 
nett and Sampson. 

With all of these preparations to cope with 
the fires after they occur, the State must, to 
protect effectively its timber resources, have the 
co-operation of the public in preventing the 
loosening of the forces of destruction in the 
woodlands. It is well to remember that the 
most important of all of the efforts of the State 
and the people is the prevention of the out- 
break of fires, since, after they have started the 
problem of control is to cut down the amount of 
damage. 



taxes levied and collected are adequate to meet 
public expenditures. Under the Budget system 
in operation in North Carolina by counties, as 
well as by the State, tax levies are required to 
be sufficient to meet budgeted expenses. Thus 
a taxpayer in North Carolina is assured that the 
taxes charged against him each year repre-ent 
his full proportion of governmental expenses and 
that a part of his governmental costs are not 
being carried over in floating indebtedness and 
added to his costs in future years." 



TWO-THIRDS COUNTIES 
CONTRIBUTE OUTPUT 
OF STATE'S MINERALS 



More than two-thirds of all of the counties 
of North Carolina had a share in the State's 
mineral output for 1Q26 with 67 showing a pro- 
duction in some amount, leaving only 33 that 
showed no mineral production for the year. 

Rowan with its large granite quarries and 
several brick manufacturing plants, led the en- 
tire State in the value of mineral products, which 
in the year amounted to $1,067,422; Mitchell, 
the center of the famous Spruce Pine district with 
its rich pegmatite dikes was second, showing a 
mineral output worth $1,038,316; Surry, also 
chiefly because of it- granite quarries came third, 
reporting a valuation of Soa.vOOO for it-- mineral 
products. 

Following in order among the first ten in 
point of the value o\ their mineral products 
were: Guilford, $745,695; Henderson. $643 
Wayne, $461,625; Buncombe. $358,250; Lee. 
,443; Stanley, -<303.o30; and Wilson. >500.- 
584. 

The total amount of mineral production in 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



North Carolina for the year, 1926, was $11,- 
274,224, the largest of any year in the history 
of the State, according to compilations made 
recently by State Geologist H. J. Bryson. 

In alphabetical order, the following was the 
production by counties for 1926: 

Alamance, $46,500; Alexander, $106,583; Alle- 
ghany, $825; Anson, $313,072; Ashe, $10,305; 
Avery, $48,785; Bertie, $20,000; Buncombe, 
$358,250; Burke, $8,000; Cabarrus, $23,100; Car- 
teret, $1,316; Caswell, $127,950; Catawba, $5,- 



400; Chatham, $289,490; Cherokee, $84,750; 
Cleveland, $4,800; Columbus, $50,027; Craven, 
$45,355; Cumberland, $133,065; Davidson, $19,- 
000; Durham, $146,000; Forsyth, $188,500; 
Gaston, $158,080; Guilford, $745,695; Halifax, 
$110,631; Harnett, $248,640; Haywood, $2,502; 
Henderson, $643,605; Iredell, $233,000; Johnson, 
$90,661; Lee, $330,443; Lenoir, $10,000; Lincoln, 
$75; Macon, $19,938; Madison, $103,996; Meck- 
lenburg, $185,230; Mitchell, $1,038,316; Mont- 
gomery, $97,953; Moore, $213,864; Nash, $114,- 



400; New Hanover, $26,739; Northhampton, 
$59,863; Orange, $28,150; Pasquotank, $19,000; 
Pender, $6,000; Pitt, $22,500; Randolph, $33- 
000; Robeson, $22,500; Rockingham, $153,135; 
Rowan, $1,067,424; Rutherford, $103,654; Samp- 
son, $10,725; Scotland, $2,000; Stanley, $303,630; 
Stokes, $219,600; Surry, $943,000; Swain, $177,. 
451; Union, $179,775; Vance, $260,000; Wake, 
$255,500; Washington, $18,031; Wayne, $461, 
625; Wilkes, $23,275; Wilson, $300,584; Yancey, 
$198,961. 



Chief Functions of the Department of Conservation and Development 



WADE H. PHILLIPS, Director 



GAME DIVISION 

WADE H. PHILLIPS, State Game Warden 
General administration of the State Game Law ; enforcement of 
license regulations, including collection of hunting fees; appointment 
and supervision of game warden force; adoption of a program of game 
propagation and rehabilitation, including the establishment and patrol- 
ing of refuges and the creation and operation of game farms; scientific 
studies of game propagation, protection, and measures for the best in- 
terest of game conditions; dissemination of information relating to game 
conditions and to urge a greater appreciation of the common value of 
wild life; to issue permits for the collection and possession of game birds 
and animals for scientific purposes; the recommendation of needed 
regulations; to co-operate in forestry program. 

FORESTRY DIVISION 

J. S. HOLMES, State Forester 
Prevention of forest fires, by organization, education and law enforce- 
ment; maintaining a forest tower system and warden service; promote 
reforestation by the operation of a seeding nursery, the provision of ex- 
pert advice in tree planting and culture, and general reforestation meas- 
ures; administration of State forests and parks and the adoption of rules 
which will give the greatest degree of public service and enjoyment; 
gathering of statistics on the forestry situation for the interest of forestry ; 
educational work to teach the necessity of forests and their preservation, 
to seek the most efficient utilization of wood products, to urge selective 
cutting and the general practice of scientific forestry methods; to pro- 
mote a greater appreciation of the forests among the school children; 
to co-operate with the Game Division in the State's program of game 
conservation and rehabilitation. 

COMMERCIAL FISHERIES DIVISION 

CAPT. J. A. NELSON, Fisheries Commissioner 
General administration of commercial fisheries laws and regulations; 
collection of fisheries licenses and taxes; maintenance of shellfish sani- 
tation measures, for the protection of th« interests of the general public 
and of the fishing industry ; conservation and development of the supply 
of all food fishes by protective regulations and propagative measures; 
operation of hatcheries for diamond-back terrapin in co-operation with 
the United States Fisheries Bureau at Beaufort, and for shad and 
herring at Edenton; to carry on studies and researches for the deter- 
mination of public measures and proper regulation of the fishing 
industry in the interest of maintaining the future supply of all food 
fishes; to work for the best interests of the industry by aiding to main- 
tain old markets and to build up new ones; to compile statistics show- 
ing the condition of the industry. 

GEOLOGICAL DIVISION 

H. J. BRYSON, State Geologist 
Researches and surveys to determine the variety, accessibility, extent 
of the mineral resources of the State; dissemination of information which 
will aid in the development of these resources; to seek the conservation 
of minerals by urging their most efficient use and complete development; 
to promote interest of the public in mineral resources and in scientific 
studies of the opportunities of development of mineral resources; gath- 
ering and tabulation of statistics showing the extent of resources, their 
exploitation, and prospects for the future; to keep informed on scientific 
developments and to apply new methods and discoveries to encourage 
the utilization of mineral products of the State; to administer the special 
mineral law requiring registration of producers passed by the 1927 Gen- 
eral Assembly; to assist in mineral developments within the State by 
special surveys and advice to persons interested in their exploitation. 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY DIVISION 

PARK MATHEWSON, Statistician 
Making surveys of the natural, industrial, and commercial resources 
of the State and to take measures best suited to promote the conserva- 
tion and development of such resources; co-ordinating existing scientific 
investigations and other related agencies in formulating and promoting 
sound policies of conservation and development; to collect and classify 
the facts derived from such investigations and from other agencies of 
the State as a source of information easily accessible to the general 
public, setting forth the natural, economic, industrial, and commercial 
advantages of the State; scientific studies to determine the natural 
advantages of the State for development and reports pointing out favor- 
able opportunities for complete untilization of natural resources; pro-j 
moting the industrial and commercial development of the State by 
advice, information; to co-operate with the Bureaus of Census and of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce of United States Department of Com- 
merce; maintain trade files for public reference. 

WATER RESOURCES DIVISION 

THORNDIKE SAVILLE, Chief Hydraulic Engineer 

General measures to promote the most efficient development 
and conservation of water resources; measurement of stream flow as 
fundamental data for health measures, water power development, fish 
life control, and industrial development; surveys and mapping of geology 
and topography of State; co-operation with the State Board of Health 
in stream sanitation and conservation work; making investigations of 
water supplies and water powers, with recommendations and plans for 
promoting their more profitable use; gathering, compiling and publish- 
ing of data on the power situation; investigations to assist in the pro- 
tection of coastal developments; examining and locating water sup- 
plies in co-operation with municipalities; to act in behalf of the State 
in carrying out any regulations relating to water powers other than those 
related to making and regulating rates; determining the qualities of 
industrial waters for the promotion of their best use for public supplies, 
and industrial development. 

INLAND FISHERIES DIVISION 

J. K. DIXON, Chief 

Administration of game fishing regulations prescribing open and closed 
seasons, bag limits, and sizes; collection of license fee from fishermen 
using rod and reel or jointed rod; direction of warden organization; 
operation of fish hatcheries; advice concerning the planting of fish reared 
in hatcheries; surveys of waters to determine suitibility of propagation 
of game fish; building of nursery ponds in which to raise baby fish 
to youth stage and the encouragement of this practice on the part of 
individuals and organizations; scientific studies on the rearing, planting 
and conservation of fish; collection and tabulation of information re- 
garding game fishing and the adoption of necessary measures for the 
conservation and development of the sport. 

PUBLIC RELATIONS DIVISION 

PAUL KELLY, Manager 

Informing the public of the activities of the Department; dissemina- 
tion of advice and information regarding conservation and development 
features in general; compilation and editing "Conservation and Indus- 
try," departmental publication; promoting all of the causes of conserva- 
tion and development by regular and special articles for the daily and 
weekly press, special editions, trade, industrial, outdoor and other pub- 
lications; issuing special publications giving the status and conditions 
of various features of Departmental work; collection of photographs 
of interesting and instructive features of conservation and development 
and furnishing these for illustration in publications of various kinds; 
preparation of tabulated data for use in talks, illustrated lectures and<l 
other media of publicity. 



■ I 



CONSERVATION w INDUSTRY 

A Bi-Weekly Publication of the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol. V 



FEBRUARY 15, 1928 



No. 4 



GAME CONSERVATION 
HOLDS SIGNIFICANCE 
FOR STATE FARMERS 



Farmers and landowners of North Carolina 
probably have more at stake in the new State- 
wide game laws than any other class of citizens 
of the State and more to gain from the benefits 
which they will bring. 

Because of the close association of the farmer 
with the wild life of the State, his interests were 
considered as fundamental by the General As- 
sembly in formulating the policy which was en- 
acted into law, for without the farmers' active 
interest and co-operation the laws cannot be the 
success which they deserve. 

When the primary purpose of the game laws, 
the increase and preservation of wild life is ac- 
complished, the farmer is the first to benefit di- 
rectly therefrom. The service of wild life to 
the farmer of to-day is generally measured, first, 
by practical values, but the extent of the bene- 
fits is not confined to this feature alone. 

Farmer's Frie.nd 

In the bird life of the State, the farmer has 
a friend that is constantly at work for his inter- 
est by helping to protect his crops from pests 
that cause tremendous destruction. "From a 
purely practical point of view," says the United 
States Biological Survey, "the most important of 
the relations of native birds to man are the eco- 
nomic. The esthetic value of birds is great, 
greater indeed than that of any other group of 
animals; and that this is a real and especially 
a treasured value is not to be denied. But it 
is in their relation to insects and other enemies 
of crops that birds are most directly associated 
with the welfare of mankind, and their value 
in this particular should be made as widely 
known as possible." 

Whether a bird is beneficial or a pest depends 
almost altogether upon what it eats. Field ob- 
servations are at best incomplete, and the Biolo- 
gical Survey has for years been carrying on close 
examinations of the stomachs of birds to prove 
conclusively of what their diet consists. 

These scientific investigations bring out some 
interesting information for the guidance of game 
authorities in protecting the most useful forms 
of bird life, and in outlawing those that are harm- 
ful. They also point out to the farmer which 
birds are his friends and enable him to join in 
the program for their protection. 

Eat Boll Weevils 

The special studies have brought out the fact 
that birds are one of the most important of the 
enemies to the boll weevil, the most injurious 
pest to Southern agriculture. The biologists of 
the bureau have found that 66 species of birds 
prey, to a greater or less extent, upon the boll 
weevil. They have also found that many of these 
birds feed upon the boll worm, chinch bug, army 
worm, and the rootworm, which are serious foes 
of the southern farmer. 

"The most active of the enemies of the boll 
weevil," says a publication of the United States 
Biological Survey, "are the orioles, which actu- 
ally take the insects from the squares of the 
cotton plant, and the swallows, which feed upon 
the weevils when they are in flight, and seeking 
to extend their range. No fewer than 41 boll 




For real joys of an outing in North Caro" 
lina, the accompanying scene is one that will 
bring delight to the most discriminating sports- 
man. H. H. Brimley, Curator of the State 
Museum and an ardent sportsman, is shown 
returning to camp after having bagged a prize- 
buck while hunting near the coast in Onslow 
County. After a successful hunt, he loads his 
game in a canoe and paddles leisurely back 
to camp. 



weevils have been found in a single stomach of 
the Bullock oriole, and large numbers of the wee- 
vils are habitually taken by all species of swal- 
lows. Every one of a series of 35 eave swallows 
have eaten boll weevils, I lie larucst number in 
any stomach being 48, and the average, lo." 

Among the more active of the feathery allies 
of the farmer are the house wren, the Carolina 
wren, the mockingbird, (he brown thrasher, the 
cardinal, the bluebird, the chickadee, and the pur- 
ple martin. Investigations of stomachs of 
(Continued on Page 3) 



SURVEY OF COUNTY 
TIMBER RESOURCES 
MAY BE MADE SOON 



Practical forestry signifies making the maxi- 
mum use of all timber resources, permitting none 
that is usable in any form to go to waste, and not 
merely to preserve trees for sentimental value 
although this factor is not overlooked. 

To just what extent does North Carolina pos- 
sess timber resources that are lying latent and 
ready for development through industrial pro- 
cesses? The amount of this unused timber and 
the provisions that still remain for utilization of 
wood resources of the State is not definitely 
known but the Forestry Division contemplates 
a survey that will shed light on the proposition 
and furnish fundamental information upon which 
further development may be based, and thus 
aid in meeting the full demands of a wise for- 
estry policy. 

As a beginning of this proposed work, the 
Department, which does not have sufficient funds 
for this purpose, is offering to undertake surveys 
in various counties, with their financial co-opera- 
tion. 

Seeks County Interest 

In writing to Chairmen of Boards of County 
Commissioners of the various counties, State 
Forester J. S. Holmes asks: "Would you like 
to see additional industries established in your 
county? Have you realized that the best way 
to secure such industries is to show them that 
you have the necessary raw material available 
for their use? Do you know how much stand- 
ing timber there is in your county which could 
be used to supply additional wood-using indus- 
tries? 

"There are very few counties in this State 
which have any definite idea of how much tim- 
ber would be available for such industries as 
pulp mills, furniture factories, veneer plants, saw- 
mills, or those which use even smaller or more 
specialized sizes. A firm looking for a new field 
wants definite information. I fear that you would 
be unable to supply any definite information 
about your supply of timber. 

Offers State Aid 
"This Department would like to be oi service 
to you in helping you to determine, with a fair 
degree of accurary, the present timber resources 
of your county. Two counties, through their 
Chambers of Commerce, have ahead) made ap- 
plication for special studies with this end in 
view. This Department proposes to direct and 
supervise studies in a few such counties, bearing 
also the cost of preparing and writing the report. 
The county would be expected to bear the cost 
of the actual field work which would hardly 
exceed SoOO to SSOO. 

"If you feel that you could appropriate Mich 
a sum on or before July 1 next, we should be 
glad to take the matter up with you. Field 
work might begin well ahead of that date if the 
Stale was assured that such co-operation would 
become available. 

"Since this letter is going to every county and 
with our limited funds and we could not under- 
take more than half a dozen such studies this 
summer, early action is desirable." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



CURING AN EVIL 



Action of Deputy Game and Fish Com- 
missioner John C. Thomas of Winston- 
Salem in breaking up an alleged ring of 
quail "bootleggers" in Forsyth and adjoin- 
ing counties is being viewed with interest 
by sportsmen over the entire State. 

The sale of this game bird, although 
prohibited for some years, had gone on in 
the State practically unhampered until the 
new law went into effect with the excep- 
tion of a period when the vigilance of an 
inadequate force of wardens of the old 
Audubon society placed a temporary check 
on what had grown to be an industry of 
considerable moment. 

According to indications that were 
brought out in press reports of the inter- 
ruption of the illegal traffic in the gamey 
bird, there are still a few restaurants and 
individuals who will encourage the game 
hog in the practice that will destroy one 
of the most popular of sports. 

So well were the movements of the traf- 
fickers in the game guarded that it re- 
quired several weeks to complete the in- 
vestigation and collect enough evidence 
with which to enter court with a case that 
might be expected to stand up against the 
assault of counsel. This vigilance and 
determination of the officer is commend- 
able. 

Piedmont North Carolina has long been 
known as a favorite quail hunting ground, 
and a traffic in the birds grew up before 
there were game laws that prohibited. As 
the need of conservation became more 
clearly seen, the statutes that outlawed the 
sale, purchase, or possession of illegally 
taken game were enacted. The increased 
number of hunters, improved firearms, and 
a definite need of more sporting provisions 
have demanded the protection of game 
birds and animals from commercialism. 
Rigid enforcement of these provisions pro- 
vides the only means whereby the rights 
of the public and sport are to be protected. 



A dispatch coming out of Washington gives 
the number of acres in National Forests in North 
Carolina as 385,106. All of this nationally owned 
land is in Western North Carolina, and designed 
primarily for the protection of headwaters of 
streams. 



In 1925, the per capita wealth of North Caro- 
lina, as computed by the National Industrial 
Conference Board, was $1,879. Nevada, the 
most thinly populated of all the states, was cre- 
dited with having the largest per capita wealth. 



CULTURE OF OYSTER 
PROGRESSES BEYOND 
GROWTH OF MARKETS 



The State of North Carolina is so situated with 
respect to the faster lines of communication, 
namely the railway systems, that the lines of 
travel and economic relationship run north and 
south rather than east and west, and consequent- 
ly the east and the west have not come to know 
one another as well as they will, in time. 

To the west lie the hills, the mountains, the 
factories, the industries and consequently a pros- 
perity that merits commendation. To the east, 
the fertile plans bare their breasts to the culti- 
vation of the fields of tobacco, corn, cotton and 
even foster industries which rival the industrial 
west. 

Far to the east lies the "Kingdom of the Seas," 
three thousand square miles of water, bounded 
by the lines of some of our great eastern coun- 
ties. Here is situated one of North Carolina's 
greatest natural resources. This industry meas- 
ures its personnel by the thousands and its busi- 
est seasons by the years. 

To the extreme northeast lie the sounds of 
Currituck and Albemarle, the latter being' the 
world's greatest fresh water sound; and the 
lesser, Currituck, affords some of the world's best 
black bass and ducking territory. To the south 
of this is the giant Pamlico sound, second in size 
to the world's greatest, Long Island sound, and 
regarded by navigators as the most dangerous 
body of water for its size in the world. Farther 
south we find the lesser sounds of Core and 
Bogue but in the great Pamlico Sound thrives 
the seat of the State's great oyster industry. 
Here some of the best oyster beds in the United 
States thrive and feed the markets of the north 
and northeast, as well as some of the markets of 
this State. 

Conserving Builds Up 

The maintenance of the productivity of these 
oyster bottoms is a direct result of the conserv- 
ing and developing policies of the Division of 
Commercial Fisheries of the Department of Con- 
servation and Development. For years this de- 
partment has guarded and protected these areas 
to prevent taking undersized oysters and con- 
sequently has been successful in making the sup- 
ply exceed the demand. 

Not content with the natural status of the 
oyster bottoms of the State, the Division of Com- 
mercial Fisheries has enlisted the help of the 
United States Bureau of Fisheries, and together 
with the available forces of the State has gone 
into a scientific study of the entire oyster pro- 
ducing areas, to determine which will most pro- 
fitably bear intensive cultivation. To date, this 
scientific study is completed, following twelve 
months of research directed from the State's 
laboratory boat and this information is already 
available. 

Further, the department has adopted a policy 
of promoting private oyster culture which bears 
the name of "Oyster Gardening or oyster farm- 
ing." Already there are numerous oyster farms 
in the State producing quantities of select shell 
oysters. These oysters excel natural bottom oys- 
ters in value and therefore allow a marginal pro- 
fit to the "oyster farmer." Around the great 
oyster beds of the State, there thrives an indus- 
try of oyster houses. Some of the houses are 
given over solely to the industry of canning oys- 
ters. Canned oysters bear the labels of North 
Carolina products and thereby advertise the great 
eastern industry throughout the entire union. 
Other houses handle only raw shucked oysters, 
catering to the markets of State and others. In 
volume of business and value of finished products, 
this particular phase of the industry leads the 
canning and shell oyster industry. These raw 
shucking houses are confined to no particular 
section or city but are scattered out throughout 
the middle section of the coast. The centers of 



the oyster shucking industry are Morehead City, 
Beaufort, New Bern, Washington, Vandemere, 
Oriental and Belhaven. The economic life of 
these cities has a direct bearing on the oyster 
industry and the progress of these cities is af- 
fected by the shellfish production. 

State Markets Grow 

The sections of the State not affected so much 
by the production of this eastern sea food are the 
middle section of the State and the western sec- 
tion. In this area the volume of the raw oysters 
handled is from the Virginia section, more par- 
ticularly Norfolk. Through the years, this sec- 
tion has bought through force of habit, and be- 
cause of lack of knowledge of our eastern oys- 
ters, Norfolk oysters. Responsibility for this state 
of affairs is, in part, the fact that the rail com- 
munications from the Virginia port have been 
better but with the advent of paved road com- 
munications in this State, coupled with the bet- 
ter facilities of our east-west rail communication, 
our eastern oysters bid fair to excel Virginia and 
Maryland oysters on our State markets. 

Probably the most interesting fact of the re- 
tail oyster situation of the State is that the Nor- 
folk and Crisfield freight boats come into the 
waters of North Carolina, buy shell oysters from 
the State's productive areas, carry them to the 
out-of-state shucking houses, open them and ship 
them back to the North Carolina retail markets 
as Norfolk oysters at an increased price, this too 
after they have been out of the water for a 
longer time than our native oysters are kept out. 
The reasons for such conditions are that the 
people of the western section and the middle 
section of the State are not in direct contact with 
the eastern shellfish markets ; the retail dealers 
of the sections other than the east do not know 
our eastern shellfish shippers; trade relations 
having to do with our sea foods have not been 
developed with the western markets and the peo- 
ple have not learned to call for the North Caro- 
lina product. 

Quality Approved 

The oyster, on the North Carolina and out-of- 
state markets, has come to be an established ar- 
ticle of food, varying only as the seasons, and 
not subjected to the typhoid scares. The Division 
of Commercial Fisheries maintains a Sanitary 
Engineer, T. R. McCrea, who in co-operation 
with the State Board of Health and the United 
States Public Health Service, carries on sanitary 
supervision over the industry. 

The Division of Fisheries is giving the con- 
suming public the assurance that it is getting 
shellfish from approved beds only and that they 
are handled and shipped under the best of sani- 
tary conditions. Bacteriological examinations are 
made on the shellfish beds, the waters are exam- 
ined with care, the houses assure cleanliness and 
the finished product of the plants are examined 
to give the consumer the final assurance that the 
sea food is clean and wholesome. The water 
used in the houses is examined with the same 
degree of care, the food handlers in the houses 
are given strict medical examination and, lastly, 
the sea food is inspected in the local retail mar- 
kets throughout the State. 



North Carolina, in 1926, was credited with 
having the third largest State highway construc- 
tion program of all the states, exceeded only bv 
populous states of Pensylvania and New York, 
respectively. The following amounts, according 
to figures compiled by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, were expended by the three 
leading states: Pensylvania, $53,004,351; New 
York, $37,276,327; and North Carolina, $34,144,- 
757. 

Guilford County has an automobile for every 
3.9 persons, and holds first rank in ownership of 
cars, according to population. In addition, that 
County has the largest number of automobiles 
in any one county with 24,865. Mecklenburg 
comes second with 22,575 cars, or one for each 
4.1 persons. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



GAME CONSERVATION AS 

RELATED TO FARMERS 

SHOWS GREAT SERVICE 



(Continued from Page 1) 
these birds show that all are extensive feeders 
on insects that prey on farm crops. Recognizing 
the usefulness of these feathery allies of the far- 
mer, the state law terms them as non-game birds 
and makes killing and molestation unlawful. The 
farmer helps himself and promotes public welfare 
by joining with the spirit of the law and pro- 
tecting and aiding in the increase of the birds 
and game that is protected. 

Unprotected Birds 

Unprotected birds are so classed because they 
have been conclusively proven to be destructive 
or where there is evident reason to believe that 
their depredations are greater than their service. 
Birds that are placed in this class are the Eng- 
lish sparrow, great horned owl, Cooper's hawk, 
sharp-shinned hawk, crows, jays, blackbirds, and 
buzzards. 

Game birds and animals are also distinct eco- 
nomic assets to rural life, but their value is more 
along a different line, largely through sporting 
opportunities and supplying meat for the table and 
pelts for the market although they have other 
measures of service that should not be discounted. 

That the flesh of game animals has a value 
that should not be underestimated, is shown from 
recent estimates by H. H. Brimley, curator of 
the State Museum, that in Eastern North Caro- 
lina alone, more than 3,000 deer are killed an- 
nually. The value of the bag of these animals 
is believed to be around $50,000 annually even 
under conditions where adequate protection was 
not provided in the absence of a uniform State- 
wide game law. Under the new system which 
limits the number that may be legally killed and 
prescribes a closed season on doe for five years, 
it is believed that the kill of deer can be multi- 
plied many times in the next few years. 

Although the value of fur taken in the State 
has decreased in the last few years from that of 
previous years, it is believed that this source of 
revenue will be considerable to North Carolinians. 
It is estimated by game authorities of Louisiana 
that this industry brings in an annual income 
of $6,000,000 in that State. The new North 
Carolina law allows the trapping of fur-bearing 
animals within seasons. Taking of these animals 
by the farmer in a season of the year when his 
work is less pressing can be made an increasingly 
compensating occupation for his spare time. 

Sets Up Definite Policy 

At the same time that it sets up a definite 
constructive policy which will assure the conser- 
vation of wild game, the Sutton law throws 
ample safeguards around the rights of the far- 
mer and the landowner and recognizes their 
fundamental property rights. 

Under this principle, the law does not require 
a license for the landowner hunting on his own 
property or that which he has under lease. Fur- 
thermore, the law does not presume to give a 
privilege to hunt on land without permission of 
the owner. 

Another principle that is established in the 
law, is that every farmer has the right to pro- 
tect his crops and property. One section of the 
State law gives authority for the killing of game 
that is committing or about to commit depreda- 
tions, while another empowers the Board of Con- 
servation and Development to issue permits to 
kill any species of birds or animals which may 
become seriously injurious to agriculture or other 
interests of any particular community. 

Reports coming to the Conservation Depart- 
ment from all parts of the State, show that the 
farmer has joined whole-heartedly in the spirit 
of game conservation; that he is a bulwark for 



ATTORNEY GENERAL'S 
OFFICE HOLDS ROBINS 
SAFEGUARDED BY LAW 



By making clear that the State Game Law 
designed to furnish full protection to robin red- 
breast, Attorney General Dennis G. Brummitt, in 
a recent opinion, interprets the statutes as ex- 
tending full immunity from slaughter to all of 
those birds not classed as "game," and not in 
the unprotected group. 

Attorney General Brummitt, in arriving at his 
opinion points to Section 36 as the saving clause 
for birds of economic, esthetic, and artistic value, 
not classed as game. 

The section reads, in part: "No person shall 
at any time of the year take in any manner, num- 
ber, or quantity, any wild bird or wild animal, 
or take the nest or eggs of any wild bird, or 
possess, buy, sell, offer, or expose for sale, or 
transport at any time or in any manner any 
such birds, animals, or part thereof, or any bird's 
nest or egg, except as permitted by this act . . ." 

This prohibition, Mr. Brummitt holds, applies 
protection to birds and animals which are 
not especially mentioned as being "game" in the 
law and upon which seasons have been set in 
other sections of the statutes, and that are not 
in the unprotected class. 

Among the lovers of the out-of-doors, this 
decision has a particular welcome reception as 
it is a safeguard for song birds, those of artistic 
appeal, and those of economic value. 

It places all wild bird and animal life in three 
classes: Game, Protected, and Unprotected; 
and those that are not specifically named in either 
the Game or Non-Protected classifications are 
to be assigned to the Protected group, which may 
be killed or taken at no time except under special 
permits for scientific purposes or for propagation. 

Following the opinion of the Attorney Gen- 
eral, Director Wade H. Phillips as head of the 
game administrative forces, has issued instructions 
for all Deputy Game and Fish Commissioners 
and County Wardens to extend the full protec- 
tion of the law to Protected birds and animals, 
mentioning specifically the robin, the provider 
of the basis upon which the ruling was made. 
Director Phillips has instructed the warden force 
to enforce rigidly the authority under which the 
robin is given immunity from destruction. 

As a consequence of the opinion and instruc- 
tions given to the wardens, the millions of robins 
wintering in Randolph and other Piedmont coun- 
ties will be freed from danger of wholesale de- 
struction from persons who have been reported 
as having killed great numbers while on their 
roosts. 

A number of arrests on charges growing out of 
the slaughter of the robins have already been 
made, and others are docketed for trial. 



game law observance and that he is zealous in 
maintaining sentiment of the public in its sup- 
port. 

Close to Farmer 
Living closer than the rest of the popula- 
tion to the natural habitat of game, the farmer 
collectively has always been deeply interested in 
wild life and desires to see it preserved for the 
pleasure of future generations. He realizes that 
without proper protection and under the handi- 
caps established by the civilization of today with 
its good roads, automobiles, and improved fire- 
arms that this form of life cannot continue to 
live and prosper without the aid of man. 

A plentiful supply of game makes farm life 
more pleasant, gives ample opportunities for 
sport, maintains a reserve supply of meat, in- 
culcates in the children a love for outdoor life, 
and creates a more attractive state. Satisfactory 
supplies of game unquestionably add to the value 
of land, a concrete example of this being areas 



DEPARTMENT OFFERS 

SERVICES IN ASSISTING 

TRADE ESTABLISHMENT 



General assistance for commerce, both dome-tic 
and foreign, is offered to trade interests through 
the co-operative service which has recently been 
established between the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce of the United States Depart- 
ment of Commerce and this Department through 
its Division of Commerce and Industry. 

One of the features of this co-operative ar- 
rangement is the data that are furnished for ex- 
port trade. This information is designed to as- 
sist the manufacturer and the tradesman in open- 
ing up new markets and meeting the demands of 
established trade. It is compiled from studie- 
and observations of trade experts who are en- 
gaged in making surveys of conditions at home 
and abroad. 

There has recently been obtained by this De- 
partment, as a part of its trade and commerce 
files, a collection of all of the publications that 
are available from the Federal Bureau. Manu- 
facturers, merchants, or commercial agencies are 
invited to make free use of these files which are 
maintained for their information. They are kept 
in the office of the Department. 

Some of the publications and data which are 
on hand in the Raleigh co-operative office of this 
Department include: Commercial Survey of the 
Southeast, Trade Surveys of Cities, Commerce 
Yearbook, Foreign Trade Bulletins, Commerce 
and Navigation, Domestic Commerce, Electrical 
Standards, Special Consular Reports, Trade In- 
formation Bulletins, Trade Promotion Serif-. 
Automotive News, Tobacco Market-, Trade As- 
sociation Activities, Fincancial Statistics of States, 
and Financial Statistics of Cities. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S HOUSE 

AT GAME FARM STARTED 



The contract for a residence of Supt. W. C. 
Grimes of the new North Carolina Game Farm, 
two miles south of Asheboro on State Highway* 
No. 70, has been let and construction is already 
underway. The contract price calls for S5.0O0 to 
be spent in the erection of the building. 

While the contractor is proceeding with the 
erection of the residence, work is being pushed 
on the construction of breeding pens and other 
hatchery accommodations. 

Part of the brood stock of quail that will be 
maintained at the farm has already been trapped 
in Wilkes County, and orders will be given soon 
for pheasants and also a number of turkeys. 

Plans are now being laid for beginning of oper- 
ation of the game farm before the opening of 
the breeding season this spring. Stock which 
has already been purchased is being kept at Mr. 
Grimes' present residence in the western part of 
Randolph until improvements at the farm are 
completed. 

surrounding game preserves which are greatly in 
demand. Weight of experience is added to this 
statement in North Carolina, where it is said 
that lands surrounding 1'is^.ih National Game 
Preserve have doubled in value since the estab- 
lishment of the sanctuary, 

A large number of the farmers are thema 
sportsmen and not of the least consideration to 
them, is the provision of ample opportunity for 
the enjoyment of the sport of hunting. 

North Carolina covers are a- good as t hose to 
be found in any state, and proper protection for 
her game will result in providing a stock oi game 
for which the State will be nationally known. 
Her natural opportunities for developing game 
are much brighter than those of some other 
states whose success have already won wide 
recognition. 



i* W -U' 



4 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



MANUFACTURES CENSUS 

MAKING GOOD RATE OF 

PROGRESS AFTER START 



Underway only about a month and a half, the 
Federal biennial census of manufactures for 1927, 
being undertaken this year through this Depart- 
ment in co-operation with the United States 
Bureau of the Census, is progressing steadily. 

Filled in schedules are being received at a rapid 
rate at the Department, and are being reviewed 
and checked under the direction of Fred W. Coil, 
agent of the Census Bureau, in preparation for 
tabulation. 

In order to speed the receipt of the schedules, 
reminder cards are being sent out to all of those 
who have not yet forwarded their schedules and 
each one is being requested to do so as promptly 
as possible in order that a few will not impede 
progress in the enumeration. 

Manufacturers are earnestly requested to fill 
out the schedules completely in order that it will 
not be necessary to pile up the necessary work 
involved in the operations of compiling the sta- 
tistics and to save the additional expense to the 
State and Federal governments. 

The Department again reminds the manufac- 
turers that the schedules are for statistical pur- 
poses only and may not be used in tax compila- 
tions of any description, the regulations of the 
Census Bureau holding them inviolate for the 
specified object. 

Although tabulations have not been started 
in order that an accurate estimate may be made, 
indications point to the continuation of the prog- 
ress that has marked industry in the State for a 
long period. Especial efforts are being extended 
toward making the survey the most complete that 
it is possible to develop in order to draw an 
accurate and vivid picture of the advance of 
the State industrially. 



ATLANTICE COAST LINE 

RAILROAD FOLLOWING 

FOREST CONSERVATION 



Officials of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad 
Company, displaying judgment that reflects a 
State pride and a policy that will rebound 
to the financial interests of property owners along 
its line and will finally result in increased revenue 
for the company as a public carrier, are carrying 
out a forest protection policy. 

As Circular No. 83, the office of Vice-President 
and General Manager has issued instructions to 
all of operating crews and maintenance forces 
which will assure a large degree of forest fire 
protection. 

Among the instructions that the railway com- 
pany has issued are the following: inspection of 
ash pans at the end of each trip to prevent the 
spread of coals; keeping pans closed to prevent 
fire from dropping through ; quenching of clinkers 
thrown from gang-way of locomotive; extinguish- 
ing of burning waste taken from hot boxes; pla- 
carding smoking compartments of passenger 
coaches, calling attention to the danger of throw- 
ing lighted matches, cigars and cigarettes from 
the windows; clearing rights-of-way, station 
grounds, and loading yards of inflammable ma- 
terials; proper burning of rights of way to pre- 
vent spread of fire; guarding of cross ties that 
are being burned; prompt service in extinguish- 
ing fires when accidently started along the rights 
of way. 

This railroad company has, by voluntarily seek- 
ing the conservation of one of the Country's most 
valuable of all natural resources, set an example 
of progressiveness, which will, sooner or later, 
be followed by all progressive companies. Its 
officials realize the economic truth that the earn- 
ing power of a common carrier is based upon the 
ability of its contiguous territory to furnish 
freight for transportation. 



TWO THOUSAND PAIRS 

OF QUAIL TO BE FREED 

IN RESTOCKING EFFORT 



First distribution of game under the direction 
of the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment will be made this year when 2,000 pairs of 
quail will be released in North Carolina covers. 

An order for this number of the birds has been 
placed by Director Wade H. Phillips with a firm 
in Texas, which will be begin shipments as soon 
as they are ready for distribution. 

Director Phillips accompanied the announce- 
ment of the purchase of the quail with a state- 
ment that the distribution will not be made in- 
discriminately, but will be undertaken with the 
greatest care in order to secure the maximum 
results from the stocking efforts. 

Considerations that will be taken in mind in- 
clude the stock that is now on hand in the areas 
that are desired to be replenished, the natural 
adaptability of the territory for the game birds, 
protection that will be given the stock, and op- 
portunities for the public to receive the benefits 
of the increase of game. 

It is the plan of Director Phillips to make the 
distribution of the quail under the direction of 
the Deputy Game and Fish Commissioners, who 
will assist in selecting the areas that are most 
suited to their welfare. 

The distribution of this initial stock of quail 
is but a perliminary to a continuous program of 
restocking depleted North Carolina covers. The 
New State Game Farm to be located on a 100- 
acre strip two miles from Asheboro on Highway 
No. 70 is scheduled to be in operation this year. 
Here it is believed that between 4,000 and 5,000 
of the birds will be propagated annually. 

The same policy of stocking only where the 
best and most economical results may be expected, 
is being planned for the distribution of quail 
raised on the farm. 



NEW FOREST NURSERY 

ESTABLISHED TO MEET 

DEMAND FOR SEEDLINGS 



Purchasing of a tract of nine and a quarter 
acres bordering on State Highway No. 10 about 
one mile west of Clayton, Johnston County, for 
a forest nursery and the beginning of activities 
on the site have made possible a substantial en- 
largement of forest tree production and of refor- 
estation by artificial planting in the State. 

The site was selected because of the adaptibility 
of the soil to forest tree growing and because of 
the educational value of having the nursery face 
what is known* as the "main street" of North 
Carolina where it will be convenient for visits 
from the general public. Under the direction of 
Assistant Forester F. H. Claridge, permanent im- 
provements have already virtually been completed 
at the nursery, beds have been prepared, and 
seeds have been sown in preparation for a new 
crop of seedlings. 

Preparations have been made for the production 
of approximately half a million seedlings next 
year, more than double the estimated output for 
this year. For the future, a progressive plan of 
output has been made which will continue to 
grow in volume until millions of the seedlings 
are made available annually. 

In addition to the regular output, a request 
has been made by a large landowner for advice 
and assistance in rearing 1,000,000 longleaf pine 
seedlings over a period of years. 

Previously, the distribution of seedlings has 
been mostly in small lots and the plantings have 
been mostly experimental in nature, but the de- 
gree of success with which these efforts have 
been met has brought the nursery beyond the 
experimental stage in North Carolina and point 
out a definite need for artificial reforestation 
where the natural reproduction is insufficient be- 
cause of fires and improper logging methods. 



BUNCOMBE SPORTSMEN 

ARE FIRST TO ESTABLISH: 

NURSERY FOR BABY FRY 



At last the trail has been broken for a feature 
of conservation which this Department has striven 
earnestly to develop, and with the beginning 
there is augured a progressive adoption of the 
idea in a general way over the State. 

To the Big Creek Lodge, Buncombe County,, 
goes the honor of establishing the first fish nur- 
sery or rearing ponds that has been established' 
in North Carolina for the purpose of raising 
baby fry from State hatcheries to fingerling size 
before distributing in public fishing waters. 

Word of the preparation of the nursery was 
received in a letter from R. D. Hildebrand, presi- 
dent of the Big Creek Lodge, to J. K. Dixon,. 
Assistant Director and Chief of the Inland Fish- 
eries Division of the Department. 

"We have just built," writes Mr. Hildebrand, 
"a pond by the side of and fed by Rocky Fork 
Creek through an eight-inch pipe, 350 feet by 
260 feet by 2 to 6 feet, emptying into N. Mills 
River. On the north shady bank we have built 
four fingerling pools, 4 feet by 16 feet by 3 
feet, each pool 18 inches lower than one above 
and fed by a two-inch pipe. The pools are lined 
with chestnut lumber and asphalted, and empty 
into a twin pond, the level of which is 12 inches 
lower than the level of the lower pool. 

"We have arranged with C. S. Edmondson, 
brother of your Marion Hacthery Superintendent, 
to feed and care for our fish, and with a local 
packing house to supply beef hearts regularly 
by mail. 

"It is our intention to rear our fingerlings and 
those that our Mills River neighbors are able 
to get to six to eight inches in the pools before 
planting." 

A concerted movement has been launched by 
this Department to seek to have all baby fish 
that are hatched by the State raised to size of 
several inches before they are planted in order 
that stocking efforts may be made successfully 
and efficiently. The example that has been set 
by this organization of sportsmen should encour- 
age others to follow in advancing the program. 



EXHIBIT AT EASTERN FAIR 

WILL STRESS RESOURCES 



Game and forest conservation will be stressed 
in an exhibit which this Department is planning 
to put on at the Eastern North Carolina Exposi- 
tion which will be held in Goldsboro during the 
week beginning April 9. 

This will mark the first time that a game dis- 
play has been attempted by the Department at 
any public event, and plans are being laid by 
Director Wade H. Phillips to present something 
that will demand the interest and attention of all 
persons interested in game and to endeavor to 
arouse enthusiasm among some who have not 
previously been drawn to the value of the con- 
servation of natural resources. 

Full co-operation on the part of the State 
Museum force in assembling the exhibit has been 
assured by H. H. Brimley, Curator. This assist- 
ance will guarantee that something beyond the 
usual will be shown at the exhibit. 

Plans call for a collection of a number of 
specimens of the most prevalent types of game 
in the State and of illustrations showing various 
features of game life. 

The Forestry Division, joining in the prepara- 
tion of the exhibit, will present educational fea- 
tures that will show the destruction caused by 
forest fires, drawing a contrast between areas 
that a burned over and those that are protected 
from the worst enemy of the tree. 



To total taxed wealth of North Carolina in f 
1926 was $2,798,293,601, an increase of $51, 
377,685 over 1925. 



North Carolina State Library 
Raleigh 



CONSERVATION w INDUSTRY 

A Bi- Weekly Publication of the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol. V 



MARCH 1, 1928 



No. 5 



PRODUCTION OF POWER 
REACHES NEW HEIGHTS 
FOR STATE LAST YEAR 

Production of electric energy by power plants 
of North Carolina recorded a greater percentage 
of increase during 1927 than for any year since 
1923, figures compiled by the Water Resources 
Division of this Department show. 

The rate of increase of public utility power 
production in 1927 over the previous year is 
shown to be 20.25 per cent. The output of the 
plants for 1927 totals 2,081,400,000 kilowatt hours 
as compared with 1,730,861,570 in 1926. 

In total output, North Carolina, in 1927 led 
all the other Southern States with West Virginia 
being the closest competitor. Making a compari- 
son of water power output alone, North Caro- 
lina came second to Alabama whose production 
includes that from the great plant at Muscle 
Shoals. In output from steam power alone, North 
Carolina ranks second in the South, being exceed- 
ed only by the great coal-producing state of West 
Virginia. 

The statistics of all output, by water and fuel, 
reveals that the division of North Carolina's pro- 
duction is almost equal. This indicates a well-bal- 
anced system with ample steam reserve to sup- 
plement occasional dry seasons when output from 
water power plants is low. 

An outstanding feature of the developments in 
the power situation in North Carolina is the 
wide distribution of power. The great developed 
power resources are made available over nearly 
the entire area of the State by means of exten- 
sive systems of high and low tension transmission 
lines. 

More than 85 per cent of the counties of the 
State are served by such lines, which signifies 
that in approximately 85 of the 100 North Caro- 
lina counties power is available in sufficient quan- 
tities for manufacturing purposes. 

The Department has just issued in color, a map 
showing in detail the location, ownership, and 
voltage of all power lines and the location, owner- 
ship, and horsepower of all power stations in the 
State. Copies of this map may be obtained at a 
cost of 15 cents each. 

The following table shdws the rate of increase 
of power output in North Carolina for the eight 
years from 1920 to 1928, inclusive: 

Percentage of Increase Over Previous Year 

1920 plus 11.23 

1921 minus 3.82 

1922 plus 30.08 

1923 plus 43.26 

1924 plus 7.8o 

1925 plus 4.4(i 

1926 plus 17.01 

1927 plus 20.25 



A GREAT CAROLINA HYDRO DEVELOPMENT 




An aerial view of the Mountain Island hydro-electric power station of the Southern 
Power system, located on the Catawba River near Charlotte. This plant has a generating 
capacity of 80,000 horsepower. The site, under engineering practices and with apparatus 
in common use then, could have been made to develop only 7,000 horsepower 30 \c-.irs 
ago, according to estimates made at that time. 



SURVEY OF WOOD USES 
BY FEDERAL EXPERTS 
ANNOUNCED FOR STATE 



With the shifting of the center of activities of 
'.he National Committee on Wood Utilization 
from Virginia to North Carolina for a survey in 
.his State after the similar program has been 
completed in the neighboring commonwealth, 
comes promise of a more effective conservation 
of timber. 

Announcement that the Tar Heel State would 
be the scene of the next survey of wood utili/a- 
ion was made recently by Axel H. Oxholm, 
Director of the National Committee, which will 
co-operate with this Department. This will be 
the second State in which a survey has been 
undertaken, Virginia having been first. 

Governor A. W. McLean will serve as hon- 
orary chairman of the sub-committee under whose 
direction the survey will be made; and Reuben 
(Continued on Page 3) 



PRELIMINARY SURVEY 
SHOWS MINERALS ARE 
IN MOST OF COUNTIES 



As a preliminary to a thorough survey of min- 
eral resources of North Carolina to be under- 
taken this summer under the direction of the 
Department of Conservation and Development, 
State Geologist 11. .1 Bryson has compiled a list 
of known commercial deposits in each county of 
the State. 

This list is taken from recorded production at 
the present or during some period in the past, 
The survey this summer will be in the nature of 
a check on the deposit-, a- well a- the compila- 
tion of the most complete information possible 
within a short length oi time. Its primary pur- 
pose is to promote the development of mineral 
opportunities. 

In this work the services of Dr. Jasper L. 
Stuckey. head oi the Department of Geologj of 
< Continued on Page i 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department oi Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



CHANGING GAME ATTITUDE 



Closing of the first seasons for hunting 
under North Carolina's new State-wide 
Game law is an appropriate occasion upon 
which to reflect on its operations and its 
success. 

Nothing signifies the public reception of 
the statute more than the unexpectedly 
large amount of license receipts, which 
have climbed already to more than $190,- 
000 with prospects that the reports for 
the last month ma}' bring them to a 
higher figure. Public opinion and indivi- 
dual responsibility which lead to the pur- 
chase of a license denotes clearly a realiza- 
tion of the importance of the measure 
and the general acceptance of it by the 
public in good spirit. 

The psychological effect upon conserva- 
tionists and the public of a State-wide law 
in the place of numerous county measures 
that were previously in force cannot be 
fully realized except from the fruits of its 
operation, although it may be demon- 
strated partly in many ways. 

Under the old county law, Guilford, as 
a striking illustration, was considered to 
have been doing well to collect $1,800 in 
license fees in a year. Operating under 
the new State law, there has been already 
collected in the county during the first 
year more than $6,000. Other counties 
have set similar records in contrasting their 
local statutes to the State-wide measure. 

Something of the strong psychological 
effect of the new law is brought out by 
W. L. Birsch, United States Deputy Game 
Warden of this district, who declares that 
federal laws and the local migratory wild- 
fowl local law -violations have diminished 
materially during the last seasons. He de- 
clares that fewer reports of violations have 
come to him than have been known in any 
previous year. Post-season shooting of 
water-fowl, formerly reported as general in 
a number of locations, is now almost a 
thing of the past, and the birds are now 
enjoying the protection to which they are 
entitled under the regulations. 

Much of this new interest and sympathe- 
tic feeling for game, he attributes to the 
favorable propaganda resulting from the 
State law. 



A total of 21,625,000 customers are served by 
power companies of the United States, of this 
total 17,700,000 are household users. During last 
year, 1,650,000 customers were added to the lines 
of the operating companies. 



FORESTRY COMMITTEE 
SOUTHERN CONGRESS 
SUGGESTS LEGISLATION 



A series of recommendations, which, it is be- 
lieved, should place forestry on a sound basis 
n all Southern States was made before the re- 
cent Southern Forestery Congress in Louisville, 
Ky., by the Legislative Committee of the organi- 
zation of which Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt is chair- 
man; and of which State Forester J. S. Holmes 
and R. W. Graeber, Extension Forester of North 
Carolina State College, are members. 

First, the report declares that every state 
should furnish sufficient appropriations so that 
all counties may be brought under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Forestry officials, and that the State 
-hould "authorize and direct the counties through 
their designated officers to reimburse the State 
Forestry Department for the cost of fighting and 
extinguishing all forest fires originating within 
their borders." 

Second among the outstanding needs in for- 
estry legislation, the report sets forth, is a modi- 
fication of taxation and assessment laws. "Until 
some more equitable method than now prevails 
in most states is put into force, there is but little 
Incentive to private interests to take up the com- 
mercial cultivation of timber," says the report. 

"It is believed that the State Legislatures should 
authorize and direct the classification of land 
in reference to its assessment and taxation, and 
in those states where a constitutional amendment 
may be necessary to enable the General Assem- 
blies to enact legally such legislation, every en- 
deavor should be made that such a constitutional 
amendment be submitted to the people at the 
earliest possible moment. 

"With such authorization, it is believed that 
forest lands that are to be used for the cultiva- 
tion of timber should be assessed without any 
reference to the standing timber, this assessed 
value of the land to remain until the crops of 
timber or other forest products are harvested. 
When such crops are harvested, the State or its 
subdivisions are to be reimbursed a certain per 
cent (perhaps ten per cent) of the value of the 
forest products harvested. Lands that are listed 
to be classified as forest lands should, when ac- 
cepted as such, automatically bind the owner in a 
contract to maintain these areas until the trees 
have come to maturity and are ready to be cut. 

"If it becomes necessary for any reason, such 
as for industrial purposes or otherwise, to clear 
the forested area, the State or its sub-divisions 
are to be re-imbursed a sum equal to an annual 
tax on the land at its real value of land and for- 
est, or a stipulated annual amount to be agreed 
upon at the time of classification." 

Other features of legislation that are advo- 
cated by the committee include: authorization 
and direction of reforestation, to include when 
necessary the planting of seeds and seedlings over 
denuded and devastated areas; establishment of 
State nurseries to supply citizens with seedlings 
at a moderate price for reforesting abandoned 
farm lands that should be brought back into 
forests; acquisition of forest areas for State For- 



U. S. BUREAU FISHERIES 
DECIDES ON REOPENING 
OF HATCHERY FOR ROCK 



Decision of the United States Bureau of Fish- 
eries to re-establish the old striped bass (rock) 
hatchery near Weldon sheds a ray of hope that 
the industry on the Roanoke River, formerly of 
large proportions built around this choice food 
fish, may again be restored to its former extent. 

The purpose of the Federal Bureau, according 
to word received by Assistant Director J. K. 
Dixon, is to operate the hatchery this year as an 
experiment, and upon this test to base its decision 
as to a permanent policy. The hatchery this 
year will be in a temporary shed, and later, if 
the results are satisfactory, a permanent location 
will be chosen. 

1923, the operation of the hatchery was dis- 
continued because of the pollution of the Roan- 
oke River with industrial wastes that rendered 
useless the releasing of baby fish in its waters. 
Preliminary investigations that have been made 
lately indicate that this situation has been re- 
medied, to some extent at least, and it is be- 
cause of this belief that the hatchery operations 
are to be resumed on a temporary basis until 
the study of the situation determines the definite 
situation. 

Another obstacle to the operation of the hatch- 
ery was removed recently when fishermen of the 
vicinity agreed to furnish striped bass eggs for 
the hatchery at a price that will allow its opera- 
tion on a economical basis. This pledge was made 
by an assembly of fishermen after the proposi- 
tion was placed before them by Assistant Director 
J. K. Dixon. 

Meanwhile investigation of the sanitary con- 
dition of the Roanoke River by engineers of the 
Board of Health and this Department will con- 
tinue, and it is hoped that it will be found that 
the pollution conditions will be found to have 
been remedied. 

The Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment is to co-operate in the operation of the 
hatchery, and hopes to see the industry restored 
to the proportions which it formerly enjoyed. 

DEPUTY COMMISSIONER 

SUFFERS FROM BAD ANKLE 



Friends over the State and in many parts of 
the country have been grieved to learn of the 
misfortune of Deputy Game and Fish Commis- 
sioner George A. Nicoll, New Bern, who has been 
suffering for several weeks from an infected foot. 

For some time Deputy Commissioner Nicoll 
has been forced to get about with the aid of 
crutches, having been without the use of his 
infected leg. He has recently made a trip to 
Baltimore for an examination by specialists, and 
is now recovering the use of his foot. 



ests, maintaining these forests in the interest of 
the future supply of timber and for the pro- 
tection of watersheds; enactment of suitable stat- 
utes to remove railroad fire hazards; full co- 
operation of highway authorities and construc- 
tion contractors; and the exemption of wardens 
and patrolmen from jury duty so that they may 
be available for fire fighting at all times. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



PRELIMINARY SURVEY 

SHOWS MINERALS ARE 

IN MOST OF COUNTIES 

(Continued from Page 1) 
State College, Raleigh, and former State Geolo- 
gist; Dr. C. F. Greaves- Walker, professor of Ce- 
ramic Engineering, State College; and Harry T. 
Davis, curator of Geology of the State Museum, 
have been offered. These experts will work with 
the minerals upon which tfiey have specialized, 
and State Geologist Bryson will take those min- 
erals not included within their divisions for the 
survey. 

Plans of the survey are to set out as much in 
detail as possible the amount of available min- 
erals, their conditions in the native state, and 
the opportunities for development according to 
counties. 

The preliminary tabulation by Geologist Bry- 
son shows the known mineral resources in each 
county. His investigation reveals that 82 out 
of the 100 counties are producing some species 
of mineral in commercial quantities at the pres- 
ent time or have in the past. The tabulation of 
resources by counties follows: 

Alamance, brick, clay, granite; Alexander, 
granite, hiddenite, emerald; Alleghany, manga- 
ese, iron ore; Anson, sand and gravel, quartz, 
brick clay^ Ashe, iron ore, soapstone, copper, gold 
and silver, asbestos; Avery, feldspar, iron ore, 
mica, asbestos; Bertie, brick and tile clays; Bla- 
den, brick clay; Buncombe, granite, potter clay, 
sand and gravel, feldspar, mica, kaolin clay, cyan- 
ite; Burke, brick and tile clay, gold; Cabarrus, 
brick and tile clays, gold; Caldwell, brick and 
tile clay; Carteret, sand; Caswell, granite; Ca- 
tawba, pottery clay, sand and gravel, mica; 
Chatham, brick and tile clay, coal; Cherokee, 
iron ore, manganese, marble; Clay, kaolin, corun- 
dum, spinel, garnet, nickel, copper, sillimanite, 
olivine; Cleveland, brick and tile clays, mica; 
Columbus, brick and tile clays; Craven, brick and 
tile clays, limestone and marl, sand and gravel; 
Cumberland, brick and tile clays, sand and gravel ; 
Davidson, brick and tile clays, granite, gold, cop- 
per; Durham, brick and tile clays, granite; For- 
syth, brick and tile clay, granite, sand and gravel; 
Franklin, gold; Gaston, brick and tile clays, tin 
ore; Granville, copper, iron ore; Graham, copper; 
Guilford, brick, tile and pottery clays; Halifax, 
brick and tile clays; Harnett, brick and tile clays, 
sand and gravel; Haywood, feldspar, mica kao- 
lin, iron ore; Henderson, brick and tile clays, ball 
clay, granite, limestone, sand and gravel; Iredell, 
brick and tile clays, gold; Jackson, corundum, 
kaolin, feldspar, granite, mica, nickel, olivene; 
Johnston, brick and tile clays, Jones, limestone 
and marl; Lee, brick and tile clays, coal and 
sandstone; Lenoir, brick and tile clays; 
Lincoln, pottery clay, tin ore; McDowell, gra- 
phite, kaolin; Macon, mica, kaolin, feld- 
spar; Madison, limestone, talc, iron ore, 
shale; Mecklenburg, granite, sand and gravel, 
gold; Mitchell, feldspar, koalin, mica, quartz, 
cyanite; Montgomery, brick, tile and pottery- 
clays, sand and gravel, gold, volcanic ash ; Moore, 
sand and gravel, pyrophyllitc, volcanic ash, brick 
and tile clays; Nash, brick and tile clays, granite; 
New Hanover, limestone and marl; Northamp- 
ton, sand and gravel ; Onslow, limestone and marl ; 



GOSSETT OF CHARLOTTE 

FILLS M'CLAREN PLACE 

ON DEPARTMENT BOARD 



To succeed H. L. McClaren, Chairman of the 
Division of Commerce and Industry of the De- 
partment Board, Governor A. W. McLean has 
named Ben B. Gossett, of Charlotte, a leading 
manufacturer of the State. 

Mr. Gossett is head of the Chadwick-Hoskins 
chain of cotton mills in Charlotte and elsewhere. 

The new chairman of the Commerce and In- 
dustry Division of the Department is a native 
of South Carolina, but has resided in this State 
for a number of years. He is a director of the 
Textile Institute of the United States and a mem- 
ber of the Board of Directors of the American 
Trust Company, Charlotte. 

As successor to Mr. McClaren, Mr. Gossett will 
take up the wide development work which is 
being carried out by the Department's Division 
among which are the taking of the first State- 
directed federal biennial census; studies of the 
economic conditions of the State, especially re- 
garding the opportunities for exploitation of 
natural resources; and the extension of com- 
merce. 

Mr. Gossett brings to the Board the advantage 
of a broad and successful career, which augurs 
for a continuation of the program which has 
only been under way for a few months. 

The retirement of Mr. McClaren came about 
through resignation, when he removed his resi- 
dence from Charlotte to Racine, Wis., after he 
was elected to the presidency of the Ajax Tire 
Company, which was merged with the McClaren 
Rubber Company, a firm of his own creation 
which had made an outstanding success. 



HOOVER THANKS McLEAN 

FOR INTEREST IN WORK 



Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce, ex- 
presses his hearty appreciation of the interest 
that Governor A. W. McLean is taking in the 
wood utilization survey that will be made in 
North Carolina by the National Committee on 
Wood Utilization. 

In a recent letter to Governor McLean, Sec- 
retary Hoover writes: "I greatly appreciate the 
interest which you are taking in the work of the 
National Committee on Wood Utilization since 
the efficient utilization of wood is the keynote 
to reforestation on a commercial scale." 



Orange, granite, brick clay, Pasquotank, brick 
clay; Pender, brick clay; Person, iron, copper, 
brick clay; Pitt, brick clay; Polk, kaolin, feld- 
spar; Randolph, brick clay, gold; Richmond, 
brick clay, kaolin, volcanic ash; Robeson, brick 
clay, sand; Rockingham, brick clay, granite; 
Rowan, brick and tile clays, granite, millstones, 
gold and copper; Rutherford, brick clay, sand 
and gravel, granite, mica, gold; Sampson, brick 
clay, sand and gravel, limestone; Scotland, sand 
and gravel; Stanly, brick and Tile shale; Stokes, 
brick day, iron ore; Surry, brick and tile clays, 
granite; Swain, copper, limestone, talc; Transyl- 
vania, manganese; Union, brick and tile, clay, 
gold; Vance, Granite; Wake, granite, graphite; 
Warren, gold, brick clays; Washington, brick and 
tile clays; Watauga, asbestos, talc; Wayne, brick 
and tile clay; Wilkes, brick, tile and pottery 
clays; Wilson, granite; Yadkin, limestone; Yan- 
cey, feldspar, kaolin, mica, cyanite, beryl, chro- 
mite, iron ore. 



SURVEY OF WOOD USES 

BY FEDERAL EXPERTS 

ANNOUNCED FOR STATE 



(Continued from Page Ij 
B. Robertson, president of the Champion Fibre 
Co., Canton, is made active chairman. Governor 
McLean has given his whole-hearted endorsement 
of the project, and has predicted that the work 
will stimulate the development of auxiliary wood- 
using industries which would turn formerly wast- 
ed materials into articles of commercial value. 

Two direct effects may be expected from the 
researches of the committee — a closer utilization 
of products that have formerly yone to waste 
and a useless drain on forest resources and the 
promotion and encouragement of industries for 
the utilization of scrap, saw dust and other 
materials that have hitherto been considered to 
have little, if any commercial value. 

Results of both of these effects should be the 
emphasizing of forest conservation and the neces- 
sity for the adoption and pursuit of policies that 
will insure a supply of timber for the future. 

Mr. Oxholm began his work with Wood Utili- 
zation Committee by emphasizing the belief that 
sound forestry practice would not become gen- 
eral and reforestation effective until the landowner 
becomes fully convinced that to do so will mean 
dollars and cents to him. In this belief, the utili- 
zation chairman is joined by all students of for- 
estry practices. Stress in forestry, which for some 
time and from many sources, has been upon sen- 
timental value of trees and forests; but with the 
inauguration of the program of the committee 
the economic side has been emphasized more than 
ever, especially in the light of developments that 
have grown out of its studies. 

Instead of the past wasteful practice of pro- 
claiming by discard that a great part of the tree, 
sometimes as much as half, is useless; it is the 
purpose of the survey to show that every part 
can be used for some purpose and to aid in point- 
ing out specifically some of the processes that 
may be pursued in utilizing portions that have 
been burned or thrown in heaps to remain as 
fire hazards or as reminders of extravagant waste. 

The creation of the Utilization Committee is 
the crystalization of the belief that some definite 
means must be taken to meet the disparity be- 
tween the production of timber and its use in 
this country. Forestry students estimate that 
under the existing careless methods of logging, 
ravages of fires, and ineffective utilization of tim- 
ber that the use of timber in the United States 
is four times the rate of production 

Trees that are used must be made to fill more 
uses and more must be produced unless America 
is to become timber poor and have to import 
most of the supply. 

The work that is to be undertaken by the com- 
mittee deserves the active support oi every u>cr 
of wood. Governor McLean has addressed all 
of these concerns, requesting that they co-oper- 
ate in every way possible. 



The percentage of mortgaged farms in North 

Carolina in 192S was lo.;. while for the entire 
United States it was 36.1. Dare was at the head 
of the list among all of the Counties, reporting 
none of its farms as being mortgaged. 



4 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



FOREIGN COMMERCE WILL 

BE PROMOTED BY DISTRICT 

OFFICE OF TRADE BUREAU 



Coming at a time in which North Carolina 
manufacturers are more interested than ever in 
extension of the markets for their products and 
at the greatest period of industrial expansion in 
which the State is leading an awakened South, 
the importance of the establishment of a district 
office of the United States Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce in the State has a magnified 
significance. 

Word has just been received through the press 
that Charlotte has been selected as the location 
of the office. 

The trade interests of the State will be mater- 
ially helped by aid that will be furnished through 
the medium of the experts connected with its 
operations. 

In the first place, the office will be opened 
with files that list all of the principal buyers of 
commodities produced in North Carolina as 
well as names and addresses of prospective agents 
for concerns desiring to open new fields for their 
wares. These files will also contain complete 
sets of trade reports covering the principal man- 
ufactures of the State. 

The North Carolina office will furnish directly 
to commercial interests all of the services that 
are offered through the corps of foreign and 
domestic trade experts in Washington and the 
field force of the organizations which extends into 
all parts of the world. The trade bureau will 
offer technical advice on such specialized services 
as transportation, packing, foreign tariffs, foreign 
consular and customs regulations, commercial 
law, commercial intelligence and other subjects. 

Dr. Julius Klein, director of the federal bureau, 
declares that examination of trade statistics of 
the United States for 1926 reveals that North 
Carolina ranked 20th among the states in impor- 
tance of foreign trade, with an export trade val- 
ued at $62,553,232. He suggests the following 
commodities as among those that will benefit from 
the establishment of the trade office: leaf tobacco, 
cotton yarn, thread and cordage, cotton* cloth 
and hosiery. Profitable export markets, he thinks, 
could be established for cotton mill waste, lumber, 
machinery, vegetable-food products and other 
Tar Heel articles. 

The local office will furnish virtually any type 
of trade information for manufacturers and trade 
interests that is obtainable through the corps of 
experts in Washington or the more than 1,000 
representatives of the Bureau in foreign coun- 
tries. It is the purpose of the Federal Bureau 
to extend the benefits of the knowledge and ex- 
perience of its trade experts so that it will be of 
the most wide-spread service possible. 

About a year ago H. L. McCIaren, at that 
time Chairman of the Committee of Commerce 
and Industry of the Department Board, and 
Director Wade H. Phillips, backed by a letter 
from Governor A. W. McLean, called upon Sec- 
retary of Commerce Herbert Hoover to request 



AWAKENING OF PUBLIC 
CONSCIENCE TOWARD 
WOODS IS NECESSARY 



What goal in the line of molding of public 
sentiment toward forest fires do the State Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development and other 
agencies concerned with the prevention of forest 
fires hope to attain? 

Assistant State Forester W. C. McCormick, who 
has charge of fire prevention activities of the 
Forestry Division, sums up this ideal in a paper 
delivered before the American Forest Association 
at St. Louis on February 18. 

"Unquestionably the one solution of the exist- 
ing forest fire situation," says Assistant Forester 
McCormick, "in the Southeastern States is edu- 
cating the public in forest fire prevention. 

"The goal we are all striving toward is to create 
with the public the same attitude toward forest 
fires as now exists toward a burning building in 
a city. Rarely does the city fire gain much head- 
way before someone is attracted by the odor of 
smoke or sees the flame, and immediately turns 
in an alarm. 

"Such action on the part of the public is not 
because it does not enjoy seeing a building burn- 
ed; it is not done wholly in an attempt to save 
human life or valuable property; but it is mainly 
human instinct. It flashes to the average mind 
immediately that here is something that should 
not occur and instinctively first aid is rendered 
by reporting it. 

"To bring about this attitude toward forest 
fires, we must instill into the public mind the 
thought that a forest fire is to the timberland 
owner, the farmer, the community, and nation 
what a city fire is to the property owner, city 
dweller and the city itself; and to accomplish 
this, every available means must be employed and 
the assistance of all agencies enlisted in putting 
over an educational campaign aimed at this re- 
sult. 

"In approaching these agencies to enlist their 
aid, it is necessary to do so in a manner most 
appealing to them. The lumberman must be 
approached from an angle that will prove clearly 
to him that forest fire control means financial 
gain ; that after cutting his mature timber he 
must protect the young growth for future timber 
crops that he may remain in business. The 
aesthetic, the watershed, and the recreational val- 
ues mean little or nothing to the average lumber- 
man. Timber to him represents a bank account, 
ordinarily nothing more. 

"The city dweller who occasionally fishes, 
hunts, or picnics in the woods must be approach- 
ed from the aesthetic, sporting, and recreational 
angle. To many living in the cities and larger 
towns, timber values from a money standpoint 
are unknown and of little interest." 



DEPARTMENT PREPARES 

STANDARDIZED PLANS 

OYSTER SHUCKING PLANT 



that the district office be established in North 
Carolina. At that time they were virtually given 
the assurance that it would be set up, the main 
question being one of obtaining sufficient appro- 
priation from Congress. 



Because of its desire to render the fullest ser- 
vice in sanitary oversight of the oyster industry 
and to those engaged therein, the Division of 
Commercial Fisheries of the Department of Con- 
servation and Development has drawn up plans 
for the construction of standard oyster shucking 
plants. 

The work was done by T. R. McCrea, Sanitary 
Engineer of the State Health Department, who 
has been assigned to this Department in shell- 
fish sanitation work. 

The provision of the plans for standard plants 
comes after a number of requests from firms 
that have outgrown their old plants and desire 
to construct more commodious ones that will 
meet the demands of their trade and all scientific 
and sanitary requirements. 

Demand for larger quarters on the part of Tar 
Heel plants is a reflection of the spreading mar- 
kets for the oysters. Mr. McCrea declares that 
consumers from within the State who have for- 
merly been content with purchasing shellfish from 
North Carolina waters that had been reshipped 
from outside points are now demanding local 
oysters. 

As the basis of one of the largest industries in 
the State that is dependent on natural resources, 
the Tar Heel oyster meets all requirements as 
to sanitation, nutritiousness, and palatibility and 
markets of the State deserve the support of the 
consumers. 



LICENSES ARE REQUIRED 

FOR ALL TYPES FISHING 

IN 15 MOUNTAIN COUNTIES 



With the time drawing rapidly near at hand 
for the opening of fishing season, an inventory 
shows that requirements for a license for any 
method of fishing in trout streams are in effect 
in fifteen of the mountain counties of North 
Carolina. 

Extension of the license requirement was made 
in the fifteen counties under authority of Section 
13 of the angler's license law passed by the last 
General Assembly, which says, "The Board of 
Conservation and Development shall have the 
power on petition of the County Commissioners 
from any county for good cause shown to extend 
the provisions of this act to other methods of 
taking fish, including the power to require a 
license fee therefor: Provided, this section shall 
only apply to trout streams." 

Those counties in which this extension has 
been made include: Madison, Clay, Graham, 
Mitchell, Surry, Jackson, Haywood, Avery, Bun- 
combe, Alleghany, Wilkes, Ashe, Transylvania, 
Watauga and Swain. 

Primarily, the purpose of the extension of the 
license requirement is to raise additional revenue 
with which to carry on the broad program of 
restocking the fishing waters, which is made pos- 
sible because of the operation of fish hatcheries. 
Four of the five State hatcheries are located in 
this section and their output is released in the 
waters of the surrounding territory. 

It is hoped that all of the mountain counties 
will join the majority that have already done so 
and accept this part of the responsibility for 
creating more attractive fishing conditions in their 
sections. 



CONSERVATION ^ INDUSTRY 

A Bi-Weekly Publication of the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol. V 



MARCH 15, 1928 



No. 6 



POWER DEVELOPMENT 
FOR 1927 KEEPS HIGH 
STANDARD FOR STATE 



Total electric power developments in opera- 
tion in North Carolina at the beginning of 1028 
amounted to 1,173,610 horsepower, according to 
figures compiled by the Water Resources Division 
of the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment. 

Of the combined total, 609,822 horsepower were 
hydro developments and 563,788 were steam. 
However, in compiling the figures on waterpower 
development, the United States Geological Sur- 
vey includes the Santeetlah plant of the Tallassee 
Power Company which goes into operation this 
month. This plant has a capacity of 66,000 
horsepower, giving North Carolina a total, in 
round numbers of 675,000 horsepower. 

Among the states east of the Mississippi River, 
New York alone, with her great Niagara devel- 
opment, exceeds the 675,000 of North Carolina 
in developed water power. In the entire coun- 
try, only New York, California, and Oregon pass 
this State in this respect. 

Position Assured 

"That this important position which North 
Carolina occupies as a great water power state 
is likely to be maintained," says a report of the 
Department's Water Resources Division, "is in- 
dicated by the extent of the new projects now 
under construction, totaling some 295,000 H. P. 
Of these the plants at Norwood on the Yadkin, 
at Oxford Shoals on the Catawba, and at San- 
teetlah on the Cheoah, totaling 205,000 H. P. will 
be in operation by the late spring of this year. 

"The great plant of the Carolina Power and 
Light Company on the Pigeon River in Haywood 
County, near the Tennessee State line, will not 
be completed until 1929, and will add 90,000 H. 
P. then with an ultimate capacity of some 135,- 
000 H. P. This plant is of particular interest 
as differing from all existing hydro-electric pro- 
jects in the State in its type of development. 

"All the major water power developments in 
the State have heretofore been constructed on 
the larger streams in the Piedmont region, and 
dependent on producing a fall entirely by the 
construction of dams from 50 to 200 feel in 
height. The Pigeon River development makes 
use of a relatively small mountain river, but by 
diverting it through a tunnel in the mountains 
over four miles long, causes the water to fall 
down the mountain sides through steel pipes to 
a power house far removed from the dam, there- 
by developing a total fall of 861 feet, the greatest 
(Continued on Page 3) 



PROPOSED CEMENT PLANT 







■ .' ■'-MuMhi* 



Several weeks ago, the Carolina Cement Company was organized for the purpose of 
beginning the production of Portland cement in North Carolina. The above is the 
architect's conception of the proposed plant. A site near New Bern has been selected; 
construction has been started on the office building; and spur lines are being placed. 
Plans have been made by the company to start operations during the year. The plant is 
to have a capacity of one and a half million barrels of the material annually. 



GEOLOGIST STUDYING 
POTTERY INDUSTRIES 
FROM STATE'S ANGLE 



A definite move to obtain plants for the man- 
ufacture of white or china ware in North Caro- 
lina has been started. State Geologist H. J. Bry- 
son and E. B. Rogers, industrial engineer of the 
Greensboro Chamber of Commerce start March 
17 on a tour of inspection of centers of produc- 
tion and to visit concerns that are interested. 

Their visit will take them into the East Liver- 
pool district and other points in Ohio where the 
production of these materials is centered. Offi- 
cials of several of these companies have requested 
that the advantages to be offered for the industry 
be placed before them, and their attitude is said 
to be favorable. 

The trip of Geologist Bryson and Mr. Rogers 
will extend over about ten days, during which 
time they will inspect thoroughly the various 
plants and their processes, 

As a center of production and the most import- 
ant source of several ingredients used in the 
white ware compositions. North Carolina is be- 
(Conlinucd on Page 3) 



OUTPUT OF INDUSTRY 
LAST YEAR INDICATES 
GREATER ACTIVITIES 



Indications from the biennial census of manu- 
factures which is now being taken by the United 
States Bureau of Census in co-operation with the 
Division of Commerce and Industry of the De- 
partment of Conservation and Development arc- 
that the value of manufactured articles produced 
in North Carolina during 1927 will show an in- 
crease of at least 20 per cent over the previous 
enumeration of 1925. 

Although no definite figures are obtainable at 
this time since no tabulations have been made, the 
face of the returns appears to reveal a substan- 
tial increase in manufacturing activities. 

A larue part of this increase is noted from new 
concerns that have been established during the 
interim of two years, while main of the estab- 
lished plants have added to their capacities. 

Approximately 2.500 schedules have been re- 
turned to the Department since the beginning of 
the census early in the year, and the number now 
coming in is continuing in a heavy volume. It 

(Continued on Page '• 



^™»"" 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



FISHERIES STUDIES 



A report of the United States Bureau 
of Fisheries, issued recently, carries a 
mass of interesting information, most 
of which is of particular interest in North 
Carolina because of the great commercial 
fishing grounds and the extensive game 
fishing opportunities. 

Concerning the scallop, the report says, 
"The scallop investigations in North Caro- 
lina, begun in July, 1925, by J. S. Gutsell, 
have been continued through 1926. Spec- 
ial emphasis has been laid on spawning, 
growth, and longevity. 

"Spawning has been found to begin in 
the spring (if, indeed, it ceases at all 
through any season) and to continue to the 
end of the year. However, there is ac- 
cumulating evidence, chiefly from the col- 
lections of small scallops, that the princi- 
pal spawning occurs over a shorter period, 
beginning in early fall or late summer and 
extending through the fall, perhaps into 
the winter. 

"New methods of collecting small scal- 
lops and of examining the collected mater- 
ial have given greatly improved results for 
this as for other aspects of the work, so 
that good evidence throughout 1926 is an- 
ticipated. 

"Growth data that show remarkable 
homogeneity of size grouping indicate an 
increase in length from one and one-half 
inches in May to about three inches 
in the next fall or winter. Commercial 
destruction of scallops at Pivers Island and 
other known sources of supply in February, 
1926, prevented extension of knowledge of 
later growth and normal longevity. These 
problems we hope to solve during the com- 
ing year. 

"On advice of the investigator, some 
modification of the scallop season by the 
State authorities already has been made. 
It is hoped that when the present studies 
are completed, or sufficiently advanced, de- 
tailed recommendations of practical value 
may be made available to the State Board 
which has taken an active interest and to 
which thanks are due for co-operation." 



TIGHTENING OF GAME 
LAW ENFORCEMENT IS 
SCHEDULED THIS YEAR 



Greater stress on game law enforcement as 
the fundamental measure of conservation of bird 
and animal life seems to the order of administra- 
tion for the coming season, according to plans 
discussed by Director Wade H. Phillips with Dep- 
uty Game and Fish Commissioners at the third 
of such conferences held at Raleigh recently. 

Under the contemplated plan, full-time war- 
dens for every county in the State are being con- 
sidered as a prerequisite. The County Wardens 
would also be relieved of the duty of issuing 
licenses, and instead this work would be assigned 
to specialized centralized agencies in each of the 
counties. 

Another idea of the proposed plan is to econo- 
mize on details in the office of Assistant Director 
J. K. Dixon where license records are kept. It 
involves placing the responsibility, outside of that 
prescribed in the law as the duty of Clerks of 
Superior court, with one central agency in each 
county, leaving with this agent the option of ex- 
tending the selling privileges to other sources for 
which he would be responsible. During last year, 
the first of the operation of the law, there were 
upwards of 400 agencies or individuals who were 
authorized to issue the permits, but the new sys- 
tem would make a smaller number responsible 
and relieve much of the expensive and exacting 
detail of checking. 

Commissioners Agree 

These proposals of changes for the next sea- 
son's operation met the general approval of 
the Deputy Commissioners as providing a more 
effective and economical system of operation. 

After discussing at some length various propo- 
sals for changes in seasons, it was decided by the 
conference that the wiser policy would be for 
each Deputy Commissioner to take with him a 
tabulated copy of these suggestions and to make 
a thorough study of any possible needs before 
another conference scheduled for some undecided 
date in May. This assembly will precede the 
scheduled meeting of the Board of Conservation 
and Development in June and will give ample 
time in which to formulate definite recommenda- 
tions to be placed before this body. 

W. L. Birsch, United States Deputy Game War- 
den of this District, a guest at the conference, 
thanked the Department and all Deputy Com- 
missioners heartily for the support and assistance 
in the enforcement of federal game regulations. 

Warden Birsch declared that he has observed 
a most striking change in attitude of the gen- 
eral public toward game conservation since the 
enactment of the State Game Law. Formerly, 
he asserted, post-season hunting was general, but 
now the sound of guns are hushed with the end 
of the legally prescribed limit of hunting. He 
also expressed thanks of the United States Biolo- 
gical Survey for the work of State Game offi- 
cials in assisting to stop the wholesale slaughter 
of robins at the great roosts in the Piedmont 
region for several weeks in the winter. 



UTILIZATION SURVEY 
OF WOOD INDUSTRIES 
LAUNCHED IN STATE 



With preliminary preparations virtually com- 
pleted, word is received from Axel H. Oxholm, 
Director of the National Committee on Wood 
Utilization of the Department of Commerce, that 
the survey of available non-utilized wood which 
has been planned in co-operation with the De- 
partment of Conservation and Development, will 
start immediately. 

This announcement is also accompanied by a 
list of ten representives of principal forest pro- 
ducts industries who will comprise the special 
committee directing the survey. 

Governor A. W. McLean has been given the 
position of honorary chairman of the committee. 
This distinction is given to Governor McLean 
not only as a mark of respect for the high office 
which he holds, but because of his active interest 
in the approaching study. 

Reuben B. Robertson, president of the Champ- 
ion Fibre Co., Canton, who will represent the 
pulp and paper industry, will serve as active 
chairman. Other members of the committee are: 
W. M. Ritter, Washington, D. C, and W. F. 
Bancker, New York, representing the lumber 
manufacturers; Dulaney Logan, Louisville, Ky., 
representing manufacturers of fibre containers; 
George F. Cosgrove, Owosso, Mich., consulting 
engineer; W. Brown Morgan, New Orleans, rep- 
resenting manufacturers of wood containers; J. 
C. Carlin, Nashville, representing the wood chem- 
ical industry; C. P. Setter, Cattaraugus, N. Y., 
representing plywood and veneer manufacturers; 
A. L. McBean, Park Falls, Wis., representing pro- 
ducers of small dimension lumber; and Charles 
N. Perrin, Buffalo, N. Y., representing distribu- 
tors. 

Industries Established 

According to the announcement by Mr. Oxholm 
the first survey of the kind that will be made ir 
North Carolina, which is now being completec 
in Virginia, is expected to promote the establish-; 
ment of industries which will utilize material: 
which have formerly found their end in th< 
waste pile or wound up in the waste fire heap. 

Information from which tabulations of non 
utilized raw timber materials will be gatherei 
by means of questionnaires sent to all plants ii 
the State having a surplus of the materials fo 
disposal. After the receipt of the questionnaires 
all data gathered therefrom will be compiled i: 
tabular form. 

"This survey," says Mr. Oxholm, "is considere 
of utmost importance in the closer utilization c 
wood, which is a necessary plan if we are t| 
promote reforestation to supply our future an; 
ever-growing requirements of wood. Its succef 
depends entirely upon the willingness of the recij 
ients of the questionnaire in North Carolina t 
supply the requisite information. A return < 
almost eighty per cent was received from the Vi 
ginia questionnaire, and it is hoped that the Nort 
Carolina survey will attain an equally satisfacto 
figure." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



POWER DEVELOPMENT 

FOR 1927 KEEPS HIGH 

STANDARD FOR STATE 

(Continued from Page 1) 
of any large water power development in Eastern 
United States. 

Great Potential Power 

"In connection with the future water power 
developments in the State, it is interesting to note 
that the United States Geological Survey" places 
North Carolina first of all the Southern States 
in potential power, and second only to New York 
of States east of the Mississippi." 

A table prepared by the Water Resources Divis- 
ion, shows the following distribution of water- 
power developments in operation or under con- 
struction: 

Per Cent 

Tallassee Power Company 37.92 

Duke Power Company 30.84 

Carolina Power and Light Company 24. SO 

Manufacturing plants 3.98 

Miscellaneous private companies 1.04 

Virginia Electric and Power Company 0.86 

Municipal plants 0.86 

Total 100.00 

"It will doubtless cause some surprise that 
steam power developments total nearly as much 
as water power developments now in operation; 
563,788 H. P. in steam as compared with 609,822 
H. P. in water power," says the Division of Water 
Resources. 

"This arises from the fact that none of the 
water power plants can operate continuously at 
full capacity, due to seasonal fluctuations in 
stream flow, and that reserve steam power plants 
must be available for periods of extreme drought. 
Hence the increase in power demand which neces- 
sitates new hydro plants requires along with it 
the construction of new steam plants. The econ- 
omy in the construction of hydro plants results 
largely from the much lower cost of operation 
than the steam plants, for the latter are often 
cheaper in the first cost." 

Steam power plants now in operation as shown 
by the Division to be distributed as follows: 

Per Cent 

Manufacturing plants 44.20 

Duke Power Company 34.40 

Carolina Power and Light Company-., 11.70 

Municipal plants 6.20 

Tidewater Power Company 2.70 

Virginia Electric and Power Company 0.80 

Total 100.00 

"The larger proportion of the total power in 
manufacturing plants is due to two causes. The 
first is that numerous manufacturing plants main- 
tain a reserve steam station in case of failure of 
the public utility supply. The second is that 
many manufacturing plants find it cheaper to 
generate all or a part of their power by their 
own steam plants rather than to purchase elec- 
tric energy beacause of uses for steam in the man- 
ufacturing processes. In such cases the steam 
is first used to produce power and then is deliv- 
ered for process use and hence does a double duty. 
"The relative position of municipal steam 
plants will be noted to be much higher than mu- 
nicipal hydro plants. This is due to the fact that 
1 these steam plants are nearly all located in the 
j eastern section of the State, which, until recently, 



GEOLOGIST STUDING 

POTTERY INDUSTRIES 

FROM STATES ANGLE 



(Continued from Page, 1) 
licved to offer exceptional opportunities for the 
manufacture of this commodity. The mix of 
which the china ware is made up consists of parts 
kaolin and feldspar in which North Carolina holds 
the undisputed lead in production, quartz or 
silica, and ball clay. 

Preparations are being made in the Spruce 
Pine district to develop the production of quartz 
or silica on a large scale, and reports have been 
made recently of the discovery of a large deposit 
of ball clay in Henderson County by the Moland- 
Drysdale Company. Tests are now being run to 
determine the suitability of these materials in 
white ware bodies. So far they are declared 
to be promising for their utilization in these pro- 
cesses. 

A close study of the china-ware industry has 
already been made by Mr. Rogers and Geologist 
Bryson. Freight rates, supplies of the raw ma- 
terials, and climatic conditions which would affect 
the production of china ware have been investi- 
gated, and as a whole have been found to be 
favorable toward the development of the indus- 
try. Efforts are now being made to ascertain 
the amount of these wares that are used in North 
Carolina as a test of market possibilities. 



IMPROVEMENTS MADE 

AROUND FOREST TOWER 

Seeking the greatest public service from the 
series of forest towers that are being constructed 
over the State, the Department is carrying out 
a program to bring a realization of this purpose. 

The improvements that are to be made around 
the towers consist of landscaping, planting of 
grass, provision of parking places, construction 
of tables, and the propagation of typical forest 
trees. 

The new Palestine lookout in Cumberland 
County is to be a model of public utility for 
the various units in the system. This tower is 
situated on a plot of ground measuring between 
one-third and one-half an acre. A road has al- 
ready been graded from the State highway to 
the tower site and the grounds are being pre- 
pared for utility and service. 

It is the plan of the forest officials to con- 
struct a circular roadway around the base of the 
tower, to provide parking space just outside of 
this circle, and to plant grass in the rest of the plot 
so that it will be available for picnicking parties. 
The towers are open to the public at all times 
in order that visitors may have the privilege of 
climbing to the top and viewing the landscape 
from the air. Similar plans to those to be used 
at Palestine are contemplated for al! of the 
tower sites. 



has been quite devoid of high tension transmission 
lines of the large public utility power companies. 
"A number of these municipal plants are quite 
as efficient in producing power as the public ultil- 
ity sources and a healtheir competition in power 
service would result if the municipal plants were 
required to operate under the same State juris- 
diction as the public utility companies. The 
present strenuous efforts of public utility com- 
panies to absorb some of these municipal plants, 
offering to purchase them at prices far in advance 
of the actual plant valuation, is also a matter 
which should be of some public concern." 



OUTPUT OF INDUSTRY 

LAST YEAR INDICATES 

GREATER ACTIVITIES 

(Continued from Page 1) 
is estimated that an average of about 75 a day 
are being received. 

Estimated Increase 
Under the preliminary estimate of 20 per cent 

increase in volume of manufactures — which may 
be exceeded — the output of the mills and factories 
of the State for 1927 would pass the billion and 
a quarter mark as compared with $1,050.434.1 1 7 
in 1925 and $665,117,738 in 1923. 

Director Wade H. Phillips of this Department 
believes that with the interest that has been add- 
ed to the census through the active co-operation 
of the State in its enumeration, the 1927 census 
of Manufactures will be the most complete that 
has yet been taken in North Carolina. The honor 
which has been conferred upon the State in al- 
lowing its own Department to direct the census 
is one that has come to but one other State pre- 
viously — Massachusetts — and Director Phillips 
feels that an especial pride should be taken by 
every individual and corporation of the State in 
answering the schedules completely and without 
delay. 

"The census," he declares, "is for the purpose 
of giving an accurate picture of industry in our 
State, and we are particularly anxious that it be 
complete to the greatest detail possible. We do 
not want to miss a single industry in compiline 
the figures. Each one adds to the total and re- 
flects progress in our State." 

The Department has made particular efforts 
to include the names of newly established manu- 
facturing concerns and any that might have been 
omitted from previous censuses. It has been as- 
sisted in this work by the various Chambers of 
Commerce which have been desirous of including 
every industry within the radius covered by their 
activities. 

Urges Promptness 

Director Phillips urges officials of those estab- 
lishments that have not yet returned schedules 
to do so immediately in order that the State and 
Federal Departments might be spared time and 
expense in sending out reminders and to expedite 
the tabulation of the figures 

A number of firms thai have delayed complet- 
'ng their schedules until after their income t.i\ 
returns are compiled have signified their intention 
of doing so immediately after March 15. 

Manufacturers are reminded that the infor- 
mation contained in their census schedules 
have no connection with tax collection. The 
ulations of the United State- Department of Com- 
merce prohibit the use of any information from 
census reports for taxation purposes, Limiting it< 
service to census uses, Every individual return 
is strictly confidential. 



The Census of lo;o marked the turning point 
of the United States from a rural country to one 
with an urban majority. The United States 
Department of Agriculture estimates that there 
were 470.000 fewer people on farms in 1^> than 
in 1025. 



■ ; 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



DEPARTMENT PLANS 
TO HELP IN STOCKING 
FISHES IN ALL LAKES 



Plenty of "bites" for every fisherman in North 
Carolina and visitors in the tate is the slogan be- 
hind a survey of all of the hydro-electric develop- 
ment waters being conducted under the direction 
of the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment. 

M. C. James, acting head of fish cultural opera- 
tions of the United States Bureau of Fisheries, 
Department of Commerce, in company with As- 
sistant Director J. K. Dixon and Frank J. Reiger, 
Superintendent of Hatcheries, are making a 
study of the artificial lakes and reservoirs that 
form a chain through much of the Piedmont and 
mountain regions. 

The survey includes the taking of temperature 
of the waters, observing its color and condition 
in respect to suspended matter, the food provis- 
ions of the lakes, and soundings for depth. 

Information from these studies will be used 
in determining the variety of game fish that is 
suitable to each location, the number that each 
place could well support, and the varieties and 
numbers with which they are already stocked. 

This is foundation work in this Department's 
program to encourage and assist in bringing about 
development of all suitable waters as public fish- 
ing grounds, which would afford increased oppor- 
tunities for the enjoyment of the sport of fishing. 

Rearing Ponds Suggested 
To work this program out effectively and eco- 
nomically, it has been demonstrated that the 
construction of rearing ponds for baby fish is 
indispensable. These ponds are contemplated to 
receive the fish after they are turned out from 
the hatcheries and to raise them to a length of 
several inches before distributing them in waters 
to be stocked. 

Officials of the various power companies have 
signified their interest in this fish stocking prog- 
ram and have given an invitation for the survey 
of their waters, realizing that an appreciable 
amount of public service will be derived from 
the success of these efforts. The Department 
Board has authorized the construction of nurser- 
ies to the extent of the financial ability of the 
Department ; but this, at best, will be limited on 
account of the lack of funds. The only money 
available for this work comes from anglers' li- 
cense fees, which totaled $17,000 last season. 

Power reservoirs and lakes, according to figures 
gathered by the Division of water resources of 
this Department, measured some 91,965 acres 
at the first of the year, virtually all of which will 
support fish life of some variety if not all game 
fish. 

CAROLINA SEEDLINGS 

WIN PROMINENT PLACE 

Carolina pines from the State forest nursery 
of the Department have proved more thrifty 
than those from any other nursery in tests that 
are being made at the Eddy Tree Breeding Sta- 
tion, Placerville, Cal., according to word received 
by Assistant Forester F. H. Claridge, who has 
charge of operations at the growing station. 

"You may be interested in knowing that the 



PLANTING OF MILLION 
FOREST SEEDLINGS IS 
PLANS OF INDIVIDUAL 



Reforestation by artificials planting gains its 
greatest momentum in North Carolina with the 
decision of one of the largest property owners in 
the Sandhill section to undertake the planting of 
1,000,000 pines in the southestern section of 
Moore County. 

A contract has just been entered into between 
H. C. Buchan, acting in behalf of Eldridge John- 
son, landowner, and the Forestry Division of the 
Department of Conservation and Development, 
for the production of this number of seedlings 
over a period of years. 

As an individual enterprise of reforestation, 
this is the largest underway in the State, and is 
rivaled only by the Biltmore project carried out 
more than a score of years ago by the late George 
Vanderbilt. These artificially propagated trees 
have grown into matured forests from which a 
harvest of returns is now being garnered. 

France, by planting thousands of acres of mari- 
time pines, reclaimed great reaches of waste sand 
dune country, transforming these desolate areas 
into forests that provides an important timber 
and naval stores industry. 

As the largest and most comprehensive program 
of its kind underway at this time in North Caro- 
lina, the Moore County proposition will be a 
valuable demonstration and will doubtless attract 
interest within and beyond the borders of the 
State. It emprasizes the demand for wholesale 
artificial reforestation in areas that do not afford 
sufficient reproduction for the best economic in- 
terests of the community and State. 

Success of planting of the longleaf pine in that 
section and farther east has already been proved 
in experiments conducted from the first year's 
output of the State Forest Nursery. In some of 
the experiments that have been reported to the 
Department, only a few of the longleaf pines were 
found to have failed to survive the planting. 

The tree seedlings will be grown under the di- 
rection of F. H. Claridge, Assistant Forester in 
charge of the nursery. The enlarged program of 
seedling rearing has been made possible with the 
acquisition of the new nursery site on State High- 
way No. 10, just west of Clayton, Johnston 
County. 

Under plans that have been made by Assistant 
Forester Claridge, it is proposed to rear the seed- 
lings over a period of three years on a graduated 
scale, producing a slightly increasing number with 
each year. 

The 1,000,000 seedlings will set an area of ap- 
proximately 1,000 acres at an average number of 
1,000 to an acre and allow a comfortable mar- 
gin for replacement of second plantings. 



slash, shortleaf, and loblolly seedlings that you 
sent us last year have done very well, indeed," 
writes Lloyd Austin, director of the California 
station. "They have shown better survival than 
have trees of these species from any other nur- 
sery. Only a few of the longleaf seedlings sur- 
vived from any source, but we hope to have bet- 
ter success with them this year." 



ANALYSIS OF NORTH CAROLINA 
TAXES AND DEBTS IS READY 
FOR DISTRIBUTION TO PUBLIC 



"An Analysis of North Carolina Taxes and 
Debts," a publication reviewing in detail the 
latest information concerning the financial oper- 
ations of the State and the conditions that exist 
in both the State and Counties, has recently come 
from the press and is available for distribution. 

The booklet was compiled by Park Mathew- 
son, Statistician, and Chief of the Department's 
Division of Commerce and Industry. It shows 
the system under which taxes are levied for State 
functions and also the sources of income for the 
various Counties and Cities, the amount of State 
taxes that are collected, and the distribution of 
the tax burden. 

Figures are used to show for what purposes 
the taxes are levied, their classifications, how they 
are expended, and the results that are obtained 
through the disbursement of State funds. 

The publication goes into detail in the objects, 
workings, and accomplishments of the State Bud- 
get, showing how the financial status of the 
State has become more sound under its operation 
and explains thoroughly its operation. 

It also contains an inventory of State proper- 
ties, including the Capitol and various Depart- 
mental buildings, their encumbrances and their 
actual worth. 

One of the main features of the analysis is an 
explanation of the indebtedness of the State, the 
purposes for which the bond sale proceeds were 
spent and provisions for meeting interest and 
maturities. It points out that State monies have 
been spent in an orderly and systemmatic method 
with careful consideration of the value of the 
commodities that were purchased and shows these 
expenditures to be justified. Concluding some 
of its assertions, the booklet gives the State's 
financial condition a clean bill of health, such as 
one might expect of a progressive, growing, and 
wisely managed corporation. 

In tabular form, a table of information is 
presented, showing the tax rates of each county 
and larger towns, and classifying the levies ac- 
cording to the purposes for which the taxes are 
used. 

CRUSHED STONE QUARRY 

IS LOCATED IN FORSYTH 



One of the newest industries for the develop- 
ment of mineral resources in North Carolina is 
the Salem Quarries, Forsyth County concern, 
which has recently started the operation of a 
plant near Winston-Salem for the production of 
crushed stone. 

State Geologist H. J. Bryson, in the notice of 
the beginning of operations by the plant, was 
informed that it will have a capacity of 600 tons 
a day. Enough materials are reported available 
around the site to last over a period of several 
generations. 

It is estimated that there are in the neighbor- 
hood of 7,000,000 hunters in the United States, 
and that the average annual expenditure is $50 
for each. This would make hunting an industry 
involving the expending of $350,000,000 annually 
for the sport. 



CONSERVATION «w INDUSTRY 

A Bi-Weekly Publication of the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol. V 



APRIL 1, 1928 



No. 7 



FINANCIAL STANDING 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 
AIDED BY GOVERNOR 



North Carolina's standing in the financial 
world, as well as the high regard in which she is 
held as a governmental unit, recognition of her 
great development in recent years and the solidity 
reflected by her remarkable industrial, agricul- 
tural, educational and economic growth, is shown 
in the tone and expression of numbers of letters 
received by Governor Angus W. McLean from 
the heads of large and influencial life, fire and 
other insurance companies, savings banks and 
other financial institutions interested in bonds 
and notes as investments. 

During the past few weeks Governor McLean 
has sent out letters, with the State's "Balance 
Sheet," "Facts and Figures," "Analysis of North 
Carolina Taxes and Debts," and other reports 
showing the financial and economic condition of 
the State, to heads of organizations which are 
engaged in the purchase and handling of State, 
county and city securities. The replies, coming 
from such organizations, many of which are old- 
line companies and are known throughout the 
financial world, are interesting and entertaining, 
particularly to citizens of North Carolina. 

Governor McLean, in sending out these publi- 
cations is doing so, as he has announced, with a 
view to cultivating the financial field for notes 
and bonds of North Carolina, her sub-divisions 
and the cities and towns in the State. The re- 
plies indicate that his action is paving the way 
for marketing any further notes and bonds the 
State and other units may have to offer, and at 
the best rates possible. 

Interesting Replies 

A few of the replies, the city in which the 
financial institution is located and the position of 
the writer, are as follows: 

Indianapolis, Ind., Vice-President: "I congratu- 
late you upon the ability of your State to attract 
these many businesses and to build up the wealth 
and influence of your State. * * * * We have 
acquired from time to time quite a volume of 
municipal bonds from your State. We have, ac- 
cordingly, kept in touch, more or less, with the 
splendid development of your commonwealth." 

Hartford, Conn., President: "We have been in 
times past frequent investors in the securities is- 
sued by the municipalities of your State and 
firmly believe in its future. We have been well 
aware of the progress that has been made, not 
only in the line of industrial prosperity, but in 
the careful and thoughtful attention that was be- 
ing given to the financial problems that neces- 
( Continued on Page 3) 



WHERE THE BIG ONES STAY 




Back away from the rush of a busy world, the angler may get all of the thrills offered 
by any waters along the numerous trout streams of the North Carolina mountains. This 
scene in Pisgah National Forest is typical of numerous trout scenes in the section. The 
stocking program of the Department of Conservation and Development is bringing the 
mountain streams and other waters of the State to the attention of the entire nation. 



CENSUS OF GAME BAG 
IS BEING UNDERTAKEN 
AS STUDY CONDITIONS 



The month of March witnessed the beginning 
of the first census of game bagged during a sea- 
son in North Carolina. One hundred and twenty- 
five thousand return card blanks are being sent 
out from the office of Director Wade H. Phillips, 
asking all hunters to return and fill in with the 
number of each species taken. 

The census will provide for the State the first 
definite and comprehensive idea of the value and 
extent of game animals and birds taken during 
any one season. It will also give a basis upon 
which to estimate the game population of the 
State as a whole and ot the individual counties. 

Purposes to be served by the survey will be 
estimates of the extent and value of game killed 
during the season and a definite idea of game 
conditions. It is expected that the census will 
furnish information upon which regulations may 
(Continued on Page 4) 



ARBOR DAY SHOWERS 
BRING CONSERVATION 
LESSON IN FORESTRY 



Arbor Day, observed generally over the State 
for the first time since the change of date from 
the fall to spring on March lo. has brought out 
an object lesson of conservation which i> often 
neglected in the consideration of this subjed 

The legally set date for observance of the w 
casion was ushered in with driving rain- and 
heavy winds, which were general in most sections 
of the State. These conditions forced a post- 
ponement of the celebration of Arbor Day at 
many of the schools and by many organizations 
that had prepared programs. 

\~ brought out by State Forester J. S. Holmes, 
the rain, badly needed for the protection of for- 
ests against fires, did more to preserve the bal- 
ance of nature by creating conditions adverse to 
the occurrence and spread of the Red Demon 
( ntinued on Page 4 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



REARING POND HINTS 

Recent weeks have brought widespread 
interest in the construction of nursery 
ponds for rearing baby fry from fish 
hatcheries to the more matured fingerling 
size, and approximately half a dozen have 
already been prepared to receive the baby 
fish in North Carolina. 

For the benefit of those who contemplate 
this highly desirable and necessary activi- 
ty, a brief plan submitted by Frank J. 
Reiger, superintendent of state hatcheries, 
may prove helpful. Naturally the plan 
must be made to meet local conditions, 
but the general ideas given by Superinten- 
dent Reiger give some of the main points 
to be observed. 

His suggestions are: "Ponds most suita- 
ble for the rearing of small trout to the 
advanced fingerling stage can be arranged 
very economically. Find a location of rea- 
sonable level ground where the proper 
amount of water supply can be diverted 
by a pipe line or otherwise from a reason- 
ably clear and cool branch. 

"This site should be selected at a point 
where there would be no danger of being 
flooded out during the times of high water. 
Ponds 4 to 6 feet wide, 20 to 40 feet long, 
and 18 to 24 inches deep are commonly 
used. Excavate the pond space and drive 
substantial stakes every 3 or 4 feet along 
the sides of the canal and broad up with 
lumber or lay up a rip-rap wall for the 
sides which would answer equally as well. 
The bottom of the entire length of pond 
should be supplied with several inches of 
reasonably clean and fine gravel. A pond 
of this size with the proper amount of 
water supply should accommodate from 10 
to 20 thousand until they are quite well 
advanced. 

"If it is convenient to arrange with some 
meat markets and have them supply such 
meats as liver and hearts or any sort of 
scrap meats that could be ground fine 
enough so that the fish could consume the 
food you would receive best results. Other 
foods can be and are substituted, but do 
not give near as good results." 



RADIO-ACTIVITY IS 
FOUND IN SPRING 

IN MOUNTAINS 



News of the discovery of radio-activity in a 
second spring in Western North Carolina has 
created renewed interest in that section of the 
State and elsewhere. The analysis of the waters 
was made by one of the leading chemists of the 
country at the suggestion of State Geologist H. 
J. Bryson. 

This spring is located in Henderson county be- 
twen Asheville and Hendersonville. Persons who 
have drunk the waters have testified that they 
have a particularly discernible healing quality. 

The analysis shows a radio-activity of 1.4 
mache units per litre per second. It also reveals 
a freeness from solid contents that is declared to 
be unusual, the amount of these materials being 
1.2 S3 grains per United States gallons or 21.60 
parts per million. The test also shows the water 
to be unusually free from bacterial contamination. 

The first of the springs in the State found to 
possess radio-activity is in Ashe County, near 
West Jefferson. Soon after this characteristic be- 
came known a considerable demand grew up, and 
a substantial industry developed around the 
spring. A regular trade for waters from both 
springs has been built up and many persons are 
visiting them in order to partake of their benefits. 



REGULATIONS MADE 
TO GOVERN FISHING 
IN LAKES OF STATE 



Steps to protect fish during spawning seasons 
in the State-owned lakes of North Carolina are 
marked by the establishment of regulations by 
the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment governing fishing in these bodies of water. 

The regulations include the setting aside of 
spawning grounds and the prohibition of all 
fishing in this territory during certain seasons of 
the year. They also include limits on the size 
and number of the daily bag. 

Behind the entire program is the purpose of 
making the lakes most attractive and of the 
greatest benefit to the public. Greater oppor- 
tunity for sport by restriction on the number, 
time of catching, and size limits will enable the 
fish to multiply for the benefit of the entire public. 

To enforce the new regulations, wardens have 
been appointed for the lakes. Albert Sasser, Halls- 
boro, has been named Warden of Waccamaw 
Lake; and W. A. Atkinson, Elizabethtown, of 
Singletary and White Lakes. 

The breeding grounds in Singletary Lake, which 
are closed to fishing from March IS to June IS 
of each year are as follows: that part of a straight 
line running due north from the Patsy Wright 
bathing house on the bluff to the north shore. 

White Lake: All that part of the lake lying 
west of a straight line connecting Ralph P. Mel- 
vin's dock in the south corner of the Lake with 
Mrs. Love's dock on the north shore. 

Waccamaw Lake: all that part of the lake 
lying to the south of a straight line running from 
Turkey Pen Point to Gray Swamp. 

The regulations prohibit the taking of fish from 



SPRINGTIME IMBUES 
FEVER OF OUTDOORS 
IN STATE FISHERMEN! 






Spring's advent has turned again the thoughts 
of the angler toward sport fishing, and North 
Carolinians are preparing for the second season 
under the new regulations governing the sport. 
Official preparation has been made by the 
Division of Inland Fisheries of the Department 
of Conservation and Development for the sea- 
son with the reorganization or the warden forces 
and the distribution of license blanks. Already 
approximately 12,000 of the blanks have been 
mailed from the office of Assistant Director J. 
K. Dixon in anticipation of the call that comes 
with the opening of seasons and the advent of 
:pring weather. 

Season for large-mouth black bass which has 
remained open during the winter months closes i 
for spawning period on April 20 and will reopen' 
on June 10. For small-mouth bass, the open 
season begins with the same date and continues 
through October 1. 

On April 15, trout — both brook or speckled 
and rainbow — will be legal game in the mountain 
counties, remaining so through the first of Sep- 
tember. 

Bag limits for the various types of game fish 
adopted by the Board of Concervation and Devel- 
opment are as follows: 

Black or large-mouth bass 8 

Brook or speckled trout . 25 

Rainbow trout 25 

Blue or red bream 50 

Robin 50 

Rock 10 

Crappie of chinquapin perch 50 

Goggle eye 50 

Size limits are: inches 

Bass (large or small-mouth 12 

Blue bream 6 

Brook or speckled trout 6 

Rainbow trout 8 

Rock 8 

Robin : 5 

Redfin 8 

Goggle eye 6 

Under the law, licenses are required only ol 
those classed as sport fishermen or who use roc 
and reel, jointed rod, or those who cast. 



any of the lakes by any other method excepi 
with rod, line and hook, line attached to roc 
and rod held in hand. Only one hook may bt 
used to the pole. 

Twenty fish of all kinds are set as the baj, 
limit for one day, only eight of which may bi< 
black bass. Size limits are as follows: black bass 
12 inches; white perch and redfin, 8 inches; ant 
all other perches and bream, 8 inches. No blacl 
bass may be taken in any part of the lakes be 
tween April 20 and June 10 of each year, th> 
State-wide closed season for black bass. 

No fish taken from any of the State-owne< 
lakes may be sold. Stocking with black bass ha 
already been started in several of these lakes am 
others will be stocked as rapidly as the fish be 1 
come available for this purpose. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



FINANCIAL STANDING 

OF NORTH CAROLINA 

AIDED BY GOVERNOR 



(Continued from Page 1) 
sarily follow such a striking development as has 
taken place in your State." 

New York City, President: "I think this is the 
first time I have ever run across the case of a 
chief executive of a commonwealth to be willing 
to get in touch with investors and financial in- 
terests at a time other than when bonds are at- 
tempted to be sold. Yours is a fine action, and 
betokens far-sighted understanding of human psy- 
chology. I remember with great pleasure meeting 
you at our convention in Asheville." 

Omaha, Neb., Treasurer: "On account of some 
of the information given, we will undoubtedly 
increase our holdings in the State." 

New York City, Assistant Treasurer: "We have 
watched with considerable interest the progress 
of your State for some years past. In large part 
due to this progress, we have loaned on bond 
and mortgage and by purchase of securities con- 
siderably more than the reserve warranted against 
policies in force. Our present investments in your 
State total in the neighborhood of $40,000,000." 

North Carolina, President of large manufactur- 
ing firm: "So far as I know, never in the history 
of North Carolina has any Governor or other 
public official furnished its people the valuable 
information contained in your 'Balance Sheet.' 
I congratulate the people of our State that we 
have at Raleigh, a Governor so thoroughly alive 
to the financial interests of our State as to pre- 
sent this information to its taxpayers and others." 

Already Holds Bonds 

Newark, N. J., President: "This company is a 
holder of North Carolina bonds and also has 
large mortgage investments in your State. It is 
gratifying to note the forward outlook and sub- 
stantial progress so conspicuous in your State. I 
recall your address to the Association of Life In- 
surance Presidents and the satisfaction experienced 
in hearing first hand of the conduct of a busi- 
ness administration of the affairs of a great com- 
monwealth. I congratulate the State and your- 
self upon your record of achievement." 

New York City, active head of syndicate of 
banks handling most of North Carolina's recent 
bond offerings: "Let me extend congratulations 
on your report of the resources and financial con- 
dition of the State. You will always have reason 
to be proud of your contribution to the welfare 
of your fellow-citizens in the inauguration under 
your administration of the Budget System. You 
have rendered a service to your State of vital 
importance, the benefits of which will be appar- 
ent for long years to come." 

Philadelphia, President: "While you were writ- 
ing it (Governor McLean's letter to him) I was 
in Chatham and Randolph Counties in your State 
shooting quail. My companions and I frequently 
commented on the great material progress which 
your State is making, especially in the construc- 
tion and maintenance of highways. At the pres- 
ent time our company has more than $0,000,000 
invested in North Carolina, $300,000 of this 
amount being in highway bonds. We also have 
substantial holdings of the bonds of Charlotte, 



Greensboro and Wilmington, but our principal 
investments are in city mortgages. We shall, 
therefore read your summary and analysis with 
great interest." 

Hartford, Conn.: " I congratulate you on the 
clear statement and the excellent condition of 
the State." 

Baltimore, Md., President: "We own some of 
the bonds of the State of North Carolina and 
bonds of a number of its municipalities and also 
bonds of railroads passing through the State. We 
also are doing life insurance business, as you 
know, in the State of North Carolina, and are, 
therefore very directly interested in its welfare 
and continued prosperity." 

Great Future 

Chicago, President: "North Carolina is a won- 
derful State and certainly is destined for a great 
future. The people are so cordial, enterprising 
and 'up-to-date' that I always enjoy my busi- 
ness trips there greatly." 

Chicago, President: "We are investors in North 
Carolina bonds and are very grateful to you for 
this information, which we are preserving for 
future reference." 

Cincinnati, Ohio, President: "Our company 
does not invest in bonds as their taxability in 
Ohio at the present rate of 2% per cent makes it 
out of the question to do so. However, we are 
investing, and have invested for many years, in 
North Carolina mortagages and are expecting to 
continue doing so." 

New York City, President: "We are at the pres- 
ent time holders of North Carolina bonds to the 
extent of $50,000." 

Chattanooga, Tenn, President: "North Carolina 
has certainly made wonderful progress in the past 
few years and has set a fine example for other 
Southern States. It is my hope that Tennessee 
will profit by her example." 

Washington, D. C, President: "We are kept 
in personal touch with the advancement and 
progress North Carolina is making at the present 
time, and regard same as one of the good states 
in which to make investments." 

Hartford, Conn., President: "The information 
forwarded is of much interest to us, both be- 
cause we have a round block of North Carolina 
securities, which we highly prize, and also be- 
cause we are interested from the standpoint of 
productivity of the State as a life insurance 
center." 

Philadelphia, President: "Permit us also to con- 
gratulate you on the business-like way in which 
the affairs of the State are being administered 
under your direction." 

Large Investors 

Richmond, Ya., President: "As an expression of 
the magnificant progress you have made, I take 
pleasure in informing you that we have more 
money loaned in North Carolina than in any 
other State in which we do business, with the 
exception of our home State of Virginia. Since 
early fall I have been in New York almost every 
week-end and I know you will be interested to 
learn that I continually hear your State men- 
tioned as the most progressive in the Union 
today." 

North Carolina, Vice-President: "This, to my 
mind, is one of the clearest statements of a fin- 



ancial situation which I have read and should 
convince even that layman who has had no ex- 
perience in financial affair- of the economical 
administration of the State'- finances Your con- 
tribution to our State is one which will lont: be 
remembered, for it should point the way for 
succeeding executives to avoid the pitfalls of 
financial uncertainties." 

Des Moines, Iowa, investment manager: "You 
are to be commended on putting out information 
of this kind, and thus putting before the invest- 
ing public information of such satisfactory na- 
ture, and in such condensed and readable form " 

North Carolina, President: "The magnificant 
and earnest effort that you have made in con- 
nection with the splendid business administration, 
the budget system that you have inaugurated, 
and the intelligent way you have handled the 
State's finances, will, I believe, ever remain a 
monument to you and to your administration. 
* * * * The State owes you a greater debt than 
it can ever pay." 

Hartford, Conn., President: "The Old North 
State has come forward in such an amazing fash- 
ion in the past two decades that many people in 
the North and West fail to realize how big and 
prosperous and sound it has got to be. From an 
economic standpoint, there are very few states 
in the Union that can surpass North Carolina, 
and it is, fortunately, the possessor of a sound 
citizenship and a sane political system." 

New York, President: "These will be read with 
interest and filed for reference in connection with 
possible future investments." 

Hartford, Conn., President: "For years we have 
invested quite freely in North Carolina securities. 
Last fall our agency convention was held in 
Asheville, and we were again impressed, not only 
with the natural beauties of that part of the State, 
but our journeys through North Carolina im- 
pressed on everyone the tremendous strides that 
have taken place in its industrial development " 

New York, President: "We are particularly in- 
terested in this material (the very interesting 
analysis contained in the pamphlet which you 
enclosed) as we hold some Mecklenburg County 
and Raleigh Township bonds." 

Hartford, Conn., Vice-President and Treasurer: 
"It indicates that the finances of the State have 
been conducted with intelligence and carefulness. 
All the results show a very line development of 
the resources of the State." 

Expresses Admiration 

New York, President: "I am partially familiar 
with North Carolina's splendid growth during 
recent years and admire the methods by which 
it has been achieved." 

New York, President: "I can see from reading 
same (enclosures) that the resources of your State 
are unlimited and that the State is in line lor 
jreat development in the future. We are an in- 
vestor at this time in some North Carolina bonds 
and are very glad indeed that we have them " 

Topeka, Kansas. Vice-President and Treasurer: 
"My admiration for your State is unbounded We 
have handled a great many of your securities and 
have the highest regard for them. The character 
and quality of the information enclosed with your 
letter is simply splendid and is exactly what we 
i Continued on Page 4) 



• 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



FINANCIAL STANDING 

OF NORTH CAROLINA 

AIDED BY GOVERNOR 

(Continued on Page 3) 
yould have expected from the executive of your 
good State." 

Brooklyn, N. Y., First Vice-President: "We 
have purchased, from time to time, and now hold 
several hundred thousand dollars in bonds of your 
good State. We think well of them." 

Springfield, Mass., President: "My company is 
an investor to a considerable amount in bonds of 
your State and municipalities and I am glad to 
have this information. I thank you and at the 
same time congratulate you upon the splendid 
progress the State is making under your adminis- 
tration." 

Hartford, Conn., President: "We have long 
looked upon North Carolina as being in the very 
front rank of the States of the Union, and recent 
reports we have had from some of our people 
who have been on the ground have caused us to 
realize that the State is still progressing and is 
likely to continue to do so for many years to 
come. The figures you have given us will be of 
much use to our finance committee and will have 
its careful attention." 

Hartford, Conn., President: "I have read the 
various enclosures with much pleasure and much 
satisfaction, as they confirm the impression • we 
had of the State, and predicated upon which we 
have been pushing the development of our busi- 
ness there. As the result of an all too brief trip 
through the State some time in the Autumn of 
last year, I gave our Board my opinion that 
North Carolina was one of the outstanding States 
of the Union in its progressiveness and one in 
which it would be to our interest to press for 
development." 

Interests Company 

New York, President: "On this showing you 
have my most hearty congratulations. Living as 
I do in a municipality that is forever in debt and 
in a state which is not far behind, I can appre- 
ciate the satisfaction you must find in being able 
to put forth such documents. From personal 
observation I know that North Carolina has some 
of the finest roads in this country and from the 
quality of these roads undoubtedly much of the 
future attractions of North Carolina will result. 
* * * * I am sure that the investments offered 
by your State will interest our Investment Bu- 
reau." 

New York, President: "It is of considerable in- 
terest to me, as not only the company * * * * 

owns North Carolina securities, but we have very 
considerable investment in North Carolina in 
other companies, and are likely to have more, 
thereby showing our confidence in the manage- 
ment of the affairs of your very progressive 
State." 

Wallingford, Conn., President: "I have read 
very carefully the documents you enclosed and 
was very much impressed with what your State 
has done and is doing. I had not realized, pre- 
vious to reading these papers, how much North 
Carolina produced and what a strong economical 
position she was in. Certainly, if any of the 
bonds of your State or of your counties or of 
your municipalities are offered to our bank here, 



the information you have sent to me would be 
very helpful in coming to a decision." 

Newtown, Conn., Treasurer: "We believe it is 
a mighty good thing to send this information to 
financial institutions, whether they have any 
bonds or not, of your State or its counties or 
cities. Any way, their interest will be stimulated 
in future offerings." 

Schenectady, N. Y., President: "As yet I have 
had time only to glance at some of the pages, but 
look forward to giving them a more careful ex- 
amination. Your idea as to the method of 
bringing these things before investors appeals to 
me as excellent." 

Staten Island, N. Y., President: "We shall find 
it very easy to remember and think kindly of 
North Carolina after this your painstaking effort 
to acquaint the investing public with the char- 
acter and integrity of your State and its securi- 
ties. We like North Carolina and are now ac- 
quainted with its Governor." 

New York, President: "We have been, from 
time to time, purchasers of the bonds of your 
State, and are holding quite a block at the pres- 
ent time. These statictics with which you have 
favored us we find very interesting. We have 
been aware for some time of the progress made 
by your State, and take this opportunity to con- 
vey our sincere good wishes for its continuance." 

Oswego, N. Y., President: "This bank purchased 
about a year ago $250,000.00 of bonds of your 
State and we have had no cause to worry yet, 
except perhaps because they are coming due so 
soon. We will see that the members of our In- 
vestment Committee have opportunity to read 
these very interesting and enlightening state- 
ments." 



CENSUS OF GAME BAG 

IS BEING UNDERTAKEN 

AS STUDY CONDITIONS 



(Continued from Page 1) 
be based. It will be especially helpful in point- 
ing out whether certain species are increasing or 
decreasing in numbers, thus helping to solve some 
of the questions of conservation. 

Other purposes to be served by the enumeration 
will be in establishing a basis from which com- 
parisons may be made from year to year. 
Every hunter will be served by the information 
which he contributes as the entire object of game 
regulation is to better game conditions and make 
the supply available to all on the same terms. 

The report is one which each hunter in apply- 
ing for his license agreed to furnish at the close 
of the season. Each recipient of the blanks is 
asked to fill in the report and return to the 
Department promptly in order that the work 
may be expedited and carried through with as 
little expense as possible. 

"In your sworn application for license undei 
the State Game Law," says the blank, "you 
agreed to report at the end of the season the 
number and kind of birds and animals taken by 
you and where taken. The facts so gathered will 
prove a great help in solving the problems of game 
conservation. Will you, therefore, kindly fill in, 
sign, and return the attached postal card at once? 
The information so sent cannot be used as a basis 
for law violation." 



ARBOR DAY SHOWERS 

BRING CONSERVATION 

LESSON IN FORESTRY 

(Continued from Page 1) 
than man could possibly do with his limited 
efforts. 

"I think," says Forester Holmes, "this is a good 
opportunity to bring out the primary lesson of 
conservation which is working with nature to 
accomplish what nature would accomplish if not 
hindered by man. 

"The wet weather which undoubtedly prevent- 
ed the planting of several minature school for- 
ests for which our pine seedlings had been sent 
from the State Forest Nursery undoubtedly 
saved from destruction from fire many millions 
of seedlings which will make just as good timber 
as those few which would have been planted if 
the rain had not come. 

"The rain, therefore, did more for conservation 
than all the puny efforts of this State Department 
and the schools combined could have done. We 
have got to realize that nature is working with 
us and we with nature in the whole conservation 
movement." 

In most localities over the State, the condition 
of the weather did not dampen the spirit of those 
who sought a fitting observance of Arbor Day. 
Many of these were postponed and the prepared 
programs carried out on the following week. 

BUREAU OF FISHERIES 
ALLOTS FISH TO STATE 

First results of the survey of hydro-electric 
reservoir and lake developments completed re- 
cently under the direction of M. P. James, acting 
head of fish cultural operations of the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries, and Assistant Director 
J. K. Dixon, is word from Washington that the 
federal bureau has assigned approximately 100,- 
rainbow trout fingerlings to the Department of 
Conservation and Development for planting in 
one of these bodies of water. 

The Department has directed that these finger- 
lings be placed in the 3,000-acre Santeetlah lake 
development in Graham county. These fish will 
be brought from the United State Bureau hatch- 
ery at Erwin, Tenn., aboard the special car used 
for that purpose. 

Frank J. Reiger, superintendent of State 
hatcheries, Waynesville, and C. N. Mease, deputy 
game and fish commissioner, will assist in the 
distribution of the fingerlings, and residents of 
the county have been asked to help by providing 
transportation from the cars to the streams that 
make into the lake. 

Because of its proximity to the Great Smoky 
Mountain National Park, the stocking of this 
area is expected to prove a great attraction to 
the visitors who come to visit this scenic erea. 
The liberality of the assignment is attributed to 
the great range of public service that will come 
from good fishing conditions within easy access to 
thousands of sportsmen. 

Santeetlah waters are suited to the propagation 
of game fish, especially for the rainbow trout, 
one of the most attractive of all game fish. As 
rapidly as possible, this Department hopes to 
develop all of the water areas of the State into 
game fishing grounds. 



CONSERVATION <md INDUSTRY 

A Bi- Weekly Publication of the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol. V 



APRIL 15, 1928 



No. 8 



FOREST WEEK WILL 
FOCUS ATTENTION ON 
WOODLAND WEALTH 



For the eighth time, American Forest Week has 
been designated and set aside for the promotion 
of the causes of forestry. As in past years, the 
government of Canada is observing the occasion 
simultaneously with the United States. The week 
is April 22-28. 

Realizing the importance of the movement to 
all of the people of the nation and State, pro- 
clamations urging that every one join in the 
spirit of the occasion and its activities have been 
issued by President Calvin Coolidge and Gover- 
nor A. W. McLean. 

Each succeeding year has brought more em- 
phasis on the purposes of American Forest Week 
and a consequent wider participation on the part 
of the public. Every person on the continent is 
affected by the continued growth and perpetua- 
tion of the forests for comforts and conveniences 
of life, and no matter how much one ignores a 
proper consideration of their worth his contacts 
are so close with either the growing forests, or 
their products that only wilful] unmindfullness 
will fail to show these facts. 

Gifford Pinchot, former governor of Pennsyl- 
vania and a nationally known conservationist 
says: "A forest is more than a collection of trees. 
It is not merely a wood storehouse. It is a wood 
factory, a water reservoir, a fish hatchery, a game 
refuge, and a wild-flower preserve. All these 
in one the forest truly is." 

American Forest Week presents an opportunity 
for a busy world to pause and consider what 
kind of world a treeless one would be and, by 
contrast, one plentifully supplied with forest 
growth. The rush of a commercial world has 
neglected consideration for the future and the 
dedication of thought for one week on the part 
of a large group which seeks to gain the atten- 
tion of the thinking part of the population is 
appropriate. If a considerable number of ob- 
serving people will stop to contemplate the tre- 
mendous service of the forest in American life, 
the efforts that are being concentrated in setting 
aside the week will have been completely justified. 

The appeal of the forest goes into virtually 
every phase of life and the presentation of the 
subject can be made from any corresponding 
angle. A suggested program for the week fur- 
nished by State Forester J. S. Holmes touches 
most of the human activities. 

Briefly, the proposed schedule is as follows: 

Sunday, April 22 — Trees and Religion Day. Let 
Sunday school teachers, preachers, and speakers 
at religious forums refer to and emphasize the 
(Continued on Page 3) 



PART OF FIRST QUAIL DISTRIBUTION 



WH • Mr mi 


P Jr3 Pp 


1 





This group of game officials was photographed at the station immediately after arrival 
of shipment of Mexican quail for distribution in the Central Piedmont district. These 
quail were part of 2,000 pairs released by the Department in the State this spring. 
The quail arrived in the crates behind which the wardens are standing. Included in the 
photograph, from left to right, are.W. C. Lisk, Richfiield, Deputy Game and Fish Commis- 
sioner, and the following County Wardens: C. R. Honeycutt, Concord; J. C. Deaton, 
Salisbury; G. A. Seawell, Rockingham; Robinson, Troy; Reed Dorsett, Wallburg; C M. 
Morgan, Albemarle; and J. W. Cashatt, Denton. 



OPPORTUNITIES FOR 
PUBLIC ENJOYMENT 
ARE UNDEVELOPED 

Constant stress is laid on the continued devel- 
opment of North Carolina in an industrial way, 
while the tendency too often is to neglect an in- 
terest that, to assure the State of the full enjoy- 
ment of her material progress, deserves full con- 
sideration. 

Proper utilization of natural resources in the 
development of industry is, of course, the founda- 
tion of prosperity and leads to the assurance that 
progress for the future will be marked in a still 
greater degree than the past quarter of a century 
has witnessed in the Old North State. 

While this angle of progress i> being considered, 
one th:it should be a companion, but which is 
neglected frequently by a commercial age, is the 
creation of a more beautiful and inviting com- 
munity in which to live. Although this State is 
endowed by nature with a natural scenery that 
rivals that of any other, there are still many op- 
portunities that wait for the touch of man to 
bring them into the lull flower of their service 
to the public. 

(Continued on Page 3) 



GEOLOGIST BELIEVES 
CYANITE WILL FIND 
EXTENSIVE MARKETS 

Interest that State Geologist II. J Bryson 
thinks points to an early development of the great 
cyanite deposits of North Carolina is being mani- 
fest by large industrial concerns of the country, 
according to his observation- on a recent tour 
of the pottery producing districts of Ohio. West 
Virginia, and Pennsylvania. 

The Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment, through the State Geologist's Division of 
Mineral Resources, has already received word 
from reliable sources that at least two pr. 
for the development of cyanite are being con- 
sidered in North Carolina 

These proposed developments involve the erec- 
tion of concentrating plants and the use oi cyanite 
in manufacturing processes Although nothing 
definite has been decided, it is believed that at 
least one will be realized in the near future It 
is said that the proposed plant would use 100 
tons of the mineral with the capacity later to 
be increased to ,>00 tons daily. 

"I found." said Geologist Bryson commenting 
I -.'.inued on Pagt 4 



■ 
■ 
. . . . 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 

Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



CONSERVATION PROGRESS 



North Carolinians responding to the ap- 
peal and the needs of conservation reflected 
through the new laws that set forth the 
program of the State are given praise in a 
report made by M. C. James, Assistant to 
Chief of the Division of Fish Culture, 
United States Bureau of Fisheries, who 
recently, in company with Assistant Di- 
rector J. K. Dixon and Frank J. Reiger, 
Superintendent of Hatcheries, made a sur- 
vey of inland lakes and power reservoirs 
to determine their suitability for the devel- 
opment of game fishing. 

"At the outset," says Mr. James, "men- 
tion should be made of the unusual degree 
of interest in conservation manifested by 
citizens throughout the State. Virtually 
everyone with whom I talked appeared 
vitally interested in preserving the wild 
life resources which the State now pos- 
sesses and increasing these resources as far 
as possible. 

"Owners of private ponds and those in- 
terested in public waters seemed ready to 
accept whatever restriction may be neces- 
sary for the perpetuation of fishing, and 
the attitude toward the new hunting and 
fishing licenses appeared to be universally 
favorable. 

"The chief criticism seemed to be that 
the fishing licenses are not sufficiently in- 
clusive, and this would appear to be sound 
objection. I would hardly have expected 
such a widespread acceptance of a licensing 
act and a more rigid hunting and fishing 
law which are comparative innovations in 
the South, but it can be emphatically as- 
serted that no more healthy spirit of co- 
operation, and no fuller realization of the 
need of preservation of fish and game has 
been observed among the real sportsmen in 
any of the other states I have visited." 



Experiences of Pennsylvania show that the 
public gains a great service from the State For- 
ests. An annual report shows that 1,500,000 peo- 
ple used the forests for recreational purposes in 
1927; and the amount of game killed on these 
areas during the same year was 6,530 deer, 121 
bears, and 8 elk. 



OYSTER CULTURIST 
SUGGESTS PLANTING 
OF ADDITIONAL BEDS 



Reviewing the status of the oyster in North 
Carolina waters, Dr. P. S. Galtsoff of the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries in a final report of 
the investigations which have been carried on 
during the last fiscal period points out a number 
of interesting phases of the situation. 

Doctor Galtsoff declares that at present the 
oyster resources of the State consist chiefly of 
natural bottoms with a larger part of the supply 
for the canning trade, and sets forth that a per- 
manent supply of the bivalves for this purpose 
will be accomplished by systematic planting of 
shells in Pamlico Sound. 

He suggests an increase in the practice of oys- 
ter farming, saying that not more than 1,000 
acres of bottoms are being leased by the State 
for the purose at this time. 

The waters of North Carolina, he continues, 
offer better opportunities for the development of 
the oyster industry than merely supplying cheap 
oysters for the canneries. Everywhere that shells 
have been planted, he declared, they have been 
covered with fairly good sets and show a good 
rate of growth. 

He found that the quality of oysters grown 
in West Bluff Bay, Wyesocking Bay, Far Creek 
and in the adjacent parts of Pamlico Sound was 
poorer than those in Swanquarters Narrows, off 
Judith Point, and around Brant Island and that 
high-quality bivalves can be found in Bay River, 
Pastor Shoal, Masons Bay, at the Point of Marsh, 
Raccoon Key, Swan Island, and in Neuse River. 
He suggests that more extensive planting be car- 
ried on in those localities where the best grade 
of oysters are found to produce. 

Experiments, Doctor Galtsoff declares, have 
proved that the planting of brush is suitable for 
North Carolina waters and is cheaper than shell 
planting. He points to the experiments in Oys- 
ter Creek in 1926 as a proof of this fact, and 
urges that this method of extending the oyster 
bottoms be given serious consideration and ap- 
plied on a large scale. 

He advocates an increase of leased bottoms for 
oyster farming as a means of revenue for this 
Department and to enable it to carry on further 
shell planting. The expert would leave oyster 
farming to individual enterprise and recommends 
that the Department concentrate on the mainten- 
ance of existing natural oyster bottoms in Pam- 
lico Sound and encouraging oyster farming by 
individuals. 

Director Wade H. Phillips, Fisheries Commis- 
sioner J. A. Nelson and F. S. Worthy, Chairman 
of the Commercial Fisheries Committee, and other 
members of the Department Board, are interested 
in increasing the bottoms that are not natural 
oyster beds under lease and although the industry 
has not yet gained the headway as it has in some 
states, they are encouraging its extension. 

Commissioner Nelson declares that the experi- 
ments that have been carried out by the Depart- 
ment show that as a general rule "cultivated 
oysters" have a sure market, bring a greater rev- 
enue, and are of better quality. The almost un- 



SALES OF LICENSES 
PASSED FIGURE OF 
$200,000 FOR SEASON 

Late reports from selling agencies in various 
parts of the State have brought the total remit- 
tances from hunting license sales to more than 
$200,000, according to Assistant Director J. K. 
Dixon, who has made a recent check on the is- 
suance of the permits. 

With remittances from sales of licenses vir- 
tually completed, it is believed that the final 
total of receipts will stand near the point now 
reached. This is considered a pleasing contrast 
to the originally estimated $100,000 for the first 
year of the operation of the law. 

Meanwhile the census of game bagged during 
the season is being pushed. Large numbers of 
hunters have already fulfilled the pledge, they 
took with the application that they would report 
the number, species and location of game birds 
and animals taken, and thousands of completed 
reports have been returned. 

In a recent statement, Fred I. Sutton, Chair- 
man of the Game Committee, introducer of the 
law, expressed pleasure over the first year of its 
operation. He declared that one of the principal 
features of its success has been the general en- 
thusiasm with which it has been received by the 
public and co-operation and willingness on the 
part of the sportsmen of the State to observe 
its principles. 



AVERY COUNTY CONCERN 

ESTABLISHES HATCHERY 



Another step to increase the usefulness of 
streams of the State is reported underway by 
individual initiative in Avery County, where a 
private hachery has been installed. 

The hatchery was built by the Anthony Devel- 
opment Company, Pineola, H. C. Marmon, auto- 
mobile manufacturer, Indianapolis, Ind., head. It 
is provided with 12 troughs each having a capa- 
city of 10,000 baby fish. 

In connection with the hatchery, a series of ten 
nursery ponds to receive the baby fish after they 
are taken from the hatching troughs, has been 
built. Already, according to word received by 
Assistant Director J. K. Dixon, 62,000 baby fry 
are in sight for the ponds and efforts are being 
made to obtain more. 

Another feature of the fish stocking program 
is the construction of a 62-acre lake. The body 
of water was formed by the Linville River, mak- 
ing an ideal trout pond which will be stocked 
from the nearby nurseries. Expert care will be 
provided in supervising the care of, rearing, and 
planting of the young fish. 



Deputy Game and Fish Commissioner C. N. 
Mease has seized a total of ten fawns that have 
been held illegally since the enactment of the new 
State Game Law. The fawns are being used to 
stock the new Mt. Mitchell Game Refuge. 



limited areas aside from the natural bottoms that 
may be developed as oysters-producing territory 
hold promise for wise exploitation. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



FOREST WEEK WILL 

FOCUS ATTENTION ON 

WOODLAND WEALTH 

(Continued from Page 1) 
aesthetic and spiritual value of trees and forests 
as beautiful and beneficent gifts of God, and as 
the friends and servants of man. Automobilists 
can on this day enjoy the beauty of the dog- 
wood, rhododendron, mountain laurel, and other 
forest flowers without destroying them. 

Monday, April 23 — Forest Resources Day. Let 
speakers, writers and teachers emphasize the eco- 
nomic value of trees and forests. Our industries, 
our farms, and our homes need a regular and per- 
manent supply of timber. 

Tuesday, April 24 — Forest Protection Day. The 
fundamental importance of protecting our forests 
from fire will be stressed. Let every forest war- 
den devote the day to effective publicity work, 
especially distributing reading matter and talking 
fire control. Let newspapers and advertisers co- 
operate in placing forest fire slogans in their ad- 
vertisements to run through the week. 

Wednesday, April 25 — Forest Renewal Day. 
Let the perpetuation of our forest resources be 
considered by luncheon clubs, women's clubs, 
and similar organizations. Proper methods of cut- 
ting and the selection of suitable seed trees will 
secure a second crop in most cases. Planting of 
desirable species will be necessary where the for- 
ests have already been destroyed. 

Thursday, April 26 — Public Forests Day. For- 
ests and scenic areas owned by the public and 
administered by the Federal Government, the 
State, the County, and City or the Community 
are rapidly increasing in number and importance. 

Friday, April 27 — School Observance Day. The 
Superintendents, Principals and teachers of the 
public schools, both for white and colored, might 
well arrange for a general observance of this week 
along appropriate lines. Speeches, essays or ex- 
ercises within the school, reading the President's 
or Governor's proclamation, tree planting on the 
school ground, or tree study in the nearby woods 
should emphasize the importance of trees and 
forests to the next generation. 

Saturday, April 28 — Knoiv-Our-W oodlands 
Day. Go camping, picnicking, fishing, hiking, 
photographing — anything to get to the woods. 
See if you can name the principal trees. Can 
you find aboundant seedlings, young growth or 
mature timber? Have the woods been burnt 
over? With what result. Is there a full, even 
stand of desirable species? 



STEPP IS NEW DISTRICT 

CHIEF FOREST WARDEN 

J. Peter Stcpp, Black Mountain, Buncombe 
County, has been appointed Chief Forest Warden 
of District No. 2, to serve out of the office of 
District Forester H. M. Sebring, Lenoir. 

Mr. Stepp has been in the Forest Service of 
the Department for a number of years and has 
proved his interest in the problems of forestry. 
His previous service was in Buncombe County, 
where he was a District Forest Warden. 

District No. 2, includes the northern tier of 
mountain counties, extending from the east line 
of Madison, Buncombe, and Henderson Counties 
to the northern border of the State. 



DIRECTOR PROMISES 
SUPPORT IN CONTROL 
OF WOODCHUCK PEST 



Full co-operation with the Bureau of Biological 
Survey in its studies and campaign to control 
the woodchuck or groundhoug where the animal 
has become injurious to agriculture has been 
promised by Director Wade H. Phillips. 

Odum Stewart, biologist of the Federal Bureau, 
who has been making a study of the relation of 
the groundhog to argriculture in this State has 
informed Director Phillips that the animals have 
increased in some places to such an extent that 
they have caused serious injury to agriculture. 

However, Mr. Stewart declares that the total 
extermination of the animal is neither desirable 
nor necessary, but that checking his increase in 
the most seriously infested districts is highly im- 
portant. 

A bulletin issued by the Survey suggests the 
used of a gas method of attack in April and May 
to control the animal, "not only because the ani- 
mals are concentrated in their dens in the spring 
while getting ready to raise the new family, but 
also because at this time their burrows are free 
from other animals that might be destroyed need- 
lessly. 

"Gassing is the surest practicable method of 
controlling the pest on the average farm of the 
Eastern States. Carbon disulphide and calcium 
cyanide when properly used are both effective in 
gassing or famigating woodchuck burrows. At 
present the use of carbon disulphide is the less 
expensive of the two and, therefore, preferable. 
Gasoline and exhaust from a gas engine or auto- 
mobile are also used on small areas." 



MT. MITCHELL WILL GET 

ANNUAL SPRING DRESS 



Mt. Mitchell, the focal point of the State Park 
bearing its name, is to have its annual spring 
dressing during this month with the continuation 
of the forest tree planting activities started two 
years ago by this Department. 

The planting will be in charge of Assistant For- 
ester F. H. Claridge, who also supervised the two 
previous ones, replace the burned over area near 
the summit of the mountain. Practical results 
of the work are shown with the rapid growth of 
the trees previously set out. 

This year's quota of seedlings will consist of 
about 10,000 native spruce to be furnished free 
of charge by the Champion Fibre Company of 
Canton from its forest nursery. This setting will 
equal about the combined two plantings. Plans 
of the Department are to continue with this work 
until the ugly scar left by the heavy fire of sev- 
eral years ago is entirely covered by thrifty trees 
of the varieties native to the mountain. 



The average cost of extinguishing forest fires 
in organized counties was reduced in 1027 to $12 
from $14 for the previous year. This shows 
progress toward one of the great purposes of 
forest conservation — smaller fires and less expen- 
sive fire fighting, total elimination of fires, how- 
ever, being the goal. 



OPPORTUNITIES FOR 

PUBLIC ENJOYMENT 

ARE LYING DORMANT 

(Continued from Page 1) 

Nature has done her full -hare in her arl 
touch but man alters natural conditions by build- 
ing cities, erecting great structures, creating huta- 
lakes for power developments, large municipal 
water storage reservoirs, and numerous other en- 
terprises which change the landscape and create 
different conditions. 

In virtually all cases of these improvemi 
there are opportunities in developing the artistic 
side and the recreational features that the public 
may benefit in other ways than by the mere en- 
joyment of physical necessities. A beautiful city 
and countryside help make a happy, contented 
and vigorous population. The joy of sprinmime 
after dreary winter months emphasizes the elixir 
of the out-of-doors. 

With the steady march of the industrial age, 
bringing more machine work and greater con- 
centration in every line of endeavor, recreation 
and diversion becomes more important. That 
there is a tendency in the country for shorter 
working hours giving more leisure time magnifies 
the question of how idle hours will be passed; 
and brings social problems. The community that 
neglects the consideration which these conditions 
are bringing lies asleep at the throttle. 

However, some North Carolina cities have al- 
ready begun on programs that are to meet these 
problems; some by utilizing natural conditions; 
some by taking advantage of commercial develop- 
ments; and others by going out in surrounding 
territories to furnish recreational facilities. A.-he- 
ville and Charlotte are developing their parks; 
Winston-Salem residents are encouraging the crea- 
tion of a large game preserve in Stokes county; 
and Greensboro has recently given the use of its 
reservoir area for a game preserve and is work- 
ing toward the establishment of a fish hatchery. 
Other cities are undertaking or planning similar 
projects. 

Director Wade H. Phillips, taking cognizance of 
the great facilities for the use of lakes made by 
power companies, points out examples of their 
utilization in behalf of the public along with other 
opportunities to beautify communities and to 
provide more recreation: He says 

"The lake being formed by the Oxford Shoals 
dam of the Duke Power Company hacks its 
waters up almost to the limits of the city of 
Hickory. The municipal authorities of Hickory 
are in negotiation with the Duke officials for the 
use of certain lands bordering the lake for a mu- 
nicipal park and for a colony oi summer cottages 

"In Stanly county among the picturesque hill> 
is being formed another huge body of water, 
created by the Norwood dam of the Carolina 
Power and Light Company. Suggestions are be- 
ing made now for many playgrounds, bathing 
places, and summer colony locations along the 
waters oi that lake. 

"With the many thousands of acres of unused 
lands in the State, it seems to me that, with the 
growing sentiment for more playgrounds and for 
the beautification Of waste places, it would be a 
wise move on the part of the city authorities 
everywhere to look about them and make pro- 
vision now for developments that may have to 
be delaved for some future time " 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



SEVERAL COUNTIES 
HAVE NO INDIVIDUAL 
MAPS OF TERRITORY 



DEPARTMENT BEGINS 
SURVEY CONDITIONS 
TIMBER RESOURCES 



In an effort to collect a complete set of maps 
of all of the 100 counties of the State, the Water 
Resources Division through Thorndike Saville, 
Chief Hydraulic Engineer, has addressed an ap- 
peal to those not represented as being available. 

An immediate need of these maps is in connec- 
tion with the stream sanitation and conservation 
survey that is being conducted by the committee 
made up of executive officials of this Department 
and the State Board of Health and of the chief 
engineers of the two Departments. 

Another purpose which the maps will be able 
to serve is in connection with the census of man- 
ufactures being taken by this Department in co- 
operation with the United States Bureau of the 
Census. 

From the investigations of the Water Resources 
Division, it appears that a number of counties do 
not have individual maps of any description. 
Those regarding which information is being 
sought by the Division include: Avery, Bruns- 
wick, Camden, Carteret, Chatham, Clay, Craven, 
Currituck, Davie, Gates, Graham, Jackson, Jones, 
Lee, Lenoir, Macon, Madison, Martin, McDowell, 
Mitchell, Montgomery, Northampton, Pamlico, 
Person, Rockingham, Stokes, Surry, Swain, War- 
ren, Watauga, and Yadkin. 

Anyone furnishing information regarding the 
availability of maps for any of these counties will 
be doing a public service in communicating with 
Mr. Saville at Chapel Hill, N. C. Assistance in 
this line will be greatly appreciated. 

GEOLOGIST BELIEVES 

CYANITE WILL FIND 

EXTENSIVE MARKETS 

(Continued from Page 1) 
on the consideration that is being given to cyan- 
ite, "that, without a single exception, all of the 
engineers are enthusiastic about the possibilities. 
They even went so far as to say that at any 
time cyanite could be brought down to about 
S30.00 a ton the demand would be very great 
as all the potters would use it. 

"The potters who were using the cyanite in 
the saggers said it was the best material they 
had been able to find as it prevented the crumb- 
ling of the saggers. One of the engineers told 
me that his firm was using it in saggers, 
paying $90 per ton for the material, and found 
that after using cyanite they had heated the sag- 
gers thirty-five times and could probably use 
the same ones that many more times as they 
showed scarcely no signs of use after having been 
through this many heats. 

"The engineer compared samples of the ordi- 
nary saggers which had been used thirty-five 
times (containing cyanite) and there was no com- 
parison whatever as the saggers made of cyanite 
looked to be new while the others were broken 
and could not be used again. 

"Every plant I visited was either using cyanite 
or making experiments to determine its value. 
The future, then, seems to be bright and the 
sooner this material is got on the market, the 
quicker a good demand will be built up for it." 

Dr. G. A. Bole, one of the foremost authorities 



Seeking to apply the same principles of for- 
estry that are necessary for a successful business, 
the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment, through its Division of Forestry has started 
a survey of conditions over the State. 

This survey is designed to furnish as complete 
information as it is possible to obtain within a 
limited time of about six months and with a small 
force regarding forest conditions in North Caro- 
lina. 

Aside from the information that it will give, 
the survey's purpose is to promote interest in 
the possibilities of utilizing wisely this natural 
resource and of perpetuating the supply by con- 
servation of timber. The survey, because of its 
limitations, will not be exhaustive but it is hoped 
that it will be the foundation for more thorough 
studies by individuals and counties. 

Under the Department's plan, the survey will 
be undertaken by county units requiring several 
days for each. It is proposed to show the area 
of merchantable timber, the area of smaller 
growth, farm woodlots, acreage outside of farms 
handled purely for commercial timber production, 
and the scope of unproductive forest lands. 

In addition, it is intended that the survey will 
be somewhat of an inventory of the principal 
species of trees, hardwoods and coniferous species. 
Information will be gathered on the uses of the 
forests and the rate of consumption as compared 
with reproduction. 

The services of R. C. Brown, formerly of the 
United States Forest Service and more lately with 
the Champion Fibre Company, Canton, have been 
obtained by the Department. Mr. Brown will 
work in those counties outside of the organized 
forest fire protective districts, consisting mostly 
of the central part of the State. The following 
District Foresters will undertake the survey with- 
in their territories. W. K. Beichler, Asheville; 
H. M. Sebring, Lenoir; Chas. H. Flory, Fayette- 
ville; F. H. Sipe, New Bern; and L. A. Carter, 
Windsor. The entire program will be under the 
direct supervision of State Forester J. S. Holmes. 
A similar work was undertaken several years 
ago by the former Economic and Geological Sur- 
vey (predecessor of this Department) in co-oper- 
ation with the United States Forest Service, but 
the limit of funds allowed only an incomplete 
coverage of the counties. The current survey will 
bring the existing data up to date and will include 
those in which it had not been attempted before. 



TAR HEEL EXPORTS 
EXPERIENCE LARGE 
INCREASE IN VALUE 



on ceramics in the world and a member of the 
faculty of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 
after a visit to Western North Carolina last year 
declared that in his opinion a promising future 
is held for the development of cyanite and that 
North Carolina has more of the material in pros- 
pect than any place of which he has heard. 

A new material, so far as scientific knowledge 
of its practical uses, cyanite, in the opinion of 
many holds the key to potential developments of 
considerable magnitude in which North Carolina, 
because of her unlimited stores, should take the 
lead. 



Exports of merchandise from North Carolina 
during the third quarter of 1927 were valued at 
$8,916,548 compared with $8,086,125 during the 
corresponding period of 1926, an increase of 
$830,423, according to figures made public by the 
co-operative office of the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce operated by the Commerce 
and Industry Division of this Department. 

Raw cotton, valued at $2,448,291, ranked first 
in order of value among the commodities sent 
from the State to foreign markets during the 
three-month period. Exports of leaf tobacco, 
valued at $1,791,813, were followed in order by 
cotton cloth, $962,407 ; cotton yarn, thread and 
cordage, $926,958; cotton mill waste, $532,151; 
cotton hosiery, $493,051; tobacco manufactures, 
$365,921 ; and vegetable food products and bev- 
erages, $337,653. 

Chemicals and related products, machinery, 
vehicles and parts, boards, planks and scantlings, 
wood manufactures, animals and animal product 
(edible and inedible), and non-metallic mineral 
products were among the diversified commodities 
exported during the three months from this State. 

Specific inquiries for American goods received 
in this Bureau of the Department of Conservation 
and Development can be obtained by any Ameri- 
can manufacturer in the State. 

This is a dollars and cents service, released for 
simultaneous publication in all parts of the United 
States. None of the information given has been 
heretofore published in any form. 

To obtain the confidential information it is 
necessary only for American exporters to apply 
to this office of the Bureau, giving the class of 
inquiries in which they are interested. Address 
Park Mathewson, Foreign Trade Secretary of the 
Department of Conservation and Development, 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Some of the specific assistance which the Bu- 
reau gives includes the assistance for American 
firms engaged in foreign trade by furnishing in- 
formation concerning overseas markets; nature of 
the competition encountered and methods of 
meeting it ; sources of supply of materials, espec- 
ially raw products; tariffs; customs regulation; 
commercial laws; shipping and financing; and 
many other subjects that have a bearing upon 
market conditions abroad. 

The main Federal Bureau has 23 district 
offices and 35 co-operative offices over the United 
States. It also has commercial attaches and 
resident trade commissioners in the principal 
capitals and commercial centers of the world and 
employs a corps of traveling experts. 



Capt. J. W. Rollins, a resident of Manteo, is 
setting a good example by planting shells in the 
development of "oyster gardening." Last year, 
Captain Rollins planted about 9,000 bushels of 
shells and this year he plans to increase the num- 
ber to 20,000 bushels. He believes that North 
Carolinians can develop the industry as exten- 
sively as other states, especially since the bottoms 
of this State have furnished a large amount of 
shells for planting elsewhere. 



CONSERVATION m* INDUSTRY 

A Bi-Weekly Publication of the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol. V 



MAY 1, 1928 



No. 9 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY 
FOR STATE MAPPED 
OUT BY DEPARTMENT 



Details of the plan of action for the compre- 
hensive survey of natural resources and industrial 
development in North Carolina on which Depart- 
ment officials have been working for some time 
have been completed, and first steps in the pro- 
gram are to be launched soon. 

Broadly speaking, the survey will be an inven- 
tory of the natural resources of the State, in- 
cluding raw materials such as agricultural pro- 
ducts, forests, minerals, fisheries, climate, and 
population. 

This will mark the first attempt toward in- 
dexing the resources of the State in a comprehen- 
sive and systematic fashion. It is an effort to 
show the materials that the State is able to fur- 
nish for the use either in their natural condition 
or in processes of industry. 

Seeks Exploitation 

The survey seeks to determine to what extent 
the possibilities for development have been ex- 
ploited and what opportunities exist for continued 
exploitation. It is more than a mere effort to 
seek indiscriminate utilization of natural resources, 
but to guide it in channels that promise to be 
most beneficial to the individuals themselves and 
to the State at large. 

It is an effort to collect fundamental informa- 
tion and to make it available to those whom it 
may serve in building a bigger and better State 
along sound and economic lines. 

The survey is an idea that has been harbored 
in the minds of Governor A. W. McLean, Director 
Wade H. Phillips, H. L. McClaren, former chair- 
man of the Division of Commerce and Industry 
and his successor, Ben B. Gossett, for some time. 
Plans have been pushed forward as rapidly as 
possible until the outline has been prepared and 
activities are ready to start. 

Co-operation Promised 

Director Phillips has announced that the sur- 
vey will be carried out entirely with the Depart- 
ment's force and with the co-operation of other 
State agencies. All divisions of the Department 
will assist along their special lines. In the field 
of mineral resources, co-operation of outstanding 
geologists including Dr. Jasper L. Stuckey, Head 
of the Department of Geology, N. C. State. Col- 
lege; Dr. A. L. Greaves-Walker, professor of 
Ceramics, State College; and Harry T. Davis, 
Curator of Geology, State Museum, has been 
promised. 

Forest Study Started 

A study of the forest resources of the State. 
to be a unit in the survey, is already underway. 
and substantial progress has been reported. 
(Continued on Page 4) 



TALLEST FOREST TOWER 




The new Bannerman forest tower erected by 
the Cooper River Timber Company in Pender 
County, near Burgaw, a steel structure of 80 
feet in height, has the distinction of being the 
loftiest fire sentinel in the State. However, be- 
cause of the growth of the tower system, it is 
destined to hold its laurels only a short time, 
as another lookout of 102 feet is being erected 
in Hertford County. The Hertford tower will 
overlook a large part of the Great Dismal 
Swamp area. 



CULTURE SCALLOPS 
LATEST ENTERPRISE 
OF FISHERY DIVISION 



Scallop culture, a new venture in the develop- 
ment of commercial fisheries is proposed for the 
coastal waters of North Carolina. 

Oyster culture is an old. highly developed prac- 
tice, and clam planting has gained some momen- 
tum, but the United States Bureau of Fisheries 
avers that scallop culture is yet to be developed. 

This movement is proposed by the Federal Bu- 
reau, in co-operati<m with the Commercial Fish- 
( Continued on Page 3) 



FOREST FIRE RECORD 
FOR MARCH PROVES 
PROTECTION WORTH 



Work unceasing has been required for years in 
building up a forest fire prevention organization 
in North Carolina and, as is the case with many 
great movements, the immediate results have not 
always been encouraging. 

However, fruits of these efforts are beginning 
to be borne, discernible not only to the trained 
forester but also to the general public. The in- 
creasing efficiency in the work has been marked 
especially during recent months by a gradual 
tightening of the protective organization and by 
concrete demonstrations of its value. 

Perhaps the most effective of all the monthly 
records was set during March, generally acknow- 
ledged to have been one of the most hazardous 
fire months for more than a year. With woods 
dry and the vegetation not yet refreshed by the 
arrival of spring it was natural that the number 
of fires should have been large, but this situation 
threw down the gauntlet to test the efficiency of 
the protective organization. 

More Fires 

More fires occurred during the month than in 
any single month in more than a year, but the 
efforts of the warden organizations in co-oper- 
ating counties reduced the total damages below 
that of months that experienced fewer than half 
the number. 

A total of Z33 fires were reported in the 33 
co-operating counties for the month as compared 
with 147 during the same month of the previous 
year. The total burned territory last month u.i- 
only 10JQ4 acres against 4 7 ..> 1 in March. I 

A substantial reduction in the estimated dam- 
age was also reported la*t month from the same 
period in the preceding year, the amounts being 
$31,016 in March, 1928, and $67,582 in lo:7. 
Losses Reduced 

The striking feature of the fire situation in 
March was the reduction oi loss for the avei 
individual fire which burned 57 sere- and caused 
SOS in damage in March of this year, while the 
average fire of March, 1927, seared -- ; acres and 
resulted in damages amounting to $4 

Reduced acreage coverage and financial loss 
was accomplished, the report shows, in spite of 
the substantia] increase in number oi counties in 
the organized system and the larger amount ol 
territory patrolled, which had increased from 
24 to 33 counties and from 6,335,981 acres to 
8,050,410 acres. 

In the face of dry weather which created ron- 

ditions more favorable to the occurrence oi fires 

and more inviting to their spread, the increased 

activity and efficiency of the fire prevention forces 

(Continues 



. , 99 } » . 1 > .' _ ■ 



t . r 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

Published at Raleigh, N. C, by ihe North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 

ENFORCEMENT TIGHTENS 



While the Forestry Division of the De- 
partment of Conservation and Develop- 
ment is pushing with vigor its educational 
campaign and urging the co-operation of 
the public in the prevention of forest fires 
in an endeavor to create the most whole- 
some respect for the injury inflicted by 
this ravager of the forests, it is carrying 
forward the enforcement of the laws 
against wilful violators. 

State statutes provide punishment for 
the incendiarist, who with deliberate or 
reckless disregard for the general welfare 
of the State and individual property rights, 
sets fire in the woods. 

A tightening of the enforcement of these 
laws, with a noticeable backing of pouplar 
approval, has been marked steadily during 
the last few years, according to W. C. Mc- 
Cormick, Assistant State Forester. War- 
dens, more experience in the protection of 
the forests, are becoming more zealous in 
their efforts to protect the public against 
the "Red Demon." 

A recent case where heavy penalties were 
meted out to deliberate violators of the 
fire laws is reported fro.m Rutherford 
county. Three jail sentences are being 
served by incendiarists who deliberately 
fired the woods. 

Writing to Assistant State Forester Mc- 
Cormick, the owners of the burned strip, 
said: "From all reports that we have re- 
ceived, your men did excellent work both 
as regards the fire and the catching of the 
ones who were responsible." Eli McCurry 
was the prosecuting warden. 



MANGANESE MINING IS 

STARTED IN THIS STATE 



Word has been received by State Geologist H. 
J. Bryson that mining operations for manganese 
have been started in Transylvania county, 
about six miles from Brevard under the direction 
of T. J. Miller, experienced mining engineer and 
a native North Carolinian, who had engaged in 
mining in the west for a number of years. 

The report says that a shaft has been sunk 
several feet and that two shifts of workmen have 
been employed. Mr. Miller is declared to have 



GAME ENTHUSIASTS 
WILL TRY PLANTING 
WATERFOWL FOODS 



Increasing interest in the game of North Caro- 
lina recently has caused attention to be drawn 
oward the natural availability of food, this being 
especially true of migratory waterfowl of the 
coast. 

Botanists and biologists have declared that the 
jreat inland sounds, mouths of rivers, indentures, 
and lakes of the coastal section of the State pro- 
vide some of the best natural feeding grounds of 
the United States. This claim is amply borne 
out by the vast hordes of the fowls that winter 
in this section. 

One of the best of these feeding grounds in 
the past has been Lake Mattamuskeet, Hyde 
county, which has been partly drained, thereby 
causing a decrease in the number of birds that 
frequent the section. This district has long been 
known as one of the most popular feeding grounds 
for geese in the United States and well known 
for ducks. 

According to the belief of sportsmen, one of 
the greatest attractions for the fowls is a grass 
known as Scirpus americanus or reed grass, one 
of the sedge family. It grows on the borders of 
brackish and fresh water and will die when the 
water leaves it entirely for any length of time. 

A sample of the plant taken recently from the 
lake by Charles J. Moore, Deputy Game and 
Fish Commissioner, Washington, who is greatly 
interested in the extension of feeding grounds for 
the wildfowl, was examined by Dr. W. L. Mc- 
Afee, in charge of food habits research, United 
States Biological Survey, at the request of Harry 
T. Davis, Associate Curator of the State Museum. 
Doctor McAtee declares that the plant is "one 
of the more important foods for wild fowl, al- 
though in some localities where there is an abund- 
ance of other foods it may be taken only in small 
quantities at times. Geese feed upon the root- 
stocks and practically all kinds of wild ducks 
upon the seeds. The crop of the latter is usually 
large and in some localities form the larger part 
of the food of wild ducks in late winter and 
early spring." 

Mr. Davis, secretary of the Onslow Gun Club, 
Onslow county, is planning to plant a quantity of 
the sedge on lands controlled by the club to in- 
crease its attractions for migratory fowl. He is 
being aided in this work by Mr. Moore, who has 
agreed to supervise its gathering. 



expressed pleasure over the showing of the ore 
which has been mined this far. 

The last previous production of manganese in 
North Carolina before the present enterprise was 
reported from Transylvania county in 192S. 

Manganese ores are said by State Geologist 
Bryson to have been found in North Carolina for 
many years, but that none have been worked to 
any great extent. He declares that considerable 
prospecting has been done in Cherokee and Gas- 
ton counties. Other counties where manganese 
ores have been reported include Catawba, Lincoln, 
Clay, Cleveland, Surry, Ashe, Haywood, and 
Wilkes. 



WATER RESOURCES 
DIVISION IS SEEKING 
STREAM GAGING Aid 



Attempting a work in which dependence musB 
be placed in voluntary sources for miscellaneous! 
discharge measurements of numerous small 
streams, the Water Resources Division is plan-j 
ning to issue a supplement to Department Bulle-I 
tin 34, "Discharge Records of North Carolina 
Streams, 1889-1923." 

This supplement will present all stream flow 
records in the State for the period 1924-27, in-l 
elusive. Stressing the necessity of co-operatiorJi 
on the part of engineers and others who have. 
had occasion to make measurements of dis-l 
charge of small streams, the Division has ad-1 
dressed memoranda to those who are considered! 
to be in a position to assist in the work. 

With the appeal for assistance, the Division! 
has sent out forms with requests that they ba 
filled out in detail and returned to the office atj 
Chapel Hill. It is especially important that aa 
complete information as possible be given relative 
to the method and accuracy of the measurement, 
as well os to the location and date. 

Compliance with the request of the Water Re- 
sources Division furnishes opportunity to those 
who have needed information to contribute to 
a cause that will aid in the solution of watei 
supply, sewage disposal, and other important I 
problems. 



ROCKINGHAM COUNTY 
HAS FIRST COMBINED 
FOREST AND REFUGE 



North Carolina's first combined State Forest 
and Auxiliary Game Refuge, consisting of be-J 
tween 600 and 700 acres, has been established in 
Rockingham county, about three miles west of 
Reidsville. 

The new preserve and forest has been turned 
over to the State under lease by Jefferson Penn, 
Reidsville manufacturer and conservation enthus- 
iast. Mr. Penn made the offer of his land to the; 
State directly to Governor A. W. McLean, who 
requested an investigation of the territory by 
Wade H. Phillips, director of the Department of 
Conservation and Development, and State For- 
ester J. S. Holmes. 

After a survey of the area, Director Phillips 
and Forester Holmes recommended acceptance of 
the tract for the purpose offered by Mr. Penn. 
An agreement has already been drawn and signed I 
by Mr. Penn and by Director Phillips on behalf! 
of the State. 

The new State Forest and Game Refuge lies 
along Wolf Island Creek and near the Reidsville- 
Wentworth highway. It consists partly of for- 
ested lands, both hardwoods and pines, and partly 
of open lands. 

While providing protection for game, the area 
will be used to demonstrate scientific forest prac- 
tices under the direction of experts of the De- 
partment. It will show, among other things, the 
necessity of the prevention of forest fires, selective 
cutting, reforestation and general forestry prac- 
tices. 



life 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



HOLMES DISCUSSES 
EASTERN CAROLINA 
FOREST PROBLEMS 



Reviewing forest conditions in Eastern North 
Carolina, State Forester J. S. Holmes, speaking 
before the Industrial Institute held in connection 
with the Eastern Carolina Chamber of Commerce 
at Goldsboro, April 12-13, declared that after 
three centuries of settlement little more than 25 
per cent of the area of the section is under culti- 
vation. 

With some small exceptions, he pointed out, 
the remainder is, or should be, in producing for- 
est growth. This section contains in round num- 
bers about 15,000,000 acres of territory, approxi- 
mately half of the total area of the State. Of 
this, he estimates, there are four million acres of 
what is known as improved land, seven million 
acres of growing forests, and about four million 
acreas of non-producing land, most of which has 
been brought to this condition through excessive 
lumbering and continued burning. 

After telling of the rapid decline of the amount 
of available timber because of heavy cutting 
without proper regard for replacement, State 
Forester Holmes declared that the period just 
before and during the World War saw peak pro- 
duction and peak prices, but at the present time 
the State cut has declined to around one-half 
the total cut in 1914. 

"This decline," he continued, "is not by any 
means entirely due to market conditions but the 
growing scarcity of accessible timber and the 
increasing distance of timber to available trans- 
portation has so increased the cost of lumbering 
operations that ws have been unable to complete 
successfully with the large virgin forests of the 
Pacific coast. 

Little Information 

"At this point I am forced to confess that we 
have very little accurate information on the 
amount of standing timber or the condition of 
the stands in any of our eastern counties but we 
do know from even casual observation that condi- 
tions are serious and must be remedied if our 
forest lands are to pay even their cost in taxes 
and interest on the investment. 

"Our future timber supply also depends on 
securing a full stand of suitable timber trees. 
Nature will look after this if let alone, but where 
a man cuts and burns, man will also have to take 
steps to remedy the evil effects of his uncon- 
sidered action. On many areas, profitable for- 
ests can be produced from the trees and young 
growth already on the land. In other cases, well 
considered operations, both in methods of cutting 
and actual forest planting will be necessary." 

Continuing, the speaker asserted that the De- 
partment of Conservation and Development is 
this summer making a rather general survey of 
the State, at the request of Governor McLean, 
to determine conditions of the natural resources 
of the State and the industries dependent upon 
them. 

Studies of timber resources of some 15 or 20 
years ago, he continued, which are now out of 
date and inaccurate, will be revised and the rest 
of the counties where no surveys have been made 
will be included until all have been visited. This 



CULTURE SCALLOPS 

LATEST ENTERPRISE 

OF FISHERY DIVISION 

(Continued from Page 1) 
eries Division of this Department, Capt. j. A. 
Nelson, Commissioner. Tentative plans have 
been laid by the two governmental agencies for 
experimental plantings, and, according to an an- 
nouncement by the Fisheries Bureau, an indivi- 
dual is contemplating cultivating the shellfish on 
a commercial scale on bottoms that are not set 
naturally leased from this Department. 

"The known ability of the scallop to swim," 
says the Fisheries Bureau, "doubtless has served 
as a barrier to the planting of this form and has 
offset the advantages of rapid growth and high 
prices. Perhaps this is justified in other areas; 
however, investigations made by James S. Gutsell 
indicate that in the scallop-producing section of 
North Carolina the ability of the scallop to swim 
need not operate as a barrier to planting suitable 
areas. 

"It has been found that scallops of near-by 
areas show distinct differences in size, sometimes 
great differences. This and other observations 
have led the investigator to believe that although 
scallops are able to swim short distances, little 
shifting of scallops that are as much as half 
grown ordinarily takes place in North Carolina 
waters. 

"Nothing definite has been learned as to the 
earliest age at which scallops may be considered 
sedentary in habit. Very small scallops attach 
themselves to eelgrass and other vegetation and 
so are in danger of being moved when this vege- 
tation becomes loosened and is carried away by 
the wind and tides." 

Commenting on the proposed planting of scal- 
lops by an individual in waters near Morehead 
City, the Bureau of Fisheries says that this person 
plans to do the planting before the end of the 
1927-28 season and to market them next winter. 
The bureau attaches considerable significance to 
this operation and declares that it will be followed 
with interest. 



work, he showed, will point out what is needed 
to put these forest lands into permanent and 
maximum production. 

Suggests Broader Survey 

But, he declared, in order to put the county 
authorities in possission of information that 
might lead to the securing of additional indus- 
tries it is advisable to conduct much more in- 
tensive county studies. These might, he added, 
cost from SI, 000 to $2,000 per county, requiring 
co-operation from county authorities and, if pos- 
sible, from the Federal Government. It is hoped 
eventually that every county in the State may 
be covered by such an intensive survey. 

"Without waiting for further facts, however," 
he declared, "we know enough now to justify 
every effort to protect the forests and the forest 
lands from fire. We have but to see a cut-over 
area grown up to pine seedlings converted by 
spring fire to a blackened ruin of stumps and 
snags to realize that our non-producing area is 
increasing yearly and our area of growing forest 
is being reduced by this annual conflagration. 

"While timber in the State is being cut at least 
twice as fast as it is growing, there is enough 



FOREST PROTECTIVE 
FORCE WILL INCLUDE 
MORE COUNTY UNITS 

With 33 counties actively co-operating at this 

time in forest fire prevention activities, plan- are 
being made by Assistant State Forester W I 
McCormick, in charge of this ervic f thi D 
partment, to enlarge the field oi operations during 
the calendar year. 

Assistant State Forester McCormick believes 
that about 15 counties will be added during t hi- 
time. Already the organization is operating in 
more counties than have been active at any time 
before, and the proposed extensions would bring 
the largest number to begin the work during any 
one year. 

Under the two optional co-operative arrange- 
ments followed by the Forestry Division, the 
counties are only expected to pay a maximum of 
one-half of that spent within their area-, their 
appropriation being matched by the State. One 
form of contract that is used by the State calls 
for a definite amount, ranging from $500 upward 
mnually from each county, and the other involves 
iimply that the county commit itself to the 
.wpenditure of a certain amount as a maximum 
to be paid only for actual fighting of fires, while 
the State agrees to spend the maximum amount 
to which the county obligates itself on adminis- 
tration activities and education. 

No county can invest so small a sum to such 
advantage to the general welfare of the communi- 
ty and to its own financial solidarity than by a 
definite policy and organization that seeks the 
elimination of the fires that ravish the woods, 
destroy taxable values, render lands unproductive 
and a drain on the community, and destroys 
materials that are necessary to support industry. 

Fire protection is the fundamental of forestry, 
and no program for the perpetuation of the tim- 
ber supply can be successful without first putting 
a stop to the ravages of the "Red Demon." Man 
starts practically all fires in North Carolina and. 
with the proper conception of the value of for- 
ests and the harm of fire, their sweep can be 
stopped. 

FOREST FIRE RECORD 

FOR MARCH PROVES 

PROTECTION WORTH 

(Continued from Page 1 
is emphasized. More protected territory and 

smaller losses, the final goal of the service, is 
coming nearer to a reality. Although the public- 
is co-operating more fully than ever before in 
these operations along with a more acute lores) 
conscience, there are too many fires. Proper 
regard of the value of green, productive and un- 
burned forests will in the future cut down the 
number of fires as well as the losses therefrom. 






forest land to furnish all the timber that i- needed 
to supply our industries and to maintain onr : 
ent output if properly handled. It is impossible 
to say what our needs will be 10 to :0 
from now as industry is changing so rapidly. In- 
stead of mature timber, the demand in the fu- 
ture may be for smaller material, and this can be 
grown more quickly and more cheaply than the 
large trees " 



• . 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



PERSONAL CANVASS 
BEGUN TO COMPLETE 
CENSUS TABULATION 



HUNTING COLLECTIONS 

PASS $200,000 FIGURE 



A campaign to wind up the collection of infor- 
mation needed to complete the 1927 Federal 
Census of Manufactures by personal canvass has 
been started by the Department of Conservation 
and Development, which is engaged in the work 
in co-operation with the Bureau of the Census. 

The canvass started in the Central and West- 
ern counties and has been taken up in the Eastern 
counties. Services of Deputy Game and Fish 
Commissioners to assist in the work in their dis- 
tricts have been enlisted. 

At recent conferences in Salisbury and Raleigh, 
the Commissioners from all the districts received 
instructions regarding the census from Fred W. 
Coil, Special Agent of the Census Bureau, and 
Park Mathewson, Assistant Director of the De- 
partment, who is also head of the Division of 
Commerce and Industry. 

Up until the time that the personal campaign 
was started, between 75 and 80 per cent of the 
schedules had been received by the Department, 
some of which, however, were incomplete and 
will require personal verification and completion. 

Special efforts are being made by the Depart- 
ment to complete the assembling of the census 
data as early as possible in order that tabula- 
tions may be expedited and to give the State the 
information therefrom at the earliest date at 
which it has ever been available. Interest in the 
census is accentuated because of the active parti- 
cipation of the State in its compilation, marking 
its first venture in this field and giving North 
Carolina the distinction of being the second 
State granted this privilege by the Federal Bureau. 

Manufacturers and industrial officials are 
urged to co-operate by having available informa- 
tion that is needed in the census compilations 
ready for the enumerators. They are asked also 
not to defer mailing the schedules that are being 
prepared to Raleigh as each one helps to advance 
the work and relieves the solicitors. 



Hunting license collections in North Carolina 
continue to cause a stir of surprise. Late receipts 
according to a recent tabulation sent the amount 
of receipts beyond the two-hundred-thousand 
mark. 

The tabulation showed a total of $200,780 in 
receipts, more than dobling the original estimates 
of the Department for the first year of the oper- 
ation of the new State Game Law. Director 
Wade H. Phillips attributes credit for the unex- 
pected showing largely to the general co-opera- 
tion and interest of the public in the new game 
laws. 

Reports from the license selling agencies are 
now almost completed with only a few straggling 
ones to send in their final accounting, and it is 
believed that this amount may be slightly raised 
when the last adjustments of accounts are made. 



PUBLICATION SHOWS 
STATE ATTRACTIONS 
LIVING CONDITIONS 



LICENSE REQUIREMENTS 

ARE EXTENDED FURTHER 



WILMINGTON ROTARIANS 

ENDORSE FIRE CONTROL 



The Wilmington Rotary club takes on another 
instrument of public service by the recent passage 
of a resolution endorsing the Department of Con- 
servation and Development's forest fire protective 
program. 

W. C. McCormick, Assistant State Forester in 
charge of forest fire prevention for the Depart- 
ment, was invited to present the message of 
forestry before the club. His address was fol- 
lowed by the official action of the organization 
which expressed the further purpose of taking 
the proposition before the next State meeting of 
Rotary clubs for similar action. 

The Rotarians also considered practical means 
of assisting in forest fire prevention, requesting 
traveling men from their city to co-operate active- 
ly by reporting fires to wardens. Such a spirit 
as was exemplified by these Rotarians will help 
to bring about a complete realization of the pur- 
poses of forest protection. 



With but a few exceptions, the provisions for 
anglers' licenses for any type of fishing in the 
far western or mountain counties have been ex- 
tended to all trout streams. 

The total number of counties that now require 
licenses for any type of fishing in trout streams 
has now reached 20, according to a statement 
made by J. K. Dixon, Assistant Director of the 
Department of Conesrvation and Development, 
in charge of Inland Fisheries. 

A complete list of these counties is as follows: 
Ashe, Alleghany, Avery, Buncombe, Burke, Clay, 
Caldwell, Graham, Haywood, Jackson, Macon, 
Madison, Mitchell, McDowell, Polk, Swain, Surry, 
Transylvania, Watagua and Wilkes. With the 
exception of Burke and McDowell counties in 
which the Department is administering a local 
law, the provisions have been extended by the 
County Commissioners under authority of the 
State-wide act which required licenses only from 
fishermen using rod and reel, jointed rod, or who 
fish by casting. 

It is hoped that the Commissioners in the 
remaining mountain counties will take similar 
action, making the operation of the law uniform 
in the section and contributing their share to 
financing the rehabilitation of the supply of game 
fish. Funds that are collected through license 
fees are more than returned in the protection and 
regulation of fishing and in the propogation of 
new stock in the hatcheries from general distri- 
buting in the fishing waters. 



"North Carolina, A Good Place to Live," is 
soon to be published for distribution in the form 
of a booklet by the Department of Conservation 
and Development. 

This publication was compiled and written by 
Park Mathewson, Assistant Director of the De- 
partment and head of the Division of Commerce 
and Industry. 

The booklet will treat, to some extent, virtually 
every phase of life in the State, showing the 
natural resources, the social advantages, educa- 
tional facilities, health conditions, esthetic fea- 
tures, recreational opportunities, the handling of 
governmental problems as affecting the public 
welfare, accessibility of all parts of the State on 
an unexcelled system of paved and improved 
roads, and the general hospitality of the people. 

It is a production of a close study of conditions 
and a careful consideration of all phases of life 
in North Carolina. A well timed and illustrative 
group of cuts will be used to portray every 
feature that is treated in the publication. 

In its preparation, the subject matter is han- 
dled to interest the reader without boring and to 
review all of the conditions that make the State 
a desirable place in which to live. The manu- 
script for the pamphlet will probably have been 
placed in the hands of the printer before this 
issue of "Conservation and Industry" has been 
circulated and is expected to be ready for distri- 
bution within a few weeks. 



INDUSTRIAL SURVEY 

FOR STATE MAPPED 

OUT BY DEPARTMENT 

(Continued from Page 1) 
When all of the information for the survey 
has been compiled, it will be assembled in the 
most serviceable form. It will introduce a feature 
that will be beneficial to each county unit by 
listing its resources individually. 

The survey will be tabulated and published 
under the direction of Park Mathewson, Statisti- 
cian and Assistant Director of the Department. 



DEPARTMENT NOT TO 
IMPORT JACK RABBITS 

After a thorough consideration of the advisa- 
bility of importing Western jack rabbits into the 
State for stocking purposes, the Game Commit- 
tee of the Board of Conservation and Develop- 
ment and Director Wade H. Phillips have decided 
against the advisability of such a move. 

The project had not previously reached the 
stage of a definite decision to bring the animals 
into North Carolina and publicity was given to 
the suggestion in order that an expression of 
opinion of students of game conditions might 
be elicited. 

A large number of sportsmen and others en- 
tered protests against seeking to install the jack 
rabbit in the State, and because of the prepon- 
derance of opinion against the wisdom of the 
suggestion it was abandoned for fear that the 
creatures might become a menace to argriculture 
and a general nuisance as they are now in many 
of the western states when regular "drives" are 
staged in an attempt to rid the country of the 
pests. In some localities bounties are offered 
on their heads. 

A few of the rabbits are reported to have been 
released in one of the Piedmont counties some 
years ago, but no trace has been found of them 
since. Any importation of the animals in the 
future under the recent decision will be done by 
private enterprise. 



CONSERVATION w INDUSTRY 

A Bi- Weekly Publication of the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol. V 



MAY 15, 1928 



No. 10 



NEW GAME REFUGES 
GIVEN PRELIMINARY 
APPROVAL BY BOARD 



Two new game refuges under the administra- 
tion of this Department are in prospect of definite 
establishment at the next meeting of the Board 
of Conservation and Development. 

The first, which has been in a formative stage 
for several months, is located in the Sauratown 
Mountains in Stokes county. This area is almost 
immediately west of Danbury, the county seat, 
and includes a large part of the mountain range 
from which it takes its name. 

According to plans that are being made, the 
refuge would contain 30,000 or more acres, leases 
having already been signed for turning over the 
game rights on a large portion of this to the 
State. 

The movement has been fostered by the Stokes 
County Chamber of Commerce, the Izaak Wal- 
ton League Chapter of that county and also the 
Chapter in Winston-Salem, of which R. T. Sted- 
man, widely known conservationist and sports- 
man is the head. Various Chambers of Commerce 
of cities in that section have approved and recom- 
mended the establishment of the refuge. 

Sportsmen generally are interested in the 
establishment of this preserve since it is in 
this section that H. H. Brimley, Curator of the 
State Museum, reports that the last beavers 
known to have been taken in North Carolina were 
found. The character of the county is well suited 
to the propagation of game, being rolling and 
wild in nature. 

In addition to being a game refuge, promoters 
of the proposition are agitating the establishment 
of a game fish hatchery or rearing ponds for fur- 
nishing stock for the streams of the area. Be- 
cause of the proximity of the district to large 
centers of population, Winston-Salem, High Point, 
Greensboro and other cities being within easy 
distance, it is expected that the refuge will be 
one of the most popular of the system being 
established by the Department. 

Second of the proposed refuges is a tract of 
approximately 16,000 acres of Pisgah National 
Forest lands, consisting of two areas in Transyl- 
vania county, a short distance west of Brevard, 
known as Cagle Mountain and North Fork, 
French Broad. The Cagle Mountain area con- 
tains about 5,500 acres, and the North Fork, 
about 10,200 acres. 

Plans for State administration of game on the 
two areas were made at a conference in Asheville 
recently between administrative officials of Pis- 
gah National Forest, Director Wade H. Phillips, 
and Jas. G. K. McClure, Asheville; J. Q. Gilkey. 
Marion; and George L. Hampton, Canton, mem- 
(Continued on Page 3) 



HANDLING OYSTERS BY THE TON 




This is not a photograph of a growing winter's supply of coal, but an illustration of 
the scope of the oyster industry on the North Carolina coast. The scene is at the large- 
oyster canning plant at Oriental, which uses hundreds of bushels of the bivalves daily. 
Oysters are purchased for the plant by the boatload, and the above scene shows the 
method of unloading. In the group on the pier are shown Frank H. Stedman, Fayette- 
ville, member of the Board of Conservation and Development; Capt. J. A. Nelson, Fisheries 
Commissioner; Claude Rankin, Fayetteville ; and Vance Fulford and Hully Willis, members 
of the crew of the "Atlantic," fisheries patrol boat. 



OYSTER PRODUCTION 
EXPERIENCES GAINS 
IN SEASON OF 1927-28 



A report from Capt. J. A. Nelson, Fisheries 
Commissioner and head of the Commercial Fish- 
eries Division of this Department, shows that 
the season of 1927-28 marks the steady increase 
in production from North Carolina waters that 
has been the order since the period of deflation 
in 1924 as a result of the unwarranted propa- 
ganda against shellfish over the United States. 

According to figures of the Commissioner, there 
was a production of 308,846 bushels of the bi- 
valves for the past season, an increase of about 
seven per cent over that of the previous year 
when the amount was 2S9.363 bushels. 

On the whole, the season is considered to be 
the best experienced since the catastrophe to the 
industry. The outstanding feature of the oyster 
industry for the last season has been tin- wick- 
extension of the markets which have reached into 
wide fields. 

Markets which have hitherto scarcely realized 
the existence of Tar Heel oysters have become 
established customers. On the other hand, resi- 
dents of the State have begun to realize more 
forcibly than ever that the oyster from this 
(Continued on Page 3) 



IZAAK WALTONS JOIN 
EFFORT TO RESTORE 
WATERWAY'S LOCKS 



Throwing the entire weight of its influence 
into the struggle, the Izaak Walton League <>t 
America is to push actively the movement for 
the restoration of the locks in the Chesapeake 
and Albemarle canal for the protection of wild- 
life in Currituck Sound. North Carolina, and 
Back Bay, Virginia. 

The league has stepped into the fighl at a psy- 
chological moment when it is pending before the 
Board of Army Engineers at Washington after a 
hearing before that body at which arguments 
for the restoration of tin locks wen- heard from 
representatives of tin- two -t.iti-. The matter 
was then taken under advisement by tin- Engi- 
neers. 

Colonel Jewett, U. S. District Engineer with 
offices at Norfolk, has previously made an adverse 
report on the project, giving as his reason for 
not recommending favorably his belief that the 
expense would not be commensurate with the 
anticipated benefits and that the locks were not 
necessary for navigation. 

However, the officials of the two effected 
States and interested persons, in an appeal be- 
(Continued on Page 3) 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. . 



ORGANIZED EFFORTS 



A substantial part of progressive legisla- 
tion has been the result of visions and 
efforts of organized forces which sensed a 
well defined need and carried on collec- 
tively. 

National organizations such as the Amer- 
ican Forestry Association, the Audubon 
Society, the American Game Protective 
Association, the Izaak Walton League and 
others have made their wants felt by pull- 
ing together as a whole and as a reflection 
of the desires of thousands of members 
representing their interests over the entire 
country. Their activities have resulted in 
the incorporation of many of their ideas 
into statutes. 

For years, State organizations and indi- 
viduals have labored for adequate forestry, 
game and fish legislation in North Caro- 
lina, and the success of their work is plainly 
evident today. Legislation existing at this 
time sets out ideas and the broader policies 
of State activities which cannot by them- 
selves, meet all of the requirements of a 
fully realized conservation program. 

There are in every county and locality 
problems that can be fully met only by 
personal and organized activities in these 
sections. This brings out the demand for 
local organizations of sportsmen and con- 
servationists. These bodies are the crystal- 
lization of sentiment and growing interest 
in natural resources. 

Individuals are today realizing more 
fully than ever before that governmental 
agencies cannot meet all of the demands of 
conservation of all forms of wild life, but 
that to hasten the accomplishments and to 
bring the results close to every community, 
they must co-operate as individuals and 
collectively. 

Every community can find numerous 
ways to serve their own interests and to 
create more attractive surroundings. Pro- 
tection of the available game and fish sup- 
ply and of forests always offers fields of 
service and returns for efforts. Many or- 
ganizations have taken upon themselves 



FINAL CENSUS DRIVE 

UNDER WAY IN STATE 



With personal canvasses for the 1927 census 
of manufactures underway in all sections, the 
final drive for the completion of the enumera- 
tion has begun in the State. 

Every effort of the Department is being direct- 
ed toward winding up the collection of the neces- 
sary information for the census before the end 
of this month. By this time it is hoped that the 
work of tabulation may be got under way. 

To speed up the final drive for reports from 
manufacturers who have not already made re- 
turns, the services of all of the Deputy Game 
and Frh Ommis"-io r iers in the State have been 
enlisted, and the work in the districts have been 
placed in their hands. Those aiding in the census 
are: C. N. Mease, Black Mountain; J. Peter 
Stepp, Lenoir; J. E. Steere, Charlotte; W. C. 
Lisk, Richfield; John C. Thomas, Winston- 
Salem; D. A. McDonald, Carthage; J. A. Barker, 
Lumberton; J. A. Stone, Wilmington; George A. 
Nicoll, New Bern; Charles J. Moore, Washing- 
ton; and F. A. Ruffin, Kelford. 

Two conferences to acquaint these men with 
'.he details of collecting the census data and filling 
out of schedules have been held. The first for 
the western tier of counties was in Salisbury ; and 
those from the east were assembled in Raleigh. 
Purposes of the work were explained by Director 
Wade H. Phillips and details of collection were 
gone over by Assistant Director Park Mathewson 
and Fred W. Coil, special agent of the U. S. Bu- 
reau of the Census, assigned to the State to assist 
in taking the census. 



the responsibility of assisting in the re- 
stocking fish and game, some by the con- 
struction of fish nursersies to rear baby 
fish to fingerling size and others by the 
propagation of game. Other fields of en- 
deavor include educational work, both 
imong members and with the public, 
strengthening public sentiment in favor of 
regulations, ascertaining the popular de- 
sires in the recommendation of regulation 
changes, provision of additional recrea- 
tional facilities, and in many other ways. 

The growing movement of sportsmen 
over the State to organize for the accom- 
plishment of these and other purposes is 
reflected by reports coming to this Depart- 
ment, which is encouraging such activity. 
These organizations are usually taking the 
form of wild life leagues, Izaak Walton 
Chapters and, broadly, those organizations 
that are interested in the entire out-of- 
doors. 

According to reports received by Direc- 
tor Wade H. Phillips, new organizations of 
this kind have been formed or under pro- 
cess of creation in Fayetteville, Rocky 
Mount, New Bern, Washington, Lexington, 
Henderson, Franklin, Asheville, Boone, 
Marshall, and other cities and towns. 



NORTH STATE LEADING 

SOUTHEAST IN MOTORS 



A recent tabulation of figures on the num- 
ber of automobiles in the United States, 
issued by the co-operating office of the United 
States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce with the Commerce and Industry Division 
of this Department shows that North Carolina 
at the end of 1927 led all of the states of the 
southeast in the number of licensed motor 
vehicles. 

It gives a total of 430,499 motor cars in North 
Carolina at the close of the 1927 six-month 
registration period. Florida came second among 
the states of the section with 394,735 registra- 
tions. 

Of the North Carolina total of registered motor 
cars, 390,223 were passenger automobiles, taxis 
and busses; 40,276 motor trucks and road tract 
ors; and 1,194 motorcycles. 

North Carolina ranked fifteenth among all of 
the States of the country in line of number of 
registered motor vehicles. New York was the 
leader and California came second. Texas was 
first among all of the Southern States, showing a 
registration of 1,111,407. 

The grand total of registered motor vehicles 
in the United States was 23,127,315, of which 
20,230,429 were passenger cars; 2,896,886 trucks; 
and 120,303 motorcycles. 






SENTIMENT OF PUBLIC 

FROWNS ON DYNAMITER 



Action of a court in Asheville recently in sen- I 
tencing a dynamiter of a fish stream to a term 
on the roads is a reflection of popular sentiment j 
against a wilfully destructive practice and whole- 
sale and useless slaughtering of wild life. 

The case was prosecuted vigorously by a repre- 
sentative of this Department and the court meted 
out a muchly deserved penalty. The press in] 
many parts of the State commented on the sen- i 
tence and the consensus was decidedly in sym- 
pathy with this method of breaking up a vicious 
crime against the State. 

That the result of the trial renewed popular 
interest in game fish protection and in the gen- 
eral welfare of wild life is evident on a wide 
scope. Some communities have shown a patrotic 
effort to protect against this form of law viola- 
tion by the offer of substantial rewards for evi-l| 
dence leading to the conviction of persons guilty 
of dynamiting, and it is safe to believe that if 
there are those inclined to seek this ruthless 
method of satisfying a desire to destroy they 
will be restrained through the fear of public 
vengeance through process of the courts. 

The fruits of years of protection and restock- j 
ing may be blasted by a single charge of dyna- 
mite, leaving waters entirely destitute of fish life. 
Complete elimination of such a practice is neces- ; 
sary to make more attractive streams and recrea- j 
tional facilities. When a public conscience as j 
ready to condemn other destructive practices, 
such as deliberate or careless burning of the 
woods and destruction of game is developed in 
North Carolina, the hopes of the most enthus- 
iastic conservationists will be realized within a » 
limited scope of time that will surprise all. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



McCORMICK LEAVES 
STATE TO ENLARGE 
SCOPE OF ACTIVITY 



After having served as Assistant State Forester 
in charge of forest fire prevention for two and 
one-half years, W. C. McCormick has resigned 
to take up work elsewhere. 

Mr. McCormick's resignation, which has been 
accepted with regrets by Director Wade H. Phil- 
lips and State Forester J. S. Holmes, takes effect 
on June 1, immediately after which will begin 
his new duties as director of a special campaign 
of forestry education under the auspices of the 
American Forestry Association in the states of 
Georgia, Florida, and Mississippi. 

Chas. H. Flory, District Forester, Fayetteville, 
has received the appointment to succeed Mr. 
McCormick. Mr. Flory has been with the For- 
estry Division of the Department for several 
years. He was formerly district forester at New 
Bern. 

Mr. McCormick came to the State Forest Ser- 
vice at the beginning of 1926 from the West. 
He had been with the United States Forest Ser- 
vice in Idaho, Utah, and other states for a num- 
ber of years. He entered the Service as ranger 
and was advanced steadily until he reached the 
grade of supervisor. 

As active head of the forest fire prevention 
organization, this branch of forestry in the State 
has made its greatest forward strides under his 
supervision. The organization, as a result of 
Mr. McCormick's activity, has attracted national 
attention and has become the model of organi- 
zation for other States, especially where the 
work is new. 

A master plan, complimented highly for its 
extensive and comprehensive scope, has been map- 
ped out under his direction. The plan is one 
that will require years for realization, but the 
start that has been made is considered to be 
exceptional. At the beginning of Mr. McCor- 
mick's tenure of office warden systems were active 
in only twenty of the counties and now this 
number has advanced to 34 with probabilities 
that the two-score mark will be reached by the 
time his resignation becomes effective or shortly 
afterwards. His coming to North Carolina saw 
about 2,000 men in the warden organization. 
This has grown to more than 5,000 at this time, 
including "minute men" crews which he inaugu- 
rated. 

WATER RESOURCES WORK 

DISPLAYED AT UNIVERSITY 

"Open house" at the Engineering School of the 
University of North Carolina is becoming an 
institution in acquainting the public with the 
work that is being done in this branch of science. 

The occasion this year, coming on Friday, May 
11, furnished also an opportunity for a demon- 
stration of the activities of the Water Resources 
Division of this Department, located in the En- 
gineering Building at the University, Chapel Hill. 

A collection of maps and instruments showing 
stream gaging, power studies, stream sanitation 
and conservation activities, rainfall records, power 
situation, topographic studies, and other features 
gave the visitors an idea of the scope and impor- 
tance of the operations of the Division. 



NEW GAME REFUGES 

GIVEN PRELIMINARY 

APPROVAL BY BOARD 

(Continued from Page 1) 
hers of the Game Committee of the Department 
Hoard. A tentative agreement was made by the 
conference. 

Official designation of the two strips as game 
refuges is required by presidential proclamation 
before the projected plans can be placed in effect. 

Arrangements were also completed between the 
State Department and National Forest officials 
.'or stocking of State Game Refuges with deer 
rom Pisgah preserve. This work will be carried 
>ut under supervision of the two governmental 
tgencies. Fawns will be used for stocking since 
X has been found that the matured animals can- 
not be transferred efficiently because of the dan- 
ger of injury to themselves. 



OYSTER PRODUCTION 

EXPERIENCES GAINS 

IN SEASON OF 1927-2 8 

(Continued from Page 1) 
State meets every requirement of flavor, nutri- 
tion, palatableness, and health safeguard. Re- 
sulting from this growing popularity within the 
State, the interior markets are beginning to call 
for the product from their own State. 

The last year has been marked also by more 
interest in oyster gardening as a source of reve- 
nue to those who engage in its practice and as a 
manner of raising a brand larger in size, greater 
in returns, assured of a ready market, and of 
the highest quality. Oyster planting, started a 
few years ago by the State after a special appro- 
priation, is being taken by individuals. 

There are thousands of acres of State-owned 
bottoms not now producing oysters, which, by 
planting can be made profitable to the oyster 
farmer and a source of income and support of 
a large number of people. 



IZAAK WALTONS JOIN 

STRUGGLE TO RESTORE 

WATERWAY'S LOCKS 

(Continued from Page 1) 
fore the entire Army Board at Washington, car- 
ried forward their reasons for its necessity as 
both a conservation measure and as a Requisite 
for the survival of industries of great significance. 

Seth E. Gordon, extension director for the 
Izaak Walton League of America, has requested 
detailed information from Director Wade H. 
Phillips of this Department regarding the situa- 
tion for use in its campaign of assistance in the 
fight to obtain the locks. 

The Director replied by declaring that it is 
estimated that the removal of the locks is caus- 
ing damage estimated at $400,000 annually in 
Currituck Sound. This body of water is known 
nationally as one of the best black bass grounds 
and migratory waterfowl wintering places in the 
country. Its chief attraction and suitability for 
these forms of wild life is the ample fresh water 
growth which has been seriously damaged by the 
descent of salt water from Chesapeake Bay which 
is fully believed would be checked by the restora- 
tion of the locks. 

Director Phillips, in writing Mr. Gordon, quoted 



CONSTRUCTION HINTS 
FOR BASS NURSERIES 
GIVEN BY CULTURIST 



A recent issue of CONSERVATION AND 1 
carried a general suggestion from Frank J Reiger, 
Superintendent of State hatcheries, of plans for 
the construction of nurseries or rearing pond- for 
trout. 

W. E. Baker, Superintendent of the Frank 
Stedman Hatchery, Fayetteville. now furni-lie- 
similar hints for nursery ponds lor has.-. He 

"I should recommend nursery pond- to be built 
in places that are most suited to economical 
construction, and especially where water can be 
had without much expense. The size and shape 
do not make a great deal of difference as this 
can best be determined by the circumstances and 
location where the ponds are to be constructed. 

"Dimensions about 30x50 feet should make a 
fair-sized pond for an individual proposition. 
The bottom should be on an incline, that is with 
the upper end about two feet deep and the lower 
end four feet. 

"I should also build a concrete kettle 4x10x2 
feet near the outlet so that in drawing off the 
pond the fingerlings would go into the concrete 
kettle where they could be removed without 
danger of collecting muck and other filth. Each 
pond should have a separate water supply and 
outlet. Such ponds as mentioned should cost 
approximately $250 each. However, the cost 
depends largely upon the location, and it is even 
possible to build them for S100. 

"These ponds should be suppled with aquatic 
plants to furnish minute life for the small fry, 
and of course as soon as they are large enough 
to take food, the small fingerlings should be fed 
each day in order to gain the proper growth and 
to eliminate cannibalism among the voung." 



RESEARCH ASSISTANT 

DISCUSSES RAINFALL 



F. M. Bell, Research Assistant of the Water 
Resources Division, presented a paper on "Rain- 
fall Characteristics of North Carolina" before 
the April meeting of the Xorth Carolina Acad- 
emy of Science at the University of North Caro- 
lina. 

Mr. Bell described in some detail the studies 
which he has been conducting during the pres- 
ent year on the distribution of mean annual rain- 
fall in the State. His paper was one of two pre- 
sented before the Academy of Science which 
received prominent notice in the Stale pre-> 



i resolution of the Board of Conservation and 
Development adopted in July, 1^27. as follow - 

'This Department of the State Government of 
North Carolina is highly interested in the condi- 
tion now existing in Currituck Sound, caused by 
salt waters of Chesapeake Bay entering said 
Sound through the Albemarle ami Chesapeake 
Canal, and thereby making Currituck Sound a 
salt water body. Unless this condition is speedily 
remedied, damage to both waterfowl and the 
fresh water fishing industry will be irreparable, 
-aid damage now being estimated at 5400.000 
annuallv. 



. T - • • 

.... 






.: 



■ 



..: 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



DR. PAYNE COMPILES 
VOLUME ON MINERAL 
DEPOSITS OF SOUTH 



LARGE DISTRIBUTION 

OF YELLOW PERCH 

MADE DURING SPRING 



Dr. Henry Mace Payne's new volume, "Un- 
developed Mineral Resources of the South," re- 
cently off of the press, gives to the section what 
is said to be the most complete compendium of 
its kind ever assembled. Doctor Payne published 
the book in his capacity as consulting engineer of 
the American Mining Congress. 

As a work of practical possibilities, its field 
is unlimited, having as its object the stimulation 
of interest in the mineral resources of the South- 
ern States and the cataloging of marketable 
products. 

In its more than 350 pages, the publication 
gives a summary of the most important facts 
about the location, extent, and uses of known 
commercially valuable deposits in the several 
Southern States, extending from Virginia to 
Texas. 

The publication is an outstanding example of 
the treatment of a scientic subject in a manner 
that is easily understandable to the general pub- 
lic, especially any who may be interested in 
geology from its most practical standpoint — the 
utilization of mineral resources for the benefit of 
mankind. 

Presentation of the subject follows the general 
plan of treating each individual mineral with a 
brief explanation from the standpoint of its com- 
position followed by a list of the states in which 
it is found and something of the extent of the 
deposits and the condition in which it is found. 

Two direct purposes will be served by the pub- 
lication — the bringing of undeveloped opportun- 
ities to the attention of industry and aid in find- 
ing markets for the producer for his materials. 
A general stimulation of interest in southern min- 
erals is expected from the appearance of the 
volume. 

Whether pleasant or not in contemplation, in- 
terest in the South in its mineral resources has 
lagged behind that of other parts of the country 
and consequently the section has neglected oppor- 
tunities to increase its wealth in the proportion 
that a more complete development of its mineral 
resources would bring. One of the hopes of the 
American Mining Congress through the publica- 
tion of the book is the awakening of the South 
to undeveloped opportunities. 

In the preface of the publication, the author 
asys: "It has been the writer's experiecne for 
many years that whenever a call came for infor- 
mation about many of the mineral resources of 
the South, but little connected material was 
available. Hurried letters to the various geolo- 
gical surveys brought the information that desired 
bulletins were out of print. Others, available, 
were many years behind the actual development 
taking place in the State. 

"The surveys, in turn, have been handicapped 
in most states by insufficient funds, and only 
those minerals most in demand or those found 
contiguous to transportation, have been ade- 
quately studied. Books have appeared more 
recently on manufacturing processes, methods of 
marketing, and chemical properties . . . ." 

The work embraces virtually all available in- 



Eight hundred adult yellow perch raised at the 
Edenton hatchery of the United States Bureau 
of Fisheries have been distributed this spring in 
waters of Eastern North Carolina under direction 
of this Department. 

The distribution was carried out under the 
supervision of W. E. Baker, Superintendent of 
the Frank Stedman Hatchery, Fayetteville. Au- 
thorities of Fort Bragg, United States Army 
reservation, near Fayetteville, co-operated with 
the Department by giving the use of two large 
army trucks and the services of five men to assist 
in the work. 

Also during the spring months, approximately 
8,000,000 yellow perch fry have been distributed 
in Eastern North Carolina fishing waters from 
the Edenton hatchery by the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries in co-operation with this 
Department. 

This is said to be the largest number of game 
fish species to be distributed in the State during 
any one season. Out of the great number, fish- 
ing conditions in the future should experience a 
decided improvement. 

The yellow perch is one of the most popular 
fresh-water fishes of this section. It is known 
by a number of local names among which are 
redfin, Englishman, raccoon perch and others. 
Although its range is wide and the fish abund- 
ant in the past, there has been some tendency to 
become less numerous. The species abounds in 
Albemarle Sound and tributaries. 

This fish averages, according to "Fishes of 
North Carolina," less than a foot in length and 
a pound in weight, while examples as much as 
two pounds in weight are rare. It is caught in 
large numbers by anglers and has yielded large 
poundage in commercial fisheries, especially in 
Currituck county waters. 



EASTERN FORESTRY 
BILL PROVIDES FOR 
NATIONAL RESERVES 



DINNER WARE PLANT IS 

RECEIVING CONSIDERATION 



Hopes that a plant for the manufacture of din 
ner ware will be established in North Carolina 
rose another notch with the recent personal in- 
spection of locations in this State by the head of 
a large concern from another state. 

State Geologist H. J. Bryson, who accompanied 
the visiting industrialist on his visit in North 
Carolina, reveals that he was impressed by the 
conditions favorable to the beginning of the in- 
dustry in the State and will continue his consid- 
eration of a location. 

Meanwhile a study of the advantages offered 
in the State will continue and those interested in 
the project believe that there is promise of some 
direct action following. Provided with the raw 
materials required in china ware mixes, with 
favorable labor conditions, and excellent sur- 
rounding markets, the development of such an 
industry should be a natural step in the utiliza- 
tion of the natural resources of the State. 



formation from the various surveys of the south- 
ern states, and represents a study and prepara- 
tion over a period of four years. 



Passage of the McNary-Woodruff bill by Con- 
gress and the subsequent signature by President 
Coolidge establishes a program of National For- 
est acquisition for Eastern United States; and 
makes possible, according to the belief of obser- 
cers, the creation of such reserves in Eastern 
North Carolina. 

One of the provisions in the bill is for National 
Forest* lands in the pine regions of the South- 
eastern section of the United States. Realizing 
fully the significance of such a move in this and 
other sections, this Department threw the entire 
weight of its support behind the measure while 
it was before the two houses of Congress and the 
Director urged the support of all the State dele- 
gation in Congress. 

As the law was finally enacted, it provides a 
greatly curtailed program over that contemplated 
by its authors and supporters, who asked for 
an appropriation of $40,000,000 over a period of 
ten years. 

In its final form, the bill carried an appropria- 
tion of $8,000,000 made available as follows: 
$2,000,000, July 1, 1928; $3,000,000, July 1, 
1929; and $3,000,000, July 1, 1930. However, 
the backers of the move do not look upon the 
action of Congress as forestalling a system of 
National Forests in the East such as had been 
planned, but as a beginning of its accomplish- 
ment. It is hoped later that the complete pro- 
gram can be carried out. 

The measure is the outgrowth of legislation 
proposed three years ago by the American For- 
estry Association as essential to the up-building 
of a National Forest system in eastern United 
States. 

Creation of a National Forest in the pinelands 
of Eastern North Carolina is looked upon as 
probably one of the most effective mediums of 
advancing the cause of forest conservation in that 
section. One of the chief purposes which will be 
served will be in demonstrating the necessity of 
sane handling of these lands to assure the maxi- 
mum productively of timber to meet future 
demands. 

However, before such a national forest can 
become a reality, the State must, through the 
General Assembly, pass an enabling act. Officials 
of the United States Forest Service point out the 
fact that acquisition of lands by the Federal 
Government in Western North Carolina has been 
under authority of the State that refers speci- 
fically to that section and to National Forest 
lands for the purpose of protecting the head- 
waters of rivers. 

Because of the wide demand for the establish- 
ment of National Forest areas in Eastern North 
Carolina and the benefits that would be expected, 
it is believed that the enabling act passage will 
be little more than a formality after it is put 
before the representatives of the people. 



CONSERVATION w INDUSTRY 

A Bi-Weekly Publication of the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol. V 



JUNE 1, 1928 



No. 11 



GOVERNOR McLEAN 
ATTRACTS INTEREST 
TO STATE HIGHWAYS 



Not all of the Governors of the 48 states com- 
posing the United States are "business Gover- 
nors," but most of them realize the value and 
importance of the monograph on "Highway 
Building in North Carolina" sent to them by 
Governor Angus W. McLean, as indicated by the 
responses to a brief letter, accompanying the 
pamphlet. Some of the Governors respond in 
the usual formal way, saying they will look it 
over with interest. Others, however, are very 
enthusiastic over the booklet and so express 
themselves. Extracts from a few of the letters 
follow: 

Ben S. Paulen, Governor of Kansas: "I have 
had the pleasure of driving over some of the 
roads of your State and you are to be congrat- 
ulated on your excellent highways. I shall be 
glad to read this pamphlet." 

Howard M. Gore, Governor of West Virginia: 
"A glance at your publication entitled 'Highway 
Building in North Carolina' assures me that it 
contains much valuable information. Being es- 
pecially interested in the matter of financing and 
executing the improved road program in this 
State, I am especially glad to have a copy of 
your publication." 

Says Interesting 

Adam McMullen, Governor of Nebraska: "I 
shall read it and feel sure it will be interesting 
and instructive. Nebraska has been forging to 
the front in its road building and we are feeling 
quite proud of the thousands of miles we have 
graded and gravelled." 

Fred R. Zimmerman, Governor of Wisconsin: 
"I am sure it will be interesting, and I shall be 
glad to read it as soon as I can. Very recently 
we had the pleasure of a visit from Dr. H. W. 
Chase, President of the North Carolina Univer- 
sity. He is the type of man that should make 
a success of the University, and he certainly im- 
pressed us with his confidence in North Carolina. 
With my personal regards to you and extending 
you an invitation to visit Wisconsin," etc. 

Flem D. Sampson, Governor of Kentucky: "I 
am indeed grateful for your kindness in for- 
warding this and assure you that it is most in- 
teresting." 

Theo. G. Bilbo, Governor of Mississippi: "Our 
state legislature has just adjourned after a very 
stormy session, and I am looking forward to a 
short rest period before calling them back in 
extraordinary session. During this rest period I 
(Continued on Page 3) 



RECREATION WITH UTILITY 




Following out its policy of considering facilities for public recreation, with all of its 
improvements, the Forestry Division is improving the grounds around each lookout tower. 
The above view shows a picnic table at the base of Palestine tower, in Cumberland 
County. Grounds around the towers are being landscaped and planted in decorative trees 
and shrubbery. The towers are open to the public at all times. They are becoming in- 
creasingly popular for picnickers and the public. 



MILLION BABY FISH 
ARE DISTRIBUTED IN 
STATE THIS SEASON 



Almost a million game fish fry had been dis- 
tributed from the several State hatcheries through 
the period ending May 15, according to reports 
received by J. K. Dixon, Assistant Director of 
this Department in charge of Inland Fisheries. 

Early indications are that there will be a large 
increase in the number of fish hatched this year 
over the previous year. It is now believed that 
the crop of fry for 1028 will amount to at least 
.',000,000 or more in comparison with around 
2,000,000 for the previous year. 

The greater part of the distribution up until 
this time has been made to nursery ponds, where 
the fry will be held until they have reached the 
fingerling size before they are stocked in streams 
and other waters of the State. 

It is Assistant Director Dixon's belief that pro- 
visions will be furnished this year for holding 
around fifty per cent of the output of fry from 
the hatcheries to the fingerling si/e. All of these 
nurseries have been constructed this year with 
counties, municipalities, sports organizations, and 
individuals co-operating in the work. 
I Continued on Page 3) 



OBSERVANCE FOREST 
WEEK BRINGS MUCH 
INTEREST IN STATE 



American Forest Week in North Carolina, 
April 22-2S. in the view of all qualified observers, 
met the greatest response known in the State, 
and its observance was set down as (lie most 
general yet experienced. 

Carefully laid plans were made by this De- 
partment and other interested agencies .;t least 
oO days in advance of the period, and thosuands 
of pamphlets and other literature were mailed 
into every section as information and suggested 
materials for the extension of educ.it ion. d work 
in forestry. 

During the week. 10,682 pieces ^\ literature 
were distributed by this Department The slo- 
gan: "American Forest Week. April 22 28, Help 
Protect the Forest From Fire." bore a prominent 
part on each letter that went out from the cen- 
tral office of the Forestry Division and from 
those of the District Foresters. One hundred and 
twenty-nine members of the State Forest Ser- 
vice personnel took .in active part in the pro- 
cram of the week. 

American Fore-t Week programs wire held in 
( mtinued on Page 3) 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



APRIL FOREST FIRES 



Forest fires in co-operating counties in 
North Carolina decreased in April to 225 
from 333 experienced during the preced- 
ing month, says the monthly report of the 
Forestry Division of this Department. 

During April there was only a slight 
difference in the area covered by fires, 
19,473, from the 19,194 acres of March. 
Estimated damages entailed in April were 
$42,382 and in March they amounted to 
$31,116. 

As compared with April of 1927, the 
fire situation shows a substantial improve- 
ment for last month. For the correspond- 
ing period last year there was reported a 
total of 178 fires with damages amounting 
to more than twice the sum of April, 1928, 
or $99,117. A total of 51,316 acres was 
burned over in the same month of 1927. 

In the report of April, 1928, brush burn- 
ing and smokers were credited with being 
the cause of half of the month's forest 
fires, or 112 of the 225. Incendiarists 
were the next highest in rank among the 
causes of the blazes, 38 being charged to 
this origin. Since April was an off month 
for hunters, fishermen and campers, only 
eight fires were charged against them. 

The largest damage from the forest 
fires was done to the young growth which 
suffered to the extent of $21,178; stand- 
ing timbers bore the brunt of $13,514 in 
loss; forest products were damaged $2,317; 
and $5,372 in injury was inflicted to im- 
provements. 

Success of the efforts of wardens 
to hold the fires to smaller areas this 
year over last year is the outstanding 
feature of the report and a reflection of 
the effectiveness of the organization that 
has been affected. The average fire of 
April, 1928, burned 86 acres, and the 
average of the same month of the previous 
year was 288. 



ONLY FOUR COUNTIES 

NOT ON BOOSTER LIST 



Cities and towns in every county in North 
Carolina, with the exception of four, are repre- 
sented in a recent list of Chambers of Commerce 
or trade representatives recently compiled by 
Park Mathewson, Assistant Director of this De- 
partment and head of the Division of Commerce 
and Industry. 

However, among the 96 are a few that do not 
have regular organizations but where this De- 
partment has a trade representative. Several of 
the counties have more than one Chamber of 
Commerce. 

Those counties that do not have a trade rep- 
resentative or Chamber of Commerce included 
on the Department list are Franklin, Jones, Mar- 
tin and Orange. 

Among those that are shown to have more 
than one are: Alamance, Beaufort, Carteret, 
Cleveland, Gaston, Guilford, Iredell, Johnston, 
Moore, Northampton, Nash, Pitt, Wake and 
Wayne. 

One of the functions of this Department is to 
co-operate with city and county organizations 
and representatives that are working for the 
development of their communities. Organiza- 
tions and individuals with this purpose in view 
and with which the Department is not in contact 
are asked to notify Assistant Director Mathew- 
son as a move for the dual purpose of boosting 
the State at large and the individual counties and 
communities. 



PHEASANTS BEGINNING 

TO LAY AT GAME FARM 

Beginning of results from the operation of the 
new State Game Farm are being shown with the 
first reports showing the production of pheasant 
eggs. 

According to the first reports made to Director 
Wade H. Phillips by W. C. Grimes, manager, 
through May 19, a total of S96 pheasant eggs 
had been produced at the farm, of which the 
great majority were ringneck. 

The following number of eggs have been taken: 
ringneck, 415; silver, 123; Reeves, 18; Amherst, 
26; and golden, 14. From the first settings, 40 
baby pheasants have already been hatched, of 
which 18 are ringneck and 22, silver. 

Quail had just begun to lay when the last 
report was issued and 11 had been collected. No 
settings had been made up until that time. 



REPORT ON SCALLOPS 

GIVEN BY U. S. BUREAU 

The scallop industry, an account of the bi- 
valve and its biology, and a consideration of 
scallop conservation problems are treated in a 
report now being compiled by ":he U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries. 

An announcement from the Bureau says that 
the work is substantially complete with the ex- 
ception pf a section devoted to seasons, which is 
being held open pending observations on the 
prevalency of young scallops in late commercial 
catches. 

A more detailed report treating the scallop and 
its biology, says the Bureau announcement, is 
also now underway. 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
HOLDS LITTLE HOPE 
OF OIL IN CAROLINA 



Dr. George Otis Smith, Director of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, thinks that there is little like- 
lihood of striking commercially important oil 
in North Carolina. 

He expresses this opinion in a letter to Sena- 
tor F. M. Simmons, who had transmitted a re- 
quest from M. T. Hardee, Wilmington, concern- 
ing oil indications and possibilities. In view of 
previous researches and investigations, Doctor 
Smith declared it does not appear practicable at 
this time for the Survey to send one of its 
limited number of oil geologists to make investi- 
gations of oil prospects in Brunswick, Columbus, 
and Robeson Counties. 

The director, in his letter to Senator Sim- 
mons, says: "As you are aware, of course, no 
paying quantities of oil or gas have been found 
anywhere in North Carolina, and the oil geolo- 
gists of this Survey do not regard that State as 
offering much promise for the discovery of com- 
mercially important oil pools. 

"The eastern part of North Carolina — lying in 
the Atlantic Coastal plain — perhaps offers more 
promise than other parts of the State, but, even 
in that region, it is not believed that the deposits 
are of a nature to encourage any hope for the 
existence in them of large amounts of oil. 

"Further, they probably have not been sub- 
jected to sufficient buckling or foldings to cause 
the development of local anticlines or domes and 
the segregation in them of any oil that might 
possibly be present in the rocks. In view of 
these facts, it would not seem practicable for this 
Survey to send one of the very limited number 
of oil geologists now on its staff to make investi- 
gations of oil prospects in Brunswick, Columbus 
and Robeson Counties. 

"There is enclosed a pamphlet, published by 
the State organization, descriptive of a well 
drilled in search for oil near Havelock, Craven 
County, which failed to encounter any oil." 

The opinion of Doctor Smith coincides with 
the often-repeated views of State Geologist H. J. 
Bryson, Dr. Collier Cobb, University of N. C.| 
and other noted geologists that oil is not present 
in commercial quantities in North Carolina. 



BUNCH SUPERINTENDENT 

OF NEW ROCK HATCHERY 



W. C. Bunch, formerly with the U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries Hatchery at Edenton, has been 
named superintendent of the newly re-established 
striped bass hatchery near Weldon. 

Mr. Bunch has written that the collection of 
eggs for hatching has been rather slow on account 
of the condition of the water in the Roanoke 
river, but that a full hatch is now under way. 

This Department is co-operating with the Fed- 
eral Bureau in the operation of the hatchery. 
The bass hatched there will be released in the 
Roanoke river in an effort to rebuild the exten- 
sive fishery which at one tive existed there. 
The hatchery has been opened this spring on ai 
temporary basis and with its permanency de-\ 
pendent upon the success of the stocking. 



J ; 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



GOVERNOR McLEAN 

ATTRACTS INTEREST 

TO STATE HIGHWAYS 

(Continued from Page J) 
shall devote a few hours to reading your mono- 
graph." 

Albert C. Ritchie, Governor of Maryland: "I 
read it today with very great interest, and I 
take this opportunity of congratulating you upon 
the splendid road system which I hear on all 
sides North Carolina is rapidly getting. Our 
Maryland roads have been mostly built by bond 
issues, although the State Constitution requires 
us to pay the interest and redemption fund 
through taxation. You have certainly adopted 
a most comprehensive and excellent system in 
North Carolina." 

Solving Road Problem 
J. E. Erickson, Governor of Montana: "It 
is a very interesting statement of your problem 
in that state. We, too, are struggling with the 
road question and are just getting started upon 
a road building program, which we trust will 
bring us some good roads in the State." 

Lamartine G. Hardman, Governor of Georgia: 
"I shall never forget the courtesies and hospitali- 
ties extended to me and my party when we 
visited your city and state in 1927. We were 
deeply inpressed as we visited each department 
with the active business methods put on by the 
executive and other officials of North Carolina." 

Len Small, Governor of Illinois: "I shall be 
pleased to study your plan." 

George H. Dern, Governor of Utah: "I shall 
be glad to read this, and I am sure I shall find 
many helpful suggestions." 

Huntley N. Spaulding, Governor of New 
Hampshire: "I find it of great interest and value." 

Fred W. Green, Governor of Michigan: "I 
shall be glad to examine this at the first oppor- 
tunity." 

Robert P. Robinson, Governor of Delaware: 
"I am sure I will derive a great deal of pleasure 
and information from the reading of this article." 

O. H. Simpson, Governor of Louisiana: "I 
know that it will give me great pleasure to 
peruse same." (Huey P. Long has since been in- 
augurated Governor.) 

John H. Trumbull, Governor of Connecticut: 
"I appreciate greatly your thoughtfulncss and 
courtesy in favoring me with this review and will 
read it with interest." 

Reads With Pleasure 

John W. Martin, Governor of Florida: "I 
shall take great pleasure in reading the same, and 
wish to thank you for your thoughtfullness in 
sending it to me." 

John W. Fisher, Governor of Pennsylvania: "I 
hear many complimentary things from our tour- 
ists who are returning by automobile from 
Florida and other southern places. These high- 
ways are certainly making us neighbors. I con- 
gratulate you most heartily on the good work 
being done in North Carolina." 

Bibb Graves, Governor of Alabama: " I am 
very glad to get this monograph and shall read 
it with keen interest." 



Sam A. Baker, Governor of Missouri: "I ap- 
preciate your courtesy in sending me this copy." 

John Hammill, Governor of Iowa: ''I thank 
you for same." 

Henry Horton, Governor of Tennessee (Secre- 
tary): "If you have not mailed a copy to Col. 
Harry S. Berry, Tennessee's Commissioner of 
Highways, he (Governor Horton) would appre- 
ciate it very much if you would do so as he is 
very anxious for Colonel Berry to have a copy of 
this splendid review for his files." 

Jackson, Governor of Indiana (Secretary): "I 
can assure you that Governor Jackson will ap- 
preciate the opportunity to familiarize himself 
with what you have been doing in the way of 
road building in your state." 

Fuller, Governor of Massachusetts (Secretary): 
"I shall be glad to call it to Governor Fuller's 
attention." 

Causes Wide Interest 

Young, Governor of California (Secretary): 
"Governor Young is at present in the southern 
part of the state and therefore I am acknow- 
ledging your courtesy in sending this interesting 
material to us. California is deeply interested 
in highway development, not only in this state, 
but throughout the United States. I am taking 
the liberty of sending the pamphlet to the De- 
partment of Public Works, which, under the re- 
organization plan in California, has direction of 
highways." 

A. Harry Moore, Governor of New Jersey: "It 
is most interesting and I offer you my congratu- 
lations upon the fine work which you are doing." 

Henry S. Johnston, Governor of Oklahoma: 
"You are right in assuming that this is of in- 
terest to me and I sincerely thank you sending 
it." 

George W. P. Hunt, Governor of Arizona: "It 
is an able document and I desire to compliment 
you upon the thorough and lucid presentation 
which you have made of North Carolina's ex- 
periences with the bond issue plan of highway 
construction. The plan which you have so suc- 
cessfully carried out was advanced by the Arizona 
Good Roads Association last year in Arizona, and 
its general features were approved by me as 
Chief Executive. Our State Legislature, however, 
in its wisdom did not see fit to incorporate the 
plan in the highway financing legislation which 
it enacted." (He asked for extra copies for asso- 
ciation members.) 

W. J. Bulow, Governor of South Dakota: 
"Your booklet has proven very interesting to me." 



MILLION BABY FISH 

ARE DISTRIBUTED IN 

STATE THIS SEANSON 

(Continued from Page 1) 
The movement for the construction of rearing 
ponds for the hatchery fry was started in North 
Carolina several months ago, and this Department 
has urged the co-operation of all factors inter- 
ested in increasing the game fish population of the 
streams. It gained headway principally within 
the last two months. 

At its last meeting, the Board of Conservation 
and Development authorized Director Wade H. 
Phillips to proceed with the construction of nur- 



OBSERVANCE FOREST 

WEEK BRINGS MUCH 

INTEREST IN STATE 

(Continued from Page lj 
135 schools; and talks, lectures, or motion pic- 
ures were given in 67. Window displays were 
placed with 109 business houses. 

Newspapers of North Carolina performed a 
public service by their generous employment of 
educational and informative news articles and 
editorials. They urged the public to co-operate 
in the spirit of the week and to develop the 
consciousness toward the forests which their im- 
portance demands in order to assure the maxi- 
mum public service therefrom. 

Newest of the educational features 
radio broadcasting programs carried out by all 
stations in the State. The Raleiirh and A-heville 
stations put on several forestry program-. 



FINANCIAL PUBLICATION 

REVIEWS STATE ADVANCE 



Under the heading of "North Carolina Steps 
to the Front," "Commerce and Finance." a 
nationally known periodical, presented an article 
in its issue of May 16 dealing with the pro- 
of the State during the current century. 

The article was written by John Wilber Jen- 
kins, a native Tar Hell and a widely known edi- 
tor and author. It is well illustrated with a group 
of historical, industrial, scenic, and city views. 
Much of the material and photographs were fur- 
nished by this Department. 



;ery poinds as far as the finances of the depart- 
ment would permit. This program has been 
amplified by appeals for co-operation from sport-- 
men, organizations, municipalities, counties, and 
other factors. 

According to reports received at the Depart- 
ment, the distribution of fry from the State 
hatchery during the year has been approximately 
is follows: Morrison Hatchery. Waynesville, 
iOO.OOO brook or speckled trout: Pete Murphy 
Hatchery, Marion, 135.000 rainbow trout and 
150.000 large and small-mouth bass; Boone. 150.- 
000 brook or speckled trout; Roaring Gap. IOO.- 
OOO, brook trout. 

Distribution has just started from the Frank 
Stedman Hatchery, Fayetteville, and the Fed- 
oral co-operative Hatchery at Eden ton, but it 
is estimated that the distribution of bass from 
these should amount to well above the hall- 
million mark with possibly more with a favor- 
able season. 

Because of the dependence in bass culture upon 
natural conditions, there i> always an element 
of doubt in successful operation lor any given 
season. Last year weather conditions caused a 
curtailment in the supply of those lor di-tribu- 
tion in most parts of the country. 

The newest of the State hatcheries near Lake 
James, Burke and McDowell Counties, hold- 
promise of having a successful year of operation 
\n its beginning, Supt. Frank J. Reicor has re- 
ported that the bass are spawning, and that pros- 
pects are encouraging. All of the fish at this 
hatchery, under agreement with the Burke M. - 
Dowcll Commission, superceded by this Depart- 
ment, will be released in the waters of Lake 
James and Rhodhiss Lake. 



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. ■ 



'■■', : - 



. • • . 

. i , , 
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■ ■ ■ -". : ■:■ 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



SURVEY OF FORESTS 
ALREADY COMPLETE 
IN SIXTEEN COUNTIES 



Sixteen counties have been visited up to the 
present in the general survey of forestry condi- 
tions being carried on in the State by this De- 
partment. 

The area first to be covered by this study is 
located in the north-central part of the State 
and consists of Wake, Franklin, Warren, Vance, 
Granville, Person, Caswell, Rockingham, Durham, 
Orange, Alamance, Guilford, Forsyth, Davidson, 
Randolph and Chatham. 

Field work so far in the survey has been car- 
ried out by R. C. Brown, formerly with the U. 
S. Forest Service in Western North Carolina. He 
will continue in those counties that have no for- 
est fire protective organizations at this time, and 
the district foresters will undertake the program 
within their territories. 

Interest on the part of county officials inter- 
viewed by Mr. Brown, he reports, has been pro- 
nounced. He is especially impressed by the gen- 
eral desire for definite information on forestry 
conditions. A number of the commissioners in 
various counties, he added, are eager for their 
counties to begin organized protection of forests 
against .fires. 

It is believed by Department officials that the 
studies that are now being carried on will fur- 
nish a wealth of fundamental information upon 
which to base forestry policies. Two of the 
direct objects are to inventory the present sup- 
ply of timber and to offer suggestions for the 
development of the wood resources in manufac- 
turing enterprises. Behind the entire program is 
a desire to assure a perpetuation of the supply 
of timber and the stablization of industries that 
are dependent thereon for continuous operation. 



MAP SHOWING POWER 

DETAILS IS PREPARED 



A power production and distribution map re- 
cently prepared by the Water Resources Division 
of the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment shows a comprehensive picture of the situa- 
tion in North Carolina. 

The outline designates, the location, nature of 
development (water and steam), ownership 
(municipal, public utility, and private) of all 
plants, and the transmission lines with their 
voltage. 

This map, accompanied by an article giving 
the output of the generating stations for 1927, 
the number of miles of high tension lines, and 
developments in 1928, has been distributed to the 
daily press. 

Copies of these maps and accompanying tabu- 
lations have not yet been prepared for public 
distribution, but will be contained in the annual 
bulletin "The Power Siuation in 1927," to be 
issued by the Water Resources Division, in the 
same form as has previously been the custom. 
Information contained in the report has been 
made available to the public at various times 
through the press. 



SEASON'S GAME BAG 
CENSUS IS BRINGING 
OUT NEW FEATURES 



With practically all of the 125,000 return 
cards for the census of game bagged during the 
seasons of 1927-28 having gone out, and thou- 
sands of replies already having been received by 
the Game Division of the Department of Con- 
servation and Development, many interesting 
features of the game situation in the State "are 
being brought out. 

Although no extensive tabulations have been 
made so far, the returns indicate that many sur- 
prising features will be brought out as a result 
of the count of game taken by North Carolina 
hunters, 

The lowly and sometimes much maligned cot- 
tontail is establishing for himself a greater pres- 
tige among the most popular of the game ani- 
mals and birds. He seems so far, from a casual 
perusal of returns, to be leading the field as a 
victim of the hunter's gun. 

There are but comparatively few Nimrods who 
did not bag at least a few of these fleet creatures 
and in numerous cases, the entire bag of the 
hunter for the season consisted of the cottontail. 
As it has previously been said, no summaries have 
been made up to this time, but it will, no doubt, 
be surprising to many who have not been close 
students of game conditions to ascertain the 
number that have furnished sport and food for 
the table. 

If the place of the rabbit as the most ubiquit- 
ous of wild creatures is disputed, it will likely 
be on the part of the quail and squirrel. All 
three of these are general in distribution over 
the State and are available to practically every 
person who carries a gun in the field. 

One of the most pleasing features that has 
been brought out by the enumeration is the 
number of persons who paid license fees through 
interest in game, but who did not take advantage 
of its privilege to hunt on any occasion during 
the year. Many of the replies that indicated this 
spirit of co-operation and interest in game, show 
that the licensees had never hunted in their lives. 



LIMITED NUMBER OF 

MINNOWS AVAILABLE 



On several occasions there has been mentioned 
in this publication the research and cultural work 
with Gambusia affinis, one of the top minnows, 
by Dr. Samuel F. Hildebrand, director of the 
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Station at Beaufort. 

Doctor Hildebrand is known as the outstand- 
ing authority on this form of aquatic life in the 
United States. His research has covered a period 
of several years, part of which was with the 
U. S. Public Health Service in connection with 
disease prevention around army cantonments 
during the World War. 

The Gambusia affinis has been found to be one 
of the most effective enemies of the malarial 
mosquito because of its habit of feeding on the 
larvae of the disease-imparting insect. 

Doctor Hildebrand has written this Department 
that it has been the custom of the United States 



DEPARTMENT TAKES 
OVER FIRST NATURAL 
BASS FISH NURSERY 



Closing of an arrangement between the Inland 
Fisheries Division of the Department of Conser- 
vation and Development with the Farms Develop- 
ment Corp., Rockingham, for the use of Pine 
Lake, Richmond and Scotland Counties, as a 
natural bass hatchery and nursery sets a mile- 
stone in game fish operations in the State. 

With the completion of the lease, the first 
State bass nursery is established, although some 
of these have been constructed during the last 
few months by individuals and clubs. 

It marks the launching of a campaign on the 
part of this Department to establish a series of 
such nurseries or rearing ponds over North Caro- 
lina. 

Pine Lake is 35 acres in area and is admirable 
for natural hatching of bass (the only method 
of propagation of this fish that is known at this 
time since bass cannot be artificially manipulated 
as other game fish.) Its waters are pure and the 
pond affords numerous natural hiding and refuge 
places for the spawn. The location is on the 
county highway between Maxton and Laurinburg. 

Use of the pond is being given to the Depart- 
ment under a five year lease without cost. 

It is the plan of the Department to liberate 
several thousand bass fry from the Frank Sted- 
man Hatchery at Fayetteville in the lake this 
year, rear them to a length of several inches, and 
to remove a part for distribution in other waters 
after they have reached a suitable size for distri- 
bution. 

According to indications, the lake is already 
fairly well stocked with adult brood bass, which 
will give the double service of hatchery and 
rearing pond. The only distribution from the 
lake will be of fingerlings of several inches in 
length, at an age when their transfer will be 
assurance of only a small rate of mortality. 



Bureau of Fisheries to supply a limited number 
of the minnows for brood stock, generally be- 
tween 100 and 200, and that this practice will 
be continued to the ability of the bureau to 
furnish them. 

The breeding 'of these minnows in any waters 
of the State that furnish harboring places for 
the mosquito is highly desirable. With the de- 
velopment of a number of fish ponds, the need 
for the Gambusia will increased still further. 
Recipients of the minnows are required by the 
Bureau only to furnish containers and to pay the 
shipping charges. 



$203,000 IN LICENSES 

Latest reports from the sales of hunting li- 
censes for last season show that the total receipts 
by this Department up to this time have mounted 
to $203,033. 

With still a number of small reports to be 
received in winding up the tabluation of figures, 
it is thought that the sales will reach a slightly 
higher figure. Most of the returns now being 
received by the Game Division are those being 
sent back with unsold license blanks and buttons. 



- 






CONSERVATION and INDUSTRY 

A Bi-Weekly Publicatt^p of the 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol. V 



JUNE 15, 1928 



\ 



No. 12 



CITIES INTERESTED 
IN ESTABLISHMENT 
OF FISH HATCHERIES 



Movements in cities over the State for the 
establishment of fish hatcheries or rearing ponds 
in co-operation with the Inland Fisheries Division 
of the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment are becoming widespread, and some have 
already reached a definite stage while others are 
shaping up satisfactorily. 

With sufficient interest behind this conserva- 
tion feature, the possibility exists in virtually 
every community for the realization of such an 
object. Almost every city has some nearby loca- 
tion where the construction of a natural pond 
hatchery or rearing pond can be accomplished 
at a small cost, and, with the assistance of this 
Department, be thoroughly stocked. 

One of the proposed hatcheries is contemplated 
for Latham Park in Greensboro and the other 
in Stokes county in connection with the game 
refuge in the Sauratown Mountains, approved 
recently by the Game Committee of the Board 
of Conservation and Development. 

According to word received from Winston- 
Salem, the Izaak Walton League Chapter of that 
pity has accepted a SO-acre tract offered by Paul 
Taylor of Danbury, who has agreed to turn over 
deed to the land when a contract for the con- 
struction for a dam with which to create an arti- 
ficial pond has been signed by the Chapter. The 
lake site fronts on highway 89, between Danbury 
and Piedmont Springs, immediately adjoining the 
refuge area. 

Finances Guaranteed 

Further advices reveal that A. C. Miller, Win- 
ton-Salem, guaranteed that the $4,000 necessary 
for -the~ettn9traction--©f the— ftem— aitd -preparing 
the lake for a hatchery would be raised. It was 
estimated that the cost of constructing the dam 
would amount to $3,700 and that $300 will be 
required to clear the basin. 

The establishment of the hatchery will be a 
realization of the dreams of Capt. R. T. Stedman, 
president of the Winston-Salem Chapter of the 
Izaak Walton League, Stantford Martin, member 
of the Board of Conserversation and Develop- 
ment, and other conservation enthusiasts. 

A movement for the establishment of a hatch- 
ery at Greensboro has been under way for sev- 
eral months, and has been backed enthusiastically 
by James F. Hoge, Secretary of the North Caro- 
ina Game and Fish League, Mayor E. B. Jeffress, 
J. Stone, Capt. J. W. Fry, Lucian I. Strauss, 

d other sportsmen of the city, 
reliminary plans are for the construction of 
acre lake in Latham Park at a location that 
been approved by Frank J. Reiger, superin- 
( Continued on Page 3) 



NEW PYROPHYLLITE PLANT 




Several months ago the plant ot the United Talc and Crayon Company, near Glendon, 
Moore County, burned; and the building shown above is being erected to take its place. 
The plant site, which was out a distance from the town, has been moved to the railroad. 
It is planned to begin operation of the new mill by pulverizing and screening about 75 
tons daily, and in the near future to double this amount. The company also will cut 
about 200 gross of pencils daily and prepare the pyrophyllite in blocks of various sizes 
for the market. 



STATE TAKES OVER 
BURLESON RESERVE 
FOR FARM FOR DEER 



RAINFALL AVERAGES 
AND TEMPERTURES 
GIVEN ON NEW MAP 



Deer population of North Carolina should in- 
crease materially during the coming years as a 
result of the establishment of a farm for their 
propagation. 

Director Wade H. Phillips and J. Q. Gilkey, 
.Marion member of the Board of Conservation 
and Development, have completed a deal with 
former State Senator J. E. Burleson of Spruce 
Pine whereby this Department takes over "Deer 
Park," widely known deer preserve in Mitchell 
county, near Spruce Pino. 

The area consists of around 400 acres of moun- 
tain land, containing about 350 deer. For years 
Senator Burleson has protected the animals and 
the preserve has grown into one of the most in 
teresting parts of the surrounding country. 
(Continued on Pap 



A rainfall and temperature data map re- 
cently issued by the Water Resources Division 
of this Department gives i general averagi oi 
Jiese conditions in North Carolina over a period 
f 40 years. 

The tracing show- a range in the climatic and 
rainfall distribution conditions a- wide as the 

topographical variations. It show- tin- wondex- 
.ul range of physical characteristics and environ-: 
mentS of North Carolina, with condition- suit- 
ible to an> kind of preference 
v showing is also made of the active stream 

caging station-, those that have boon in opera - 
tion, and locations where raoords ol water 
have boon kept 

North Carolina- moan annual precipitation, 

(Continued on Pin- 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by ihe North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application.' 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



FOREST RESEARCH 



Passage of the McNary-McSweeney 
bill by Congress and its signature by 
President Coolidge are hailed by foresters 
as among the most important steps of the 
year in forest conservation. 

The bill is known by many as the re- 
search act, since it provides facilities for 
studies in forestry and in subjects allied 
therewith. The measure sets up appro- 
priations of more than $3,000,000 annual- 
ly for forest research and a timber survey 
in the country. 

An analysis of the bill by the American 
Forestry Association, one of the ten na- 
tional organizations at whose request the 
bill was offered in Congress, shows that it 
contains ten sections, nine of which auth- 
orize specific appropriations. 

Of the appropriations, $1,000,000 an- 
nually is for the establishment and opera- 
tion of forest experiment stations; $250,- 
000 a year for investigation of tree dis- 
eases; and $350,000 a year for the investi- 
gation of forest insect pests. 

Some of the appropriation provisions 
represent features of conservation which 
are new in North Carolina. These include 
$150,000 a year for research into the lives 
and history of forest animals, birds, and 
wild life; and a sum not to exceed $3,000,- 
000, with not more than $250,000 annual- 
ly for forest surveys. Game research will, 
doubtless, aid materially in solving prob- 
lems facing North Carolina's new program. 
Recently this Department has undertaken 
a survey of timber conditions in the State 
that should prove a valuable background 
to a more intensive study of the resource 
in which co-operation from the Federal 
government may be an important factor. 

"The legislation," says Ovid M. Butler, 
executive secretary of the American For- 
estry Association, "meets the long recog- 
nized need for an organic act for forest 
research by the Federal Government. It 
is the outgrowth of an exhaustive study 
made of the status of forest research in 
this country and the need of expanding it 
if real progress is to be made in meeting 
our forest problems." 



NORTH CAROLINA HOLDS 

MICA PRODUCTION PLACE 



While the total output of uncut sheet mica in 
the United States decreased 30 per cent in quan- 
tity and 47 per cent in value last year in compar- 
ison with 1926, North Carolina's slump amounted 
to only five per cent in quantity and 24 per cent 
in value, according to figures submitted by State 
Geologist H. J. Bryson and the U. S. Bureau of 
Mines. 

North Carolina maintained her position as 
second State in order of quantity of pro- 
duction of sheet mica during the year, exceeded 
only by New Hampshire, but the value of the 
material produced was more. 

The report shows a total production of 665,- 
360 pounds of sheet mica, valued at $114,514 and 
2,995 short tons of the scrap material, valued at 
$50,505; New Hampshire, sheet mica, 720,219 
pounds, value, $78,848, and scrap mica, 1,284 
tons, value, $22,909. North Carolina and New 
Hampshire produced more mica of both varieties 
than all other states combined. 

The average value per pound of all sheet mica 
sold in the United States in 1927 was about 14 
cents, as compared with 18 cents in 1926, and the 
average value of scrap mica a short ton was $18 
in 1927, as compared with $19 a ton in 1926. 

Imports of mica for consumption in the United 
States were 3,459,647 pounds, valued at $1,630,- 
309. Corresponding figures for 1926 were 6,318,- 
096 pounds, valued at $2,450,834. 



ENUMERATORS FOR BIRD 

CENSUS ARE IN DEMAND 



Officials of the United States Biological Survey 
have again sent out an appeal for bird students 
volunteers to assist in the taking of a census of 
the feathery inhabitants of the United States. 

The latest appeal asks that these students as- 
sist by taking the census of birds breeding on 
tracts convenient to their homes. "Such a cen- 
sus," says the Survey, "means an exact and com- 
plete enumeration, by species, of the birds that 
actually nest within the boundaries of a selected 
area. It does not include birds that merely visit 
the tract, birds that nest near but outside the 
boundaries, and migrants. 

"Bird censuses become particularly valuable 
when the volunteer enumerator counts the birds 
making their homes in the area for. five or more 
years in succession. A suggestion as to the most 
effective way to take the census is that a count 
be made of the singing birds very early in the 
morning, with a recount on one or more morn- 
ings in the course of the next few days." 

The bird census is a basic operation and one 
of great importance in an intelligent program 
dealing with the feathery creatures. It will give 
information upon which those interested in the 
protection of wild life may base needed meas 
ures and do away with the problem of having 
to deal in the dark without the benefit of know 
ledge of distribution, prevalency, and conditions 
affecting their welfare. Those interested are 
asked to write to the Biological Survey, United 
States Department of Agriculture for further 
particulars. 



TAX EXPERT IMPRESSED 

BY SITUATION IN STATE 



John Lansdale, valuation engineer and tax 
commissioner of the Southern Pacific Lines in 
Texas and Louisiana, is much impressed with the 
publication concerning taxes and debts of the 
State of North Carolina. 

Writing to Park Mathewson, Assistant Director 
of this Department, Mr. Lansdale says: "I have 
read with a great deal of interest and edification 
the 'Analysis of North Carolina Taxes and Debts' 
as issued by your Department, which I received 
recently. 

"North Carolina is to be congratulated upon 
its prosperous condition, its business-like govern- 
ment and the really low tax rates as tabulated 
by you, which I understand, are computed on 
the basis of 50 per cent of value." 



POWER DEVELOPMENT 

POSSIBILITIES SHOWN 



A copy of the completed report, together with 
all plans, diagrams and tables of the survey of 
the Tennessee River and its tributaries in North 
Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, and Kentucky, 
carried out by the Corps of Engineers of the 
War Department between 1925 and 1927 has been 
received by the Water Resources Division of this 
Department at Chapel Hill. 

The report and diagrams show plans for de- 
veloping waterpower possibilities on the Noli- 
chucky, French Broad, Little Tennessee, Nanta- 
hala, Tuckasegee and Hiwassee Rivers. These 
proposed developments are given in detail, to- 
gether with the capacity of storage reservoirs 
and the amount of power which may be devel- 
oped at each site. 

These reports and diagrams present a compre- 
hensive scheme for the development of water- 
powers of the Western part of North Carolina 
draining into the Tennessee River basin. En- 
gineers and others who have interest in the 
streams of the section may have free access to 
the data in the Water Resources Division for 
consultation. 

To a large extent, the proposed plan of develop- 
ment outlined by the Water Resources Division 
as a result of its surveys on the Hiwasee river 
during 1922 and 1923 was adopted by the War 
Department following the more detailed investi- 
gation. 



BEAUTIFIED HIGHWAYS 



Java has 15,000 miles of shaded highways as 
a result of a Governmental act of long ago. 
When the officials of that early age concluded 
that the natives lacked initiative in tree planting, 
they proceeded to inspire them with that virtue. 
An act was adopted demanding up to sixty days 
a year from each individual to be devoted to 
planting trees. Later a humanitarian home parli- 
ament in Holland abolished the system, but the 
habit continued, with the result that the islanders 
still plant and preserve roadside trees. — Canadian 
Forest and Outdoors. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



CITIES INTERESTED 

IN ESTABLISHMENT 

OF FISH HATCHERIES 

(Continued from Page 1) 
tendent of State Fish Hatcheries, as suitable for 
the purpose. 

The site is a natural hollow around which high- 
way embankments form suitable margins on three 
sides, a situation which will allow a very econom- 
ical construction cost. A branch runs through 
the area and its waters are said to be sufficiently 
pure for the purpose. A large city conduit which 
passes the location, however, could be used as an 
emergency supply in case the stream water should 
become muddy from excessive rains. 

Near the lake, it is contemplated to construct 
several ponds into which the parent fish could 
be placed after spawning. The hatchery would 
be for the propagation of bass. With this ar- 
rangement it would be possible to use the larger 
body of water for a nursery in which the baby 
fry could be raised to a large fingerling size before 
being distributed. 

Proposal Made 

A definite proposal for co-operative operation 
of this hatchery has been made to officials of the 
city of Greensboro by Assistant Director J. K. 
Dixon on behalf of the Department. 

In Catawba county considerable interest has 
been shown in the establishment of a fish hatch- 
ery. Director Wade H. Phillips was recently in- 
vited to speak at a joint meeting of the Kiwanis 
Clubs of Hickory and Newton on the subject. 
He complimented the progressive spirit prompting 
the movement and spoke encouragingly of the 
benefits which would result from the attainment 
of their goal. He also expressed a desire on the 
part of the Department to assist, so far as pos- 
sible, in the program. 

According to the plans now being developed in 
Catawba county, the hatchery would be designed 
primarily to furnish stock for the big lake created 
at Oxford Shoals. This lake covers an area of 
around 5,000 acres with a shore line of some 
ninety miles. 

Some agitation has been made in favor of the 
construction of a hatchery along the shores of 
High Rock Lake in Davidson and Rowan coun- 
ties, but as yet the movement has not made any 
considerable progress. This body of water covers 
an area of 20,500 acres and has a shore line of 
36t> miles. 



RAINFALL AVERAGES 

AND TEMPERTURES 

GIVEN ON NEW MAP 

(Continued from Page 1) 
according to the map, ranges as high as 85 inches 
in some parts of the mountain section to a mini- 
mum of 35 inches in nearby territory. In the 
eastern part of the State, the distribution of rain- 
fall is decidedly more regular than in the moun- 
tains. 

The heaviest mean annual precipitation is 
recorded in the southern parts of Macon and 
Jackson counties, and one of the most striking 
contrasts is furnished in an area lying princi- 
pally in Buncombe and Jackson counties, about 
40 miles distant, where the mean drops as low- 
as 35 inches. 

Next to the Macon and Jackson county area. 
a strip extending along the southwestern part 
of the State through parts of Henderson, Jackson, 



Macon, Clay and Cherokee, claims the second 
highest mean precipitation, between 60 and 80 
inches. 

Along the southeastern coastal fringe of coun- 
ties, including New Hanover, and parts of Bruns- 
wick, Pender, Onslow, Carteret, and Craven, the 
mean is between 45 and 50 inches. Extending 
northward along the coast and including the 
counties of Beaufort, Pamlico, Hyde, Dare, Tyr- 
rell, Washington, and Martin, the prevailing mean 
is between 50 and 55 inches, while in the tier of 
counties including .Currituck, Camden, Pasquo- 
tank, Perquimans, Chowan, Hertford, Northamp- 
ton, and Bertie, the prevailing mean is 45 to 50 
inches. 

The most general average in the coastal plain 
section is from 50 to 55 inches, while the pre- 
vailing mean is 45 to 50 inches in the central 
part of the State. 

The range of mean annual temperature ranges 
from 50 degrees in the mountains to 63 on the 
coast. . 

STATE TAKES OVER 

BURLESON RESERVE 

FOR FARM FOR DEER 

(Continued from Page 1) 
Under plans of the Department, the herd will 
remain intact and the increase of the animals will 
be used for stocking State Refuges and other 
parts of the State where the natural stock of the 
animals has become depleted. Some of the 
younger animals will be transferred to the State 
Game Farm, near Asheboro, immediately. 

Unless some practicable plan for transferring 
the matured deer is found, the Department will 
do all of its stocking with fawns. Recent experi- 
ments in transporting the larger animals from the 
Pisgah National Game Refuge to other places 
have not proved satisfactory since the fright of 
the animals caused several to kill themselves. 
Department officials believe that by leaving the 
heard as brood stock that efficient restocking can 
be carried out with fawns. 



BAD PACKING METHODS 

CAUSE HUGE DAMAGES 



U. S. BUREAU POWER 

FIGURES ARE ISSUED 

A tabulation showing the output of electric 
energy in the United States during the year 
1927 recently made public by the United States 
Geological Survey checks the figures issued several 
weeks ago by the Division of Water Resources 
of the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment. 

These figures show that North Carolina ranks 
seventh in the United States in the total output 
with a production of 2,080,547,000 kilowatt hours 
for the year. This is 2.6 per cent of the total 
for the United States, and gives North Carolina 
first rank among all Southern States in output. 

In that proportion of output by waterpower, 
North Carolina ranks third in all States cast of 
the Mississippi River, being exceeded only by 
New York with the great power from Niagara 
Falls and by Alabama with the tremendous Wil- 
son Dam. North Carolina ranks fifth in the en- 
tire United States in output of water power. The 
output for North Carolina in 1027 is given as 1,- 
137,003,000 kilowatt hours, which is 3.81 per cent 
of the total output by waterpower in the United 
States. 



Proper packing K one of the mo-t important 
factors in the marketing of all commoditii- 
What this feature of preparation of goods sinni- 
fies is brought out by estimates of the CO opera- 
tive office of the United States Bureau of For- 
eign and Domestic Commerce at the Department 
of Conservation and Development that $50,- 
000,000 is lost annually by improper packing. 

To cut down this damage, the Bureau has 
recently completed a study of packing methods 
and containers for both foreign and domestic 
shipments. Nine bulletins contain the results of 
these investigations, and these are available for 
distribution. 

The bulletins cover the following subject - 
Wooden Boxes, Cleated Plywood Boxes, Wire- 
Bound Boxes, Nailed Wooden Crates, Packing 
for Foreign Shipments, Cooperage and Steel 
Barrels, Fibre Containers, Baling Paper Wrapped 
Packages for Parcel Post and Express Shipment- 

These bulletins are comprehensive in their treat- 
ment of the subjects and are consolidations of 
successful experiences and are gathered from 
close observations of experts. A price of $1.25 
has been fixed by the United States Bureau on 
the bulletin, "Packing for Foreign Shipments."' 
and the series of booklets on domestic packinc 
costs 55 cents. These may be obtained through 
the co-operative office at this Department in 
Raleigh. 



NATIVE OF THIS STATE 

PRAISES GAME WORK 

James B. Ewart, Assistant Secretary of the 
Game Conservation Society, a national organiza- 
tion of farmers, game breeders, and sportsmen 
with headquarters in New York City, and a 
native of Henderson county, in a letter to Di- 
rector Wade H. Phillips expresses pleasure over 
the enactment and operation of the new State- 
wide game law. 

"The North Carolina State-wide Game Law 
of 1927 was a real constructive move to con- 
serve our rapidly disappearini: name supply. I 
believe it gave genuine satisfaction to sportsmen 
both within the State and throughout the coun- 
try Hearty congratulations for the results 

accomplished to date by the Department of Con- 
servation and Development of North Carolina " 



GAME CENSUS REVEALS 

OVER 135,000 HUNTERS 

One hundred and twenty-live thousand return 
cards have been sent out in the census ol game 
killed last season and a lame part of the report- 
have been returned. 

However, it has been found that the number 
of hunters is beyond the original estimates, and 
ten thousand additional blanks must be obtained 
before the report can be completed. These have 
been ordered. 

Tabulations of the report- are being started 
at this time and this work will be speeded up as 
mud) as possible in order that some idea of the 
Scope of the game bag may be obtained at the 
earliest possible time The game killed will be 
figured b\ -|x-< aes in the St.ite .it large and for 
all counties. 



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I 

) • 






CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



DEPARTMENT PLANS 
QUARTERLY REVIEW 
OF NEW INDUSTRIES 



A quarterly summary of new industries start- 
ing in the State has been adopted by the Division 
of Commerce and Industry as a regular feature. 
The summaries will be made by Park Mathew- 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have been sent out by 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chambers of Commerce 
and trade representatives of this Department, ask- 
ing for reports since the beginning of the current 
year. 

Information gathered from these questionnaires 
will be tabulated in totals and by localities, and 
made public immediately after their receipt. It 
is proposed by this means to keep in touch with 
the industrial development within the State and 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Department officials that the 
regular tabulations of industrial progress will 
prove an advertising feature that will be bene- 
ficial to the entire State. It should show the 
increasing confidence of industry in North Caro- 
lina and the recognized opportunities for con- 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys have been made by the 
Department in the past, but the adoption of the 
plan as a permanent feature has just been deter- 
mined upon. Through this agency, the Depart- 
ment and other booster organizations will be 
able to keep a closer touch with the industrial 
activities in the interim between the Federal 
biennial censuses. 



PROMISING REPORT 
ON COPPER IN STATE 
IS GIVEN BY SURVEY 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 

QUAIL ARE THRIVING 



Mexican quail of the first lot of 4,000 distri- 
buted this spring in North Carolina, under the 
supervision of Director Wade H. Phillips, have 
become quickly acclimated and are making them- 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of sections show that 
they are very much alive and appear to be pros- 
pering in their new surroundings. In several in- 
stances, deputy game commissioners, wardens, 
and sportsmen who assisted in the distribution 
of the birds have kept close watch on the locali- 
ties where the quail were released and have gone 
back to look after their welfare. 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh sportsman, who assisted 
in the distribution in Wake county declares that 
he has checked up on the results in a number 
of localities and that the birds, in one instance 
have taken up with a flock of guineas and that 
calls frequently bring a response. 

F. S. Worthy, Washington, member of the 
Board of Conservation and Development, reports 
that quail distributed in Beaufort county are 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Encouraging reports for copper mining in the 
south followed a recent visit of Clarence S. Ross, 
geologist of the U. S. Geological Survey, at a 
number of mines in the section among which 
were Ore Knob, Cullowhee, Savannah, Wayhutta, 
Fontana and Otto in North Carolina and at 
Ducktown, Tenn. 

The mines at Ducktown, Tenn., were consid- 
ered by the geologist as being the most import- 
ant in Eastern United States, but copper ores 
similar to those there found in veins extending 
across the western parts of Virginia, North Caro- 
lina, and into Alabama. 

A review of the copper mining situation in the 
South shows that greatest period of activity in 
the Southern Appalachian region was approxi- 
mately 75 years ago. About 30 years ago, the 
Ducktown mines were reopened and have been 
producing since that time. 

"The Culowhee mine," says a dispatch out of 
Washington, "near Cullowhee, is probably larger 
and richer in copper than some of the other 
mines, but is has not been prospected far below 
Ihe surface. 

"The Ore Knob copper mine, near West Jeffer- 
son, was at one time the greatest copper mine in 
'.he country and for a time utilized the original 
!ow-grade ores after the enriched ores above them 
had been exhausted. 

"The vein is 8 to 16 feet wide and was mined 
over a distance of 2,800 feet. It is nearly verti- 
cal, and the deepest shaft is more than 400 feet 
deep. The primary ores are said to have carried 
about seven per cent of copper. Large amounts 
of copper ore that were at that time considered 
}f low grade were left in the ground, and the 
vein is of a type that may be expected to con- 
tinue in depth with little change in the nature 
of the ores. 

"The Ore Knob mine is the most promising 
unworked copper mine in the region. It is on 
a good road and about 12 miles from the rail- 
road at West Jefferson. The vein is continuous 
for a long distance and contains large reserves 
of ore similar to that which made it a valuable 
mine in the past. The ores are of the same type 
as those at Ducktown but are probably richer, 
and the potential copper supplies are large." 

State Geologist H. J. Bryson has received re- 
cent reports of developments at Fontana, where 
ores carrying around seven per cent are being 
mined. Beginning around the first of this year 
the production was increased and it is now re- 
ported that around 400 tons of the ores are being 
mined daily. 



TAR HEELS LEADING 
IN MOTOR INCREASE 
FOR THE LAST YEAR 



Fraternal organizations are finding the prac- 
tice of forestry to be a means of public service. 
A report of the Grand Master of Masonic Lodges 
of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



Mark down another first for the Old North 
State! During the year 1927, the percentage of 
increase in automobiles led all of the other 
States, it is pointed out by the Commerce and 
Industry Division of this Department. 

Official figures show during the 12-month per- 
iod that the percentage of increases was 11.8 
per cent, 1.6 per cent more than South Carolina, 
second in rank. 

The total numerical increase in automobiles 
for the year was 45,452. In number of increase, 
the State ranked eight in the country with New 
York leading the field with 122,484, followed in 
this order: Pennsylvania, 99,731; California, 92,- 
720; Ohio, 90,488; Illinois, 68,482; Texas, 61,538; 
and New Jersey, 60,452. 

Total registration showed North Carolina in 
seventeenth place in the United States with 430,- 
499. Only Texas, with 1,111,407 automobiles 
exceeded this State in total of registration. Florida 
-rame third among the Southern States with 394,- 
734. 

The figures show one automobile in the Tar 
Hell State for every 7.42 persons. Florida ranked 
•irst in the South with 4.09. Kansas was the 
eading State in the country on this basis of com- 
parison, boasting of one automobile for every 
'.96 persons. North Carolina's rank among the 
other states was 38th with most of the Southern 
States trailing this record. 



GAME PROPAGATION INTEREST 
GROWING OVER ENTIRE STATE 



Propagation of game at the Asheboro Farm 
by this Department is encouraging and promot- 
ing interest throughout the State among sports- 
men and organizations. The stimulation given 
to game breeding is being reflected in many 
quarters, and some definite fruits of this activity 
Is already becoming evident. 

The field of breeding activities has extended 
beyond the species that are native to North 
Carolina, and is causing study to be made of 
those that may be introduced. In this scope 
comes the pheasant. It is generally believed that 
this gamey bird will flourish in many parts of ' 
the State. 

Reports to this Department show that pheas- 
ants have been stocked, to a somewhat limited 
?xtent, in several sections with varying degrees 
of success, but not over a long enough period or 
on a scale broad enough to satisfy all. 

Among those who feel assured that pheasants 
will thrive in the State and will provide a decide- 
ly popular sport is W. C. Grimes, manager of the 
State Game Farm, who has made a success of 
breeding the birds as a private venture. 

"Taken all in all," Says Mr. Grimes, "it is a 
serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION 
AND INDUSTRY 

A Bi -Weekly Publication of the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 



VOL.V 



Raleigh, N. C.July 1, 1928 



No. 13 




NEW FISHERIES FLAGSHIP 



CONTENTS 

Hunting Licenses, Season 1927-28 2 

Forestry Council Fixes Legislative Program for 1029 3 

"Red Demon's" Ravages Slowed Down in May 4 

Community Promotion is Treated in Booklet 4 

Studies of Coastal Changes Resumed in Summer Months 5 

New Ship Replaces Flagship "Atlantic" of Fisheries Fleet 6 

Burke-McDowell Law Operation is Popular 6 

Sales of Anglers' Licenses for Year Above Last Season 7 

Merchandise Exports Amount to $60,000,000 7 

Norwood Plant is Put into Operation by Power Company 8 

Warden Appointed for Old Fort Macon S 

Chain of Publicly Owned Forests is a Wise Investment 

Audubon Societies Making Studies of Coastal Bird Life . 11 

Contract Awarded for Feldspar Mill in Western County 11 

Fishing Seasons Open 12 



■ • * 



... : 



• • \ ■ 



:. i 



DEPARTMENT P 
QUARTERLY E 

OF NEW INI 



Hunting Licenses, Season 1927-28 



A quarterly summary of ne\ 
ing in the State has been adopt( 
of Commerce and Industry as 
The summaries will be made 1 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 1 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chaml 
and trade representatives of this 
ing for reports since the beginn 
year. 

Information gathered from tl 
will be tabulated in totals and 
made public immediately aftei 
is proposed by this means to k 
the industrial development wit 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmer 
regular tabulations of indust 
prove an advertising feature t 
ficial to the entire State. It 
increasing confidence of indust 
lina and the recognized oppc 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys have 
Department in the past, but tl 
plan as a permanent feature h; 
mined upon. Through this a; 
ment and other booster org; 
able to keep a closer touch i 
activities in the interim be 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL AI 



County 



Mexican quail of the first 1 
buted this spring in North C 
supervision of Director Wade 
become quickly acclimated and 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundii 
stances, deputy game comm 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close v, 
ties where the quail were rele: 
back to look after their welfai 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh sport 
in the distribution in Wake to 
he has checked up on the n 
of localities and that the bir 
have taken up with a flock c 
calls frequently bring a respoi 

F. S. Worthy, Washingtoi 
Board of Conservation and D 
that quail distributed in Be 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Alamance _. 
Alexander . 
Aleghany _. 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort _. 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick - 
Buncombe . 

Burke 

Cabarrus _. 
Caldwell __ 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Chatham __ 
Catawba _. 
Cherokee „ 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland _ 
Columbus - 

Craven 

Cumberland 
Currituck __ 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gates 

Gaston 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford — 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson _ 
Hertford __ 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Johnston 

Jones 



$ 3,141 

524 

421 

1,747 

952 

375 

3,075 

3,644 

974 

828 

5,667 

484 

2,549 

1,040 

870 

3,034 

979 

2,927 

2,529 

1,352 

779 

2 SO 

2,309 

2,690 

3,805 

1,909 

1,148 

84 

3,912 

1,314 

2,539 

4,185 

2,083 

8,459 

1,733 

1,067 

2,760 

686 

1,680 

1,337 

7,831 

4,128 

1,874 

1,200 

1,074 

1,866 

297 

628 

2,340 

1,104 

3,712 

846 



S h 



Pi u 



1,956 

509 

361 

1,567 

932 

335 

2,283 

2,769 

794 

733 

3,507 

454 

1,559 

945 

590 

949 

719 

1,397 

1,729 

1,017 

624 

250 

1,784 

1,760 

2,065 

1,029 

513 

79 

2,287 

1,129 

1,624 

1,315 

1,303 

3,159 

1,473 

827 

1,595 

511 

1,345 

827 

2,526 

3,143 

1,069 

980 

869 

1,231 

172 

503 

1,745 

824 

3,007 

651 



168 
3 

12 

36 

4 

8 

117 

121 
30 
19 

402 
6 

198 
19 
11 
36 
13 
66 

148 
55 
31 

105 

63 

186 

161 

10 

1 

181 

28 

180 

574 

120 

1,048 

49 

9 

233 

5 

40 

102 

860 

173 

152 

38 

38 

49 

25 

7 

119 

26 

141 

33 



23 



14 
18 

2 

10 



IS 

127 

13 

80 

4 
4 



41 

54 

5 

39 

48 
3 
1 

12 
4 
1 

13 

10 
9 

67 
8 
3 
2 
1 

26 

6 
10 

2 



County 




Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg _. 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover . 
Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank __. 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham _. 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanley 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania _. 

Tyrrell 

Union I 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Total - 
Receipts 



not as- 
signed to counties 
Grand total _ 



1,232 

3,192 

1,309 

619 

432 

2,427 

1,474 

5,927 

209 

759 

263 

4,721 

3,080 

1,936 

1,558 

1,817 

713 

1,625 

934 

979 

1,208 

4,869 

578 

2,587 

1,762 

2,868 

3,047 

3,109 

1,499 

1,479 

834 

2,512 

1,216 

2,199 

619 

228 

277 

1,716 

1,617 

5,799 

1,395 

1,053 

849 

3,350 

1,577 

4,228 

727 

463 

197,635 

6,365 
204,000 



662 

1,657 

929 

534 

417 

1,752 

1,214 

3,092 

124 

454 

163 

2,751 

1,140 

1,831 

1,083 

1,407 

563 

895 

764 

749 

883 

2,749 

488 

1,332 

1,032 

2,143 

2,347 

1,719 

1,379 

1,194 

584 

1,512 

1,076 

1,679 

499 

193 

262 

1,471 

1,032 

3,209 

1,095 

843 

739 

2,135 

1,337 

2,483 

657 

458 

126,035 



126,035 



105 
301 
76 
14 
3 
117 
46 
567 
17 
58 
18 
385 
355 
15 
29 
82 
18 
116 
28 
4 
14 
421 
9 
128 
134 
136 
125 
263 
24 
57 
50 
197 
28 
89 
21 
4 
3 
43 
108 
506 
27 
36 
22 
234 
39 
340 
14 
1 
11,686 



1 

2 

3 

11 

2 
22 

4 
10 

2 

14 

17 

1 

3 

41 

4 

3 

5 

5 



5 
1 
1 

2 

3 

4 

11 

2 

3 
3 
3 



878 



11,686 878 



.a repuri ui uic omnu ivia.Mcr ui lvjiasuiiic L-uugcs 

of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



laKen an in an, oays mi. vrrmrcs, n. is a 

serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Raleigh, N. C.July 1, 1928 



FORESTRY COUNCIL 
FIXES LEGISLATIVE 
PROGRAM FOR 1929 



Members of the legislative and executive com- 
mittees of the North Carolina Forestry Associa- 
tion at a recent joint meeting in Raleigh drew up 
a legislative program which will be recommended 
for passage by. the General Assembly of 1929. 

This program consists of a number of items, 
the realization of which would place forestry on 
a more definite basis in North Carolina and go 
far toward realizing the ultimate objects of the 
perpetuation of forests and their advantages to 
the public. 

Following are some of most important features 
as summarized by Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, presi- 
dent of the association: 

Constitutional Amendment: The first subject 
presented to the meeting was the proposed 
amendment to the Constitution of North Caro- 
lina, which is necessary to permit a change in the 
method of taxation and assessment of forest lands 
to encourage the cultivation and conservation of 
timber, and it was decided that the General As- 
sembly of North Carolina be requested to pass a 
bill authorizing the submission to a vote of the 
people at the next general election of the fol- 
lowing amendment to the Constitution of North 
Carolina: 

Full power and authority are hereby given and 
granted to the General Assembly to prescribe 
for all classes of forest land, farm wood land, 
and wild waste lands, such methods of taxation 
as will develop and conserve the forest resources 
of the Commonwealth. 

Authorization for planting and protection of 
road side trees: The consideration of "legislation 
authorizing the planting and protection of road- 
side trees and shrubs, and providing means for 
supervising the planting and protection of trees" 
was taken up at the request of the chairman 
of the North Carolina Federation of Woman's 
Clubs. After some discussion the committee 
went on record as approving the proposed legisla- 
tion and will offer every assistance possible to 
obtain such legislation. 



Increased appropriation for State Forests: Pro- 
posed legislation asking an increased appropria- 
tion for the acquisition of land for State Forests 
or Parks was discussed and a motion approving 
this suggestion was passed. 

Acquisition of Land in Eastern Carolina for 
National Forests: The committee went on record 
as approving and urging legislation which will 
permit the United States to acquire land in the 
piedmont and coastal plain regions of North 
Carolina needed for the establishment of National 
Forests. 

Teaching of Forestry: The committee went on 
record as approving and urging the teaching of 
forestry in State College and the University of 
North Carolina. 




Seventy-one and one-half pound rock caught 

in Roanoke River below Weldon by 

J. B. Massenburg, ofWarrenton 






Wt'< ! 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of ne 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry as 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an< 
made public immediately aftt 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development wi 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indus 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but t 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this a 
ment and other booster orj 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim bi 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North < 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an' 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comn 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close t 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake ( 
he has checked up on the r 
of localities and that the bii 
have taken up with a flock ■ 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and E 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 

Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



By means of its enlarged scope, in its new 
form, Conservation and Industry will be able 
to carry short communications and articles deal- 
ing with personal experiences of foresters, hunters, 
fishermen, industrialists, and others interested in 
the work of this Department. 

One of the new features of the publication will 
be a section devoted to communications from 
persons who desire to express opinions on some 
feature of conservation or development, what 
results are being accomplished in their particular 
section or in the State at large, what is needed to 
carry forward the objects of conservation and 
development, and general comments in regard to 
these features. 

Suggestions are always welcomed by the offi- 
cials of the Department, who give consideration 
to each one. They believe that active co-opera- 
tion on the part of everyone interested in the 
work is essential to the success of the Depart- 
ment, and that every one, so far as is within the 
physical limits of this publication, should be 
given an opportunity to be heard. 

Address communications to the Editor, Con- 
servation and Industry, Raleigh, N. C. Please 
make them brief in order that all may be given 
equal opportunity for presentation. 



"RED DEMON'S" RAVAGES 

SLOWED DOWN IN MAY 



Forest fire destruction in co-operating counties 
shows another substantial reduction in May from 
April when the losses were kept to a small figure 
in spite of a large number of pyrotechnics in the 
woodlands. 

May's report of the Forestry Division of De- 
partment of Conservation and Development re- 



veals a drop of almost SO per cent in number of 
fires, the total being 118 in comparison with the 
225 of April. Total area covered by the May 
fires was 8,337 acres and damages were estimated 
at $12,698; and the number of fires in April was 
225 with 19,473 acres being swept over, entailing 
losses of $42,382. 

The average fire of May burned over 71 acres 
and caused damages estimated at $108; and the 
average fire of April swept over 86 acres and 
caused damages estimated at $188. The pro- 
gressive increase of efficiency of the warden serv- 
ice is emphasized by a comparison with the rec- 
ord of May, 1927, when the average fire burned 
over 204 acres and caused damages estimated at 
$441. 

Fewer than two per cent of the May, 1928, 
fires were described to natural causes, lightning, 
and the rest may be classed as preventable. 
Lightning was charged with having started only 
two of the 118 conflagrations. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



COMMUNITY PROMOTION 

IS TREATED IN BOOKLET 



Progressive communities and Chambers of 
Commerce of North Carolina will receive a 
wealth of information and suggestions in pro- 
moting their interests in a booklet "Advertising 
For Community Promoting," offered through the 
co-operative office of the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce at the Department of Con- 
servation and Development. 

The booklet, containing 3i pages, is for com- 
munities selling recreational and business oppor- 
tunities. It shows what objective communities 
are seeking to attain through advertising expendi- 
tures and what tangible results they are reporting 
therefrom. 

Among the most important information offer- 
ed in the brochure is an analysis of questionnaire 
returns showing average expenditures for com- 
munity advertising, mediums, advertising agencies 
and fees, state and municipal agencies and re- 
turns from advertising agencies. Other topics 
treated in the publication include: results of com- 
munity advertising, trend of community growth, 
community advertising problems and methods, 
and indexes of community growth from 1920 to 
1926. 

All Chambers of Commerce and communities 
in North Carolina should send for this booklet. 
It may be obtained by sending 10c to the co-op- 
erative bureau at this Department. , 



Kmur all ill dl 



JI1J3 1TX1 . VJ111UC3, 1L 13 O- 

serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



STUDIES OF COASTAL 
CHANGES RESUMED 
IN SUMMER MONTHS 



Studies of physical changes on the beaches of 
North Carolina which were started last year by 
the Water Resources Division of this Department 
are being continued this year with the dispatch- 
ing of field parties to the coast for this purpose. 

The parties, headed by R. M. Trimble, Profes- 
sor of Civil Engineering of the University of 
North Carolina, and H. H. Schmitt, also of the 
University, are now at work, along the beaches. 

Work this summer will be in checking up 
changes that have taken place since base lines 
were established last summer, and in some places, 
new lines will be set for future reference. First 
operations in the studies were started at Wrights- 
ville and Carolina Beaches and around More- 
head City. This year, it is planned to follow 
up the work at these points and probably to 
extend it to vicinity of Roanoke Island. 

Another feature of the work to be taken up 
this summer will be a reconnoisance of most of 
the coastal region by Thorndike Saville, Chief 
Hydraulic Engineer of the Department, for the 
purpose of observation of conditions and the 
gathering of data for a continuation of the work. 



As the first of the States south of the Potomac 
River to attempt to solve beach erosion and ac- 
cretion problems, North Carolina last year at- 
tracted national attention. This foundation work 
was largely instrumental in obtaining the annual 
convention of the American Shore and Beach 
Protective Association for Wilmington this winter. 

It has been pointed out that North Carolina's 
beach protection program has been started in a 
most appropriate time, especially in consideration 
of the loss experienced by larger developed coas- 
tal communities of eastern states where much 
might have been saved if the work had been be- 
gun at an earlier date. 

Questions in the coastal studies involve not 
the protection of buildings and other man-made 
improvements, but also various only natural 
conditions such as the opening and closing of 
inlets, which affect the annual migration of food 
fishes and the welfare of shell-fish by the varia- 
tions in the qualities of the inland waters; and 
navigation. 

The work that is being undertaken at this time 
may be termed as strictly fundamental in nature 
and in preparation of greater problems as they 
arise. The information gathered as a result of 
the present studies will enable the State to be 
prepared to meet new questions as they arise 
from time to time. 



11 

n 


wmmaam 

^to& air; - 

dSi »££' "»HI« «&r*f -^SH 


SNi3j& 







One of the many alluring fishing streams of Eastern North Carolina. This photograph shows 
a beautiful section of a creek in White Swamp, Columbus County. 









4 .•:•'•• '" 

DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of nf 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a; 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals ani 
made public immediately aftt 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development wi 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indus 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 1 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this a 
ment and other booster orj 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b< 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



NEW SHIP REPLACES 
FLAGSHIP ATLANTIC 
OF FISHERIES FLEET 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North < 
supervision of Director Wad' 
become quickly acclimated am 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comn 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close a 
ties where the quail were rele 

back to look after their welfa 
W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 

in the distribution in Wake ( 

he has checked up on the r 

of localities and that the bii 

have taken up with a flock > 

calls frequently bring a respo 
F. S. Worthy, Washingto 

Board of Conservation and I 

that quail distributed in B 

thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 

quail are flourishing in their county and that 

some of the birds have begun to lay. They 

believe that the distribution has already proved 

highly successful and that hunters of their section 

will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 

provided. 



After having served the State in fisheries opera- 
tions faithfully for a quarter of a century, the 
venerable "Atlantic," flagship of the patrol fleet 
of the Commercial Fisheries Division of the De- 
partment of Conservation and Development has 
surrendered her position to a more modern craft. 

Purchase of the cruising yacht, "Hedalca," from 
New York for the use of Capt. J. A. Nelson, 
Fisheries Commissioner, is announced by Gover- 
nor A. W. McLean as ex-officio Director of the 
Budget. 

The "Hedalca" is 76 feet in length over all; 
has a 17-foot beam and a draft of 4 feet. She 
has a steamer stern, and is built of wood with 
bronze fastenings. 

The vessel is propelled by two 60-horsepower 
Murray and Tregurtha engines. She was built in 
1917 by Nat Herreschoff, famous ship builder, for 
his own use, but has since passed into other hands. 
New engines were installed in 1923, and have been 
thoroughly overhauled this year. Her maximum 
speed is 12 miles an hour with a cruising speed 
of 10 miles. A new Delco light plant and bat- 
teries, awnings, a frigidaire, and fire-fighting ap- 
paratus have been added this year. 

Originally, the cost of the "Hedalca," was 
$75,000, and her present worth is estimated at 
$50,000, but the State was able to procure her at 
a figure of $23,000. 

A definite need for the new vessel has been 
felt for several years, since the "Atlantic," was 
inadequate for the service which was expected 
to be performed. Her speed is only about half 
of that of her successor; and the "Hedalca" will 
make possible a considerable saving of time and 
more effective work on the part of the Fisheries 
Commissioner. This is especially important in 
view of the extension of fisheries operations and 
the growth of the industry which makes necessary 
more personal supervision on the part of the 
Commissioner and a demand for faster time in 
covering the broad expanse of North Carolina 
fishing waters. 

The "Atlantic" was built in 1901 and was pur- 
commissioner, 



chased by W. M. Webb, shellfish 



before the creation of the Fisheries Commission 
Board in 1915 when the craft was turned over to 
the new Board, and in 1927 she became the 
property of the Department of Conservation and 
Development as a result of the consolidation of 
the Fisheries Commission Board with the Depart- 
ment. 

Captain Nelson has been in charge of the "At- 
lantic" for 20 years, during which he has had 
the honor of visits from four governors, includ- 
ing Craig, Bickett, Morrison, and McLean on 
special inspections of coastal waters. 

Purchase of a vessel to displace the veteran 
"Atlantic" was made possible as the result of an 
appropriation by the 1927 General Assembly 
which decreed that her successor might be pur- 
chased for an amount not to exceed $25,000 from 
any surplus in the general fund for the biennium. 

The appropriation bill also stipulated that the 
"Atlantic" should be sold and the proceeds be 
applied on the purchase price of her successor. 

Other vessels in the fisheries patrol fleet in- 
clude the "Albemarle," "Pamlico," "Neuse," 
"Chowan," "Roanoke," and "Croatan," all named 
for important fishing waters of the State. 



BURKE-McDOWELL LAW 

OPERATION IS POPULAR 



Administration of the Burke-McDowell Ang- 
lers' law by the State under the direction of this 
Department is proving highly satisfactory, ac- 
cording to indications from the sale of fishing 
licenses. 

Within a few days following the first of June, 
the total number of daily permit sales had reach- 
ed 2,332 and the receipts from this source were 
$1,050. 

Under agreement between this Department and 
the Burke-McDowell Commission, all of the 
funds collected from fishing licenses sales in the 
counties are to be used for the protection and 
propagation of game fish in those counties, the 
principal fishing waters of which are Lake James 
and Rhodhiss. 

The agreement under which the administration 
of the two-county law was taken over by this 
Department also makes it possible for State fish- 
ing licenses from other counties to be honored 
there. 

As a result of collections from the Burke-Mc- 
Dowell law, a new hatchery is now being operated 
by this Department on Lake James. Thousands 
of bass will be reared there each year for the 
nearby waters. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



IL 13 «t~ 



j.aivcii an in an, aojs xtxi. vriiiiics, 

serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



SALES OF ANGLERS 
LICENSES FOR YEAR 
ABOVE LAST SEASON 



Passing of the same period of last year by 
around a thousand dollars, remittances to the 
Inland Fisheries Division from the sale of licenses 
for the current fishing season had reached $7,717 
at the end of May. Last year up to the corres- 
ponding time, receipts had reached only little 
above the six-thousand mark. 

Opening of bass season on June 10 is adding 
greatly to the active fishing population of the 
State and is expected to swell the receipts from 
licenses. 

The open season for large-mouth bass runs on 
through the year, closing on April 20 of 1020 for 
spawning season. Trout seasons which began 
in the mountains on April IS will extend to 
September 1 ; and small-mouth bass are legal 
game through October 1. 

The State law requires licenses only from 
those denoted as sport fishermen or who use rod 
and reel, jointed rod or who cast, but it left a 
provision for the extension of license require- 
ment by mountain counties to all types of fishing 
in trout streams. 

Those counties in which the requirement has 
been extended to cover all types of fishing in 
trout streams include the following: Surry, Hay- 
wood, Jackson, Avery, Alleghany. Buncombe, 
Mitchell, Madison, Clay, Graham, Transylvania, 
Wilkes, Ashe, Burke, McDowell, Polk, Macon, 
Swain, Watauga, Caldwell, Yancey, and Cherokee. 



MERCHANDISE EXPORTS 

AMOUNT TO $60,000,000 



Merchandise exports from North Carolina for 
1027 amounted to $60,450,126 with raw cotton, 
valued at $22,303,204, ranking first in order of 
value among all commodities sent from the State 
to foreign markets during the year, according 
to figures made public through the co-operative 
office of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce with the Commerce and Industry Di- 
vision of this Department. 

Following next in order of value to raw cot- 
ton in exports for the year were leaf tobacco 
amounting to $20,168,502; cotton cloth, $3,714,- 
713; cotton yarn, thread and cordage, $3,554,- 
401; cotton hosiery, $2,008,256; tobacco manu- 
factures, $1,565,045; cotton-mill waste, $1,562,- 



261 ; and vegetable food products and beverages, 
$1,516,431. 

Among the diversified commodities exported 
from North Carolina during 1027 were animals 
and animal products (edible and inedible), in- 
edible vegetable products, boards, planks and 
scantlings, wood and manufactures, non-metallic 
mineral products, metals and manufactures of 
metal, machinery, vehicles and parts and chemi- 
cals and related products. 

Exports of merchandise for the preceding year, 
1026, showed a total valuation of $62,553,232, 
indicating a slight decrease for 1027. From the 
entire United States for the calendar year, 1027, 
exports were valued at $4,758,721,078 compared 
with $4,713,553,066, an increase of $45,168,012. 




Charles H. Flory, new Assistant Forester in 
charge of forest fire control, and W. C. Mc- 
Cormick, his predecessor. Mr. McCormick has 
taken up a special program of forestry educa- 
tion under auspices of the American Forestry 
Association in the States of Georgia, Florida 
and Mississippi. 






; i < < < 

, , , ■ , i 
n . • . . . Hi 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ) 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of nc 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a; 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aftt 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development wi 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indus 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 1 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this a 
ment and other booster or; 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b> 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



NORWOOD PLANT IS 
PUT INTO OPERATION 
BY POWER COMPANY 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North I 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comn 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close y 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake ( 
he has checked up on the r 
of localities and that the bii 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Newest of the large hydro-electric plants in 
North Carolina to be put into service is the 
Norwood plant on the Pee Dee River in Mont- 
gomery county, about four miles from Mt. Gilead. 
The project was developed by the Carolina 
Power & Light Company. The plant has a gen- 
erating capacity of one 18,000 kilowatt and two 
22,000 kilowatt vertical generators, each directly 
connected to the water wheels, making a total 
capacity of 62,000 kilowatts, or approximately 
83,000 horsepower. Provisions have been made 
in all the concrete work for the installation of a 
fourth unit. 

A further description of the development fur- 
nished the Water Resources Division by P. A. 
Tillery, vice-president and general manager of 
the power company, is as follows: 

The water is impounded by a concrete spill- 
way dam 1,553 feet long, combined with an 
earth dam 1,258 feet long, with a maximum 
height of approximately 100 feet. The earth 
filled portion of the dam contains approximately 
380,000 cubic yeards of dirt and the total volume 
of concrete in the dam and power house is ap- 
proximately 210,000 cubic yards. Flood water 
is discharged by means of eighteen motor operated 
tainter type gates each 34 feet long and 24 feet 
high with a maximum discharge capacity of 16,- 
000 cubic feet of water per second. The reservoir 
created by this dam is 18 miles long with a maxi- 
mum width of three-fourths of a mile, and covers 
approximately 6,500 acres. 

The generators are located outside of the power 
house and are protected by steel covers. This 
is the largest installation now in operation of 
the umbrella type generator, which is one of the 
many unique features of the plant. The oper- 
ating head of the wheels is 72 feet. The plant 
is designed so as to be operated by only two 
men to each shift. 

Another of the major hydro-electric develop- 
ments under construction in North Carolina is 
the Waterville plant, located on the Pigeon River 
near the point where the river crosses the North 
Carolina-Tennessee line about 35 miles northwest 
of Asheville. Officials of the company anticipate 
its completion near the end of 1929. 

Some of its main features are described as fol- 
lows: Its initial installation of 67,000 kilowatts 



(approximately 90,000 horsepower) will consist 
of two units of 33,500 kilowatts each. Provision 
is being made for a third unit, making the ulti- 
mate installed capacity of about 100,000 kilowatts 
(approximately 133,000 horsepower). 

The dam, which will be of the arch type, will 
be 180 feet high to the spillway crest and 600 
feet long at the top. It will be located about 
12 miles upstream from the power house. The 
reservoir created will extend up-stream a dis- 
tance of five miles. The storage basin will have 
a maximum width of 1,800 feet and an average 
width of 900 feet. 

From the dam the water will be conducted into 
and through a 14-foot horseshoe shape, concrete 
lined tunnel about 6.4 miles long. The difference 
in elevation between headwater and tailwater 
will be 861 feet. The effective or rated head, 
considering all allowances, will be 755 feet, mak- 
ing this the highest head plant east of the Rocky 
Mountains. 



WARDEN APPOINTED 

FOR OLD FORT MACON 



Bringing back of historic old Fort Macon into 
the best state of repair and of attractiveness to 
the public is the object behind the recent appoint- 
ment of a warden to look after the property. 

Wilbur Lewis, a resident of Beaufort, has been 
named for the post, and has already taken over 
the work. His first activities will be in clearing 
up the fort grounds and making the premises 
more attractive in general. The old moat and 
battlements will be tidied up and the interior of 
the ramparts will be placed in neat appearance. 

While funds for work around the fort are 
limited, the appointment and beginning of ser- 
vice of the warden is the first step in placing 
the place in first class condition. No extensive 
repairs will be undertaken at this time, but what- 
ever are needed, it is hoped, will be provided as 
soon as funds can be made available for that 
purpose. 

On a whole, according to Assistant Forester 
F. H. Claridge, who has made an inspection of 
the fort recently for the Department, the build- 
ing is in a fairly good state of repair. 

Taking occasion to inspect the planting of pines 
made during the last two years around the fort, 
Mr. Claridge declared that the settings have been 
demonstrated to be successful. The Department's 
purpose is to continue with the planting activities 
from year to year. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



CHAIN OF PUBLICLY 
OWNED FORESTS IS 
A WISE INVESTMENT 



An industrial development in North Carolina 
that has been something new in the life of the 
American nation, a characteristic of which has 
been an absence of congested areas, and perhaps 
the absence of a sustained campaign of education 
on its necessity and advantages for the future 
arc probably accountable for the slow develop- 
ment of an adequate system of State Forests and 
Parks. 

In spite of her progrcssiveness along other lines, 
there has been a neglect of this phase of develop- 
ment which goes hand in hand with industrial 
growth and the utilization of the natural resources 
of the State in interest of the people. 

There is an opportune time in the history of 
every Stale when the matter of developing a sys- 
tem of Slate Forests and Parks should be con- 
sidered and none appears more fitting than the 
present. The population's trend is from the 
rural districts to the city, although the prepon- 
derance still remains in the rural districts. 

North Carolina is particularly fortunate in the 
proposed establishment of the Great Smoky 
Mountain National Park, declared to be the most 
impressive area of unspoiled natural beauty in 
Eastern America. The State also is proud of 
its great areas of National Forests, which ap- 
proximate at this time around 400,000 acres. 

A bare beginning has been made toward the 
establishment of a State system of forests and 
parks with four as a start, three of which 
have come to the public through gifts. The first 
of these is Mount Mitchell State Park, purchased 
by the State under the leadership of Governor 
Locke Craig; Fort Macon State Park came by 
gift of the Federal government; Rendezvous 
State Park and Forest was given by Judge T. B. 
Finley, North Wilksboro; and the Perm State 
Forest was turned over to the State by Jeffer- 
son Penn of Reidsville. 

Nuclei of an impressive park system in the 
Faslern part of the Slate exist in the series of 
beautiful lakes, some of the remnants of the once 
extensive Stale lands. These lakes, including 
Phelps in Washington county ; Waccamaw in 
Columbus; and Black, Singletary, White, Jones, 
Salters, Bakers, and Suggs Lakes in Bladen fur- 
nish promising opportunities for exploitation in 
interest of the people. Already some of these are 




Fawns for Stocking Mt. Mitchell State 
Game Refuge 

used extensively by the public, but complete 
development is hampered by the absence of pub- 
licly owned land around their borders. In most 
instances, the State owns merely the water itself 
with no assured and permanent access to those 
who wish to enjoy the opportunities for recrea- 
tion and sport. 

In a limited way, the Department of Conserva- 
tion and Development has set about to improve 
the facilities for enjoyment of such areas by the 
public, but insufficient provisions have made it 
impossible to go far with the work. 

At some of the lakes, restrictions that allow 
an equal distribution of its opportunities for 
recreation have been set up; already in some of 
the lakes fishing regulations for the protection 
of the finny inhabitants have been prescribed; 
and a program of restocking with game fish has 
been started. Assurance of the protection of 
public interests demands that around each there 
should be strips of land under control of the 
State. 

With the beginning that has been mentioned, 
North Carolina should go forward toward the 
development of a system of Forests and Parks 




■ . < 
< • I I 

■ . I 



. ' . . 



,\ 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



10 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of nt 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft< 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development wi 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indus 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
Iina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but I 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this a 
ment and other booster or; 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North ( 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comn 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ^ 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bh 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. _ ._ 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



that will provide permanent places of recreation 
for its growing population. 

It may here be well pointed out the difference 
in the status of publicly owned forests and parks. 
The National Parks preserve great and outstand- 
ing scenic features; the National Forests are large 
in scope, undertaking forestry practice on a com- 
prehensive scope with the original purpose of the 
protection of the watersheds of navigable streams; 
State Parks perpetuate scenic attractions on a 
smaller scale and recreational facilities more read- 
ily accessible to communities distant from Na- 
tional Parks; and State Forests may be considered 
as corallaries to National Forests, bringing demon- 
strations of forestry practice to untouched local- 
ities. Complementary to the National and State 
systems are the municipal parks in the immediate 
vicinity of the communities by which they are 
created. The municipal forest idea is one which 
will likely grow in scope in this country, and is 
already popular and a continuous source of rev- 
enue in Europe. They have their American 
counterpart in municipal watersheds for the pro- 
tection of public water supplies. 

Considering the first duty of the State in the 
establishment of Parks and Forests to be the 
pleasure and utility derived directly by her own 
citizens through the preservation of scenic attrac- 
tions and of timber, game and other natural re- 
sources, returns come through their attractions 
for visitors. 

It is conceded that one of the most important 
of all of the sources of income in North Caro- 
lina is the tourist trade. The great variety of 
scenery, climate, and resources is focusing the 
attention of the nation upon the Old North State 
and tourists will come in increasing numbers. 
The interest in travel can be stimulated by a 
system of State Parks, featuring the outstanding 
scenic attractions, well advertised and exploited. 

Development of State Parks and Forests go 
hand in hand with an improved system of roads. 
North Carolina's network of hard-surfaced high- 
ways is well advanced toward completion. They 
represent an investment on the part of the State 
already of around ;pi40,000,000. These superb 
highways are an investment that warrant the 
fullest exploitation. They make every part of 
the State easily available, and the increased mo- 
bility of the residents and visitors will promote 
the maximum utility of the highways. 

A well advanced program of game and fish pro- 
tection and steps to restock depleted areas pre- 
sent more demands for public hunting and fish- 



ing grounds which would be provided by forests 
and parks, owned by the people. 

Linking the forest and park development idea 
with the highway system inspires incentive for 
tourist traffic and assurance that all parts of the 
State will reap proportionate benefits. A regu- 
lar system of State Forests and Parks enables 
travelers to map out regular itineraries similar 
to those followed in the great park areas of the 
western part of the United States. Possibly a 
greater part of motoring is well mapped out in 
advance, and there is a constant search for new 
routes. With the mountains, the sea, the sand 
hills, and the Piedmont, North Carolina can fur- 
nish any type of attraction, and with definitely 
outlined attractions to look forward to, the State 
highways can be increased in popularity for these 
outing seekers and beauty lovers. 

To attract to all parts of the State, an ade- 
quate system of State parks is almost indispensi- 
ble. There should be attractions at intervals 
along the highways to sustain the interest 
of the traveler and furnish something toward 
which he may look forward in every section. 
This would link prospective State Parks and For- 
ests with the National Parks and Forests in a 
successive chain of attractions and hold the trav- 
eler's interest in the State. 

It is not too much to expect that some day in 
the comparatively near future that one may be 
able to start at the Atlantic Ocean or the western 
extremity of the mountains of North Carolina 
and be able to visit publicly owned attractions 
at intervals across the entire State. 

Taking for example Highway No. 10 as the 
longest unbroken thoroughfare, what more inter- 
esting motor route could be followed than be- 
ginning with historic Fort Macon in Carteret 
county and visiting in turn these attractions: 
Seven Spring, Wayne county; State Forest Nur- 
sery, Johnston county; State Capital, Wake; 
Bennett Memorial, Durham; Guilford battle- 
ground, Guilford, Badin Lake, Davidson and 
Rowan ; Uharrie Mountains, Montgomery and 
Davidson; Linville Gorge; South Mountains, 
Burke, McDowell, Rutherford, and Cleve- 
land; Pisgah National Forest, Buncombe, 
and other counties; Morrison Fish Hatchery, 
Haywood ; Tuckaseegee Falls, Jackson ; Great 
Smoky Mountain National Park; Nantahala Na- 
tional Forest, Macon and other counties; Cheoah 
dam and lake, Graham ; and Cherokee National 
Forest, Cherokee. 

All of these attractions are either directly on 
the highway or within easy reach as side trips. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



i aivvn <xn m an, oa^3 .lt.ii . vJlinicrs, 11 13 

serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



r 

d 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



11 



They provide enough features to interest the 
most exacting and give the widest possible ap- 
peal. To these points others might be added to 
the itinerary, but these are given as examples. 
Other highways extending from east to west and 
from north to south furnish proportionate attrac- 
tions that could give a circle of travel and sight- 
seeing worthy of the time of any person. 

Few of the attractions are now in public hands, 
but a definite policy of acquisition, by the State, 
will assure the preservation of many public at- 
tractions and will signify the ultimate develop- 
ment of one of the great natural resources in 
interest of the people. Such a system is an in- 
vestment that will make returns progressively 
profitable to the Commonwealth. 



AUDUBON SOCIETIES 
MAKING STUDIES OF 
COASTAL BIRD LIFE 



Aldcn H. Hadley, Assistant to the President 
of the National Association of Audubon Societies 
with headquarters at 1974 Broadway, New York. 
City, visiting the State for the purpose of in- 
specting colonies of nesting egrets and herons in 
the coastal regions, which for a number of years 
the Audubon Society has been guarding by means 
of special wardens, recently called upon Director 
Wade H. Phillips. 

It will be recalled by those who are acquainted 
with the history of the fight for bird protection 
in this country that years ago before the enact- 
ment of any laws giving protection to our non- 
game birds, many species of gulls and terns and 
herons and egrets were being ruthlessly slaugh- 
tered to meet the demands of the plumage trade. 

To the Audubon Society is due the credit for 
putting a stop to this traffic, as well as to the 
indiscriminate killing of song and insectivorous 
birds. It is today the model Audubon Law which 
gives protection to these birds in all but a few 
states in the Union. 

The National Association of Audubon Societies 
after the successful passage of the laws, giving 
protection to none-game birds, has felt the need 
of extending additional protection to certain col- 
onies of sea-birds and of plume birds which, 
through their isolation, might offer temptations 
to the men who in days past wrought destruction 
on them. 

During the past year, twenty special wardens 
have been employed for this purpose, their dis- 
tribution being from the northern coast of Maine 



to the southwestern coast of Texas. Under this 
special protection afforded by the law, most 
species of these birds have shown a remarkable 
increase, particularly gulls and terns. 

It is Mr. Hadley's plan, while in the State, to 
visit especially heron colonies in Carteret county 
and also to make such notes as time will permit 
of the status of such beach-nesting birds as the 
black Skimmer and various species of terns. 

In speaking of the work of the Association with 
which he is connected, Mr. Hadley remarked that 
many North Carolinians would be interested in 
knowing that Dr. Gilbert Pearson upon whom, 
some years ago, the University of North Carolina, 
his Alma Mater, conferred an honorary degree 
on account of his notable services in the field 
of conservation, has recently been successful in 
launching a great world-wide movement in in- 
terest of the preservation of wild bird life. 

The International Committee for Bird Preser- 
vation of which Doctor Pearson is president, now 
has on its personnel representatives from twenty 
nations. A meeting of the committee was held 
in Geneva, Switzerland, May 21 and 22. At this 
meeting, some very positive steps were taken 
with a view toward mobilizing hitherto unor- 
ganized agencies in the interest of world-wide 
bird protection. 

Mr. Hadley, during his brief visit, said many 
commendatory things with reference to the broad, 
constructive program which North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development is 
undertaking and working out and predicted splen- 
did results for the future under a unified and co- 
ordinated administration of the wild life, forests, 
and other natural resources of the State. 



CONTRACT AWARDED 

FOR FELDSPAR MILL 

IN WESTERN COUNTY 



Letting of the contract for the erection of the 
100-ton daily capacity feldspar grinding plant in 
Yancey county, near Bowditch, by the North 
Carolina Feldspar Company brings another im- 
portant development in an industry in which the 
State already stands at the top. 

The North Carolina Feldspar Company, capi- 
talized at $500,000, is a concern backed by State 
and outside capital, and has as its president, J. 
F. Shinn, of Norwood. 

Word has also been received by State Geolo- 
gist H. J. Bryson, who was instrumental in 
bringing about the development, that machinery 
for the plant has already been ordered. It is 
expected that the mill will be in operation before 
the end of the current year. 

With the added daily capacity of 100 tons for 
the proposed plant the total capacity of the mills 
in North Carolina will be brought to 430 tons 
daily. The projected plant will be the fourth 
in the State, and will be so constructed that ad- 
ditional units mav be added later. 



■ 



', .' ■' ' ;"■ •"' j : 

4 v.':/-'. - ; 

DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ) 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of n( 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft< 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development wi 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of induj 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but i 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this a 
ment and other booster or; 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b< 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North i 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comn 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close i 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake ( 
he has checked up on the r 
of localities and that the bii 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and E 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



FISHING SEASONS OPEN 



The call of the rod and reel is being heeded by sportsmen of North 
Carolina who seek recreation and relief from summer heat along the banks 
of the streams and lakes. 

LICENSES ON SALE 

The State law requires licenses from all sport fishermen, or those who 
use rod and reel, jointed rod, and who fish by casting in inland waters. 
Licenses may be purchased from Clerks of Superior Court, warden, and 
special agents in all counties. Fees are as follows: 

Resident County " _„ __„._._ $ 1.10 

Resident State :___ ■ 2.10 

Non-resident _ 3.10 

SIZE AND BAG LIMITS 

It is unlawful to take more fish per day of the species named and of less 
size than the number and size given below: 

No. Min. Size 

Large Mouth Bass ; 8 12 Inches 

Blue or Red Bream SO 6 Inches 

Brook Trout 25 6 Inches 

Rainbow Trout 25 8 Inches 

Rock 10 8 Inches 

Robin - 50 5 Inches 

Goggle-eye 50 6 Inches 

Red Fin 8 Inches 

Crappie or Chinquapin Perch 50 Inches 

All license collections are spent to improve fishing facilities. State hatch- 
eries are providing millions of fish every year for stocking the waters. 




V!« 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 















CONSERVATION 
AND INDUSTRY 

A Bi -Weekly Publication of the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 



VOL.V 



Raleigh, N. C, July 14, 1928 



No. 14 




A NORTH CAROLINA WATERFALL 







•. . . • 

. • < ■ < 
i t t r 



. , ...... t 

; < > • ( » 
, , ■,...., . 



• * i ■ • « 



• . , , ru 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ) 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately afti 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w: 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
Una and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but i 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this s 
ment and other booster or; 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A |. 





4 . < . 
, . . . 



Hunting Licenses, Season 1927-28 



County 



Mexican quail of the first [ 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close i 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bill 
have taken up with a flock | 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. Ld 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Alamance . 
Alexander 
Aleghany _ 

Anson 

Ashe _' 

Avery 

Beaufort _ 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 
Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus _ 
Caldwell _ 

Camden 

Carteret __ 
Caswell __ 
Chatham _ 
Catawba _. 
Cherokee _. 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland . 
Columbus . 

Craven 

Cumberland 
Currituck __ 

Dare 

Davidson __ 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe . 

Forsyth 

JFranklin 

Gates 

Gaston 

Graham 

Granville __. 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson __ 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Johnston 

Jones 



$ 3,141 
524 
421 
1,747 
952 
375 
3,075 
3,644 
974 
828 
5,667 
484 
2,549 
1,040 
870 
3,034 
979 
2,927 
2,529 
1,352 
779 
250 
2,309 
2,690 
3,805 
1,909 
1,148 
84 
3,912 
1,314 
2,539 
4,185 
2,083 
8,459 
1,733 
1,067 
2,760 
686 
1,680 
1,337 
7,831 
4,128 
1,874 
1,200 
1,074 
1,866 
297 
628 
2,340 
1,104 
3,712 
846 



OS U 



3 2 
PS tfi 



1,956 
509 
361 
1,567 
932 
335 
2,283 
2,769 
794 
733 
3,507 
454 
1,559 
945 
590 
949 
719 
1,397 
1,729 
1,017 
624 
250 
1,784 
1,760 
2,065 
1,029 
513 
79 
2,287 
1,129 
1,624 
1,315 
1,303 
3,159 
1,473 
827 
1,595 
511 
1,345 
827 
2,526 
3,143 
1,069 
980 
869 
1,231 
172 
503 
1,745 
824 
3,007 
651 



168 

3 

12 

36 

4 

8 

117 

121 

30 

19 

402 

6 

198 

19 

11 

36 

13 

66 

148 

55 

31 

105 
63 
186 
161 
10 
1 
181 
28 
180 
574 
120 
1,048 
49 
9 
233 
5 
40 
102 
860 
173 
152 
38 
38 
49 
25 
7 
119 
26 
141 
33 



13 



14 
18 

2 

10 



15 

127 

13 

80 

4 

4 



41 
54 

s 

39 

48 
3 
1 

12 
4 
1 

13 

10 
9 

67 

8 

3 

2 

1 
26 



County 



Lee 

Lenoir 

Lincoln 

Macon 

Madison 

Martin 

McDowell 

Mecklenburg 

Mitchell 

Montgomery 

Moore 

Nash 

New Hanover __ 
Northampton 

Onslow 

Orange 

Pamlico 

Pasquotank 

Pender 

Perquimans 

Person 

Pitt 

Polk 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Robeson 

Rockingham 

Rowan 

Rutherford 

Sampson 

Scotland 

Stanley 

Stokes 

Surry 

Swain 

Transylvania 

Tyrrell 



10 



Union 

Vance 

Wake 

Warren 

Washington 

Watauga 

Wayne 

Wilkes 

Wilson 

Yadkin 

Yancey 

Total 

Receipts not as- 
signed to counties 



1,232 
3,192 
1,309 
619 
432 
2,427 
1,474 
5,927 
209 
759 
263 
4,721 
3,080 
1,936 
1,558 
1,817 
713 
1,625 
934 
979 
1,208 
4,869 
578 
2,587 
1,762 
2,868 
3,047 
3,109 
1,499 
1,479 
834 
2,512 
1,216 
2,199 
619 
228 
277 
1,716 
1,617 
5,799 
1,395 
1,053 
849 
3,350 
1,577 
4,228 
727 
463 
197,635 



2 B 



662 
1,657 
929 
534 
417 
1,752 
1,214 
3,092 
124 
454 
163 
2,751 
1,140 
1,831 
1,083 
1,407 
563 
895 
764 
749 
883 
2,749 
488 
1,332 
1,032 
2,143 
2,347 
1,719 
1,379 
1,194 
584 
1,512 
1,076 
1,679 
499 
193 
262 
1,471 
1,032 
3,209 
1,095 
843 
739 
2,135 
1,337 
2,483 
657 
458 
126,035 



6,365 



Grand total _ (204,000 1 126,035 



11 



105 
301 
76 
14 
3 
117 
46 
567 
17 
58 
18 
385 
355 
15 
29 
82 
18 
116 
28 
4 
14 
421 
9 
128 
134 
136 
125 
263 
24 
57 
50 
197 
28 
89 
21 
4 
3 
43 
108 
506 
27 
36 
22 
234 
39 
340 
14 
1 
,686 



1 

2 

3 

11 

2 

22 

4 
10 

2 
14 
17 

1 
3 
41 
4 
3 
5 
5 



5 
1 
1 

2 
3 
4 
11 
2 

3 
3 
3 



878 



11,686 878 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



mmn ecu in an, ^jaj ; 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Raleigh, N. C, July 14, 1928 



CATCH OF FOOD FISH 
FOR LAST BIENNIUM 
INCREASES GREATLY 



Catches of food fish from North Carolina com- 
mercial waters for the biennium ending on June 
30, 1928, showed a substantial increase over the 
previous biennium, according to a report made by 
Capt. J. A. Nelson, Fisheries Commissioner. 

During the two-year period, the fish taken 
amounted to 46,159,610 pounds, which were esti- 
mated by the Fisheries Commissioner to have 
had a value of $3,124,155. 

Both figures show much greater activities and 
the constantly increasing importance of the com- 
mercial fisheries as one of the State's most im- 
portant industries. The previous biennial report 
revealed a total yield of 32,119,765 pounds, val- 
ued at $2,675,481 ; and corresponding figures for 
the biennium of 1922-24 were 26,285,618 pounds, 
having a value to the producer of $2,251,373. 

These figures show that the increase in scope 
and value of the fisheries is steady rather than 
merely a temparory fluctuation. As a source 
of food supply for the State, fisheries are entitled 
to a place with agriculture and livestock raising. 
However, the tabulations do not show the full 
import of the fishing industry since the quantity 
and value of the catches do not include shellfish 
nor menhaden, both of which furnish a liveli- 
hood for a considerable group of people. 

The shad is easily the most valuable of all of 
the food fishes, furnishing more than one-third 
of the total income. Total value of shad taken 
in North Carolina waters for the biennium was 
$1,103,673, and 4,443,840 pounds made up the 
output. 

Next in value to the shad was the trout which 
brought $526,602 to the fishermen, although it 
required 7,681,098 pounds to be worth this 
amount. Greatest in volume of all the food 
fish were the croakers and herring, the re- 



spective amounts of the catches of each being, 
respectively, 9,494,736 and 8,041,379 pounds. 

With but a few exceptions, the yield of most 
of the varieties of fish increased for the biennium, 
the greatest numerically being the croaker, shad, 
herring, mullet and trout. The most notable 
decrease was in the quantity of bass, which for 
the recent biennium slumped almost 85 per cent. 
This is ascribed to the increasing salinity of Cur- 
rituck Sound, the center of commercial bass pro- 
duction. 

The report of the kind, quantity and value of 
fish taken in North Carolina waters for the bien- 
nium 1926-28 follows: 
Kind of Number 

Fish Pounds Value- 
Trout 7,681,098 $ 526,602.35 

Sea Mullet 1,416,974 72,314.72 

Blue fish 1,674,115 142,402.78 

Mullets 5,126,220 272,812.40 

Croakers 9,494,736 198,889.03 

Spots 1,912,190 58,847.51 

Hogfish 165,938 4,186.14 

Mackerel 767,995 85,142.68 

Shad 4,443,840 1,103,673.56 

Herring 8,041,379 231,498.14 

Perch 502,378 37,798.50 

Bass 83,221 14,026.97 

Rock 935,643 152,488.54 

Drum 276,000 15,041.36 

Cat 179,809 4,664.07 

Jack 208,926 15,124.01 

Carp 182,543 7,482.11 

Flounders 383,330 38,015.55 

Butters 1,163,363 61,102.64 

Hick 50,250 2,547.00 

Bonitos 10,350 310.50 

Pompano 51,250 5,242.00 

Cero ^__ 6,750 675.00 

Sheephead 22,668 1.070.5S 

Squib 3,980 239.00 

Pike 9,280 1,161.00 

Sturgeon 2,231 548.95 

Chub 1,580 158.14 

Assorted 1,275,624 67,007.02 

Trash 85,949 3,083.56 

Total 46,159,610 $3,124,155.S1 






'■,: : 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 1 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately afti 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w: 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but i 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this £ 
ment and other booster ori 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED 



MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 

Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contenis, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



DEPARTMENT IS AIDING 

INDUSTRIES OF STATE 



Mexican quail of the first 

buted this spring in North < 

supervision of Director Wad 

become quickly acclimated an 

selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 

they are very much alive and 

pering in their new surroundi 

stances, deputy game comr 

and sportsmen who assisted 

of the birds have kept close i 

ties where the quail were rele 

back to look after their welfa 
W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 

in the distribution in Wake < 

he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bii 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 
F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



An example of the kind of service which this 
Department is attempting to render in building 
up industries in North Carolina is furnished by 
two recent instances out of a number of similar 
ones that are being performed. 

A large eastern silk mill wrote for information 
regarding the State, suggesting that another loca- 
tion is being considered for its plant, and reveal- 
ing that its officials are interested in North Caro- 
lina as a prospective location. 

Literature was immediately forwarded by 
Director Phillips and a willingness to aid the 
company in any other feasible manner was ex- 
pressed. After supplying collective information 
regarding the State, it was suggested that special 
data on any locality would be furnished upon 
request. After drawing attention to the facilities 
and advantages of the State as a whole, the De- 
partment will co-operate with any community in 
which the officials become interested in a pros- 
pective site. 

Another inquiry that was met recently was one 
for the source of supply of a particular mineral, 
and it is probable that a new outlet for an im- 
portant State product will be opened as a result. 
A reply to this question was furnished co-opera- 
tively by the Divisions of Mineral Resources and 
Commerce and Industry. 



NEW FOREST TOWERS 

PROPOSED FOR STATE 



Provisions for the control of forest fires, 
growing with interest that has been manifested 
for the past year over North Carolina, is re- 
flected in the contemplated addition of three 
lookout towers to the system that is steadily 
being built up. 

Charles H. Flory, Assistant Forester in charge 
of forest fire control, announces that a 3S-foot 



steel tower has been ordered for the South Moun- 
tain Forest Protective Association. The struc- 
ture will be erected in the southern part of Burke 
county. 

This association includes the owners of ap- 
proximately 60,000 acres of forest lands, and 
funds for the erection of the tower were fur- 
nished by members. Three wooden towers were 
built in this district last year. 

A 100-foot tower is planned for Craven county. 
This one will be financed by the county and pri- 
vate co-operators in conjunction with the For- 
estry Division of this Department. 

The third tower of the new group is contem- 
plated for Robeson county, about one-half a 
mile east of Pembroke on lands of the county 
school board. It will be 80 feet in height and of 
steel construction. Its erection is designed to take 
care of a bad fire situation in that section, and 
also as an aid in controlling flames along the 
Seaboard railroad from Lumberton to Maxton, 
and along the Coast Line from Red Springs to 
the South Carolina line. 



CONVENTION PLANS 



Charles E. Ray, Jr., assistant engineer, Water 
Resources Division, recently attended a meeting 
of the American Shore and Beach Preservation 
Association in New York, where one of the topics 
of business was preparation for the annual winter 
meeting of the body in Wilmington. 

While, according to Mr. Ray, the date of the 
convention is not definitely set, it will probably 
be just proir to the convening of congress in 
December. The Association numbers among its 
most active members several members of Con- 
gress, and it is thought that the December dates 
will probably be moved forward for their con- 
venience. 



RAINFALL MAP PLEASES 



"Please accept my personal thanks for the map 
showing stream gaging stations with rainfall and 
temperature data," writes G. A. Russell of the 
Chemical Research Department of the Vick 
Chemical Company, Greensboro, to the Division 
of Water Resources. 

"This map is of value, not only in my own 
investigations, but of considerable interest to 
some of the officials of the Vick Chemical Com- 
pany, who are interested in certain sections of 
the State where a knowledge of the points 
brought out on your map is of value." 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



' 1L u I T 

has any 
Possessed 



,aM„ an ill ail, OQV3 lui. Cl lil l re a j 

serious question whether or not he 
superior as an all-round game bird, 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 






CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



INDUSTRIAL CENSUS 
TABULATIONS START; 
RETURNS COMPLETE 



SUPERINTENDENT WED 

TO INDIANA TEACHER 



With around 99 per cent of individual sche- 
dules for the 1927 census of manufactures re- 
turned by July 1, tabulations of the returns have 
already been started. 

The 99 per cent of the schedules that have been 
completed include several hundred that were sent 
directly to the U. S. Bureau of the Census in 
Washington which will be turned over to this 
Department to complete the collection of neces- 
sary figures. 

Park Mathewson, Assistant Director of the De- 
partment, who has recently returned from a con- 
ference with Census Bureau officials in Washing- 
ton, declares that indications show that North 
Carolina industrial figures will be available be- 
fore those for any other State arc completed. 

Plans have been made by officials of this De- 
partment to complete tabulations of industrial 
statistics from the census before the first of 
September, and prospects are now that the work 
may be completed before that time. If these 



A blissful quietude has descended upon the 
superintendent's cottage at the Frank Stedman 
bass hatchery, Fayetteville, with the acquisition 
of a new household manager. 

William E. Baker, for three years superinten- 
dent, on June 20 was married to Miss Ethel 
Lourina Jackson, of Lawrenceburg, Ind., and 
after a motor trip through the east, the couple- 
is at home at the superintendent's cottage. 

Mrs. Baker is a graduate of the Cincinnati, 
Ohio, Conservatory of Music, and has taught 
this subject in the public schools for several 
years. Previous to his appointment at the Fay- 
etteville hatchery, Mr. Baker was with U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries continuously for several 
years, with the exception of a period of service 
in the army during the World War. He is a 
native of Perquimans county. His service at the 
Stedman hatchery has brought him a wide repu- 
tation as a game fish culturist. 

plans are carried out, the figures will be avail- 
able for use fully six months before they have 
been in the past. 




Dense growth along the Chowan River in Gates County, a section of which is presented 
here, makes the area offered by the Camp Manufacturing Company as a game refuge particu- 
larly suitable for fur-bearing animals and large game. The tract consists of about 3,000 acres. 
The group inspecting the tract consists of, left to right: F. A. Ruffin, Deputy Game and Fish 
Commissioner; J. P. Jones and Dr. P. D. Camp, of the Camp Manufacturing Company; and 
Wade H. Phillips, Department Director. 



.'■ n< * • 

i ■ ■ • • ■ ' « ,; '. \ 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 1 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of n< 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately afti 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w: 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indus 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but I 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through th^s s 
ment and other booster orj 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



FOREST NURSERY OF 
STATE ENCOURAGES 
UTILIZATION OF LAND 



Although it is conceded by forestry experts 
that natural reseeding is the logical method of 
reforestation because of its widespread success 
and low cost where fire is controlled, there is in 
the State of North Carolina an estimated area of 
four million acres which have been so badly 
burned or unwisely cleared for cultivation that 
they are either barren of tree growth or sparsely 
stocked. This large area must be artificially re- 
forested if the land which is now lying idle is 
to be made productive. 

The planting of trees for timber production is 
probably the main objective in the majority of 
cases but artificial reforestation for watershed 
production and flood control has gained such 
impetus in the last few years that in certain 
localities it is considered the primary objective. 

The first forest planting on any large scale in 
North Carolina was started about 1897 on the 
Biltmore Estate near Asheville, a total of about 
1,000 acres being planted on this estate. Although 
many of these plantings were experimental, the 
white pine plantings brought $100 per acre for 
the wood alone when cut recently. 



Then a period of about 20 years elapsed be- 
fore this work was undertaken by any one in the 
State on a large scale. About five years ago the 
Champion Fibre Company, of Canton, N. C, 
started a nursery for the production of planting 
stock and at the present time has over a mil- 
lion trees growing for planting on its lands 
in Western North Carolina. Just recently the 
Cooper River Timber Company has started a 
nursery in Eastern North Carolina. The U. S 
Forest Service has planted 300,000 trees on the 
National Forests in Western North Carolina. 

The State inaugurated its forest planting policy 
in the fall of 192S when an acre of land was 
secured from N. C. State College for a small 
nursery. The fall of 1926 and spring of 1927 
was the first distribution season and about 31,- 
000 trees were shipped to farmers throughout the 
State. The Federal Government paid for half 
the expense of this nurscery. One man, Assistant 
Forester F. H. Claridge, spent part time on this 
project, part on educational work with farmers 
and part time teaching Forestry at State Col- 
lege. 

In the summer of 1927 a full time nurseryman 
was employed and the distribution during fall 
1927-Spring 1928 was 184,800; six times as many 
as the previous season and a number of appli- 
cations had to be refused. As a great many of 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North i 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comn 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close i 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the ij 
of localities and that the bh 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 




Front of State Forest Nursery as seen from Highway No. 10, about a mile west of Clayton, 

Johnston County. F. H. Claridge, Assistant Forester in charge of 

the nursery, is shown near the sign 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



inKTJii dn in an, uajs j.tj.1. vj.niiw, it 13 

serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



13 a la 

any 

:ssed 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



these seedlings were distributed to individuals 
who were interested in trying a few before going 
into planting on a large scale the indications are 
that not only more North Carolinians will want 
planting stock but they will want it in increased 
amounts. 

To meet this increased demand the Department 
of Conservation and Development purchased nine 
and one-quarter acres of land on Highway No. 
10 about a mile west of Clayton. On this area 
a new State Forest Nursery has been established 
with a packing and tool shed and a complete 
water system consisting of a deep well, engine, 
pump and pressure tank. 

The present nursery, according to summary by 
Mr. Claridge, shows the following advance over 
the first efforts of the State. One full time nur- 
seryman and three helpers instead of one part 
time man; a capacity this year of .550,000 trees 
instead of about 50,000, and nine and quarter 
acres of land instead of one acre. The present 
policy is to increase the capacity of the nursery 
to meet the increasing demand with the possible 
establishment of other nurseries in the cast and 
west of the State to take care of those regions 
The 184,800 seedlings seem a large number but 
when it is compared with New York's distribu- 
tion in 1027 of 2.5 million and the large amount 



of land to be planted in North Carolina it is a 
mere drop. 

The Department is also carrying on numerous 
experiments in tree planting. On Mount Mit- 
chell State Park about 2.5,000 trees have been 
planted, the majority of which are Norway 
spruce, southern balsam and red spruce. How- 
ever, a number of species of value in foreign 
countries and other parts of the United States 
have been planted as experiments. Red pine, 
lodgepole pine and Arbor Vitas are some of the 
species being experimented with. 

About 4,000 French maritime pines have been 
planted near Fort Macon on the "Banks" in 
order to test the feasibility of holding shifting 
bank areas with pines in the same manner as it 
is accomplished in California and France. 

The Department has also demonstrated the 
practicability of transplanting year-old longlcaf 
pines. In most cases as high as °5 per cent have 
survived. The nursery and planting technique 
are also being studied carefully so as to produce 
the best results cheaply. 

Individuals who desire a large number of trees 
arc looking to the Department of Conservation 
and Development for co-operative agreements for 
the growing of planting stock. One landowner in 
Moore county has an agreement with the Depart- 




This view shows a cross-section of the numerous beds in which hundreds of thousands of 
seedlings are being grown for reforestation of idle forest acres in North Caro- 
lina. Nurserymen are shown working through the tedious 
process of clearing beds of grass and weeds 



..... 



I I 



• ••■■ ■■'■ 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately afti 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i\ 
ment and other booster orji 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



ment for one million and a quarter trees to be 
supplied within three or four years. 

The Department has a bulletin on forest tree 
planting supplied free to those interested and will 
furnish information as to species to plant and 
methods of planting to those writing to the State 
Forester, Raleigh, N. C. 



FIDDLERS RAISE FUND 

FOR BENEFIT OF GAME 



Various means of raising funds for the purpose 
of creating better game and fish conditions have 
been launched in North Carolina, but the en- 
thusiasm of the Watauga Game and Fish League 
has brought out a new feature. 

A fiddlers' convention furnished this precedent, 
and a collection for game and fish work netted 
$263.30 to the league. Eager to direct the funds 
into channels that would bring the most practical 
results to the vicinity, J. W. Bryan, county game 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North ' 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of ! 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close i 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 
W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the biii 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 
F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 




For twenty-five years C. B. Stallings, of Bertie 
County, has guided hunting parties in his sec- 
tion of the State. He is familiar with all of 
the lairs of the wild animals and birds and 
knows the habits and calls of all. His banjo 
is his constant companion. 



WATERFOWL FOODS 
STUDIED BY EXPERT 
OF FEDERAL BUREAU 



F. M. Uhler of the U. S. Biological Survey, who 
came to North Carolina at the request of Director 
Wade H. Phillips for a study of migratory wild- 
fowl food sources, and Charles J. Moore, deputy 
game and fish commissioner, Washington, have 
completed a survey on these conditions along the 
Pamlico River. 

In a preliminary report to the Director, Mr. 
Moore said: 

"We dredged on all the bottoms between Little 
Goose Creek and Wades Point for grasses, find- 
ing wild celery, sago pond weed, and Widgeon 
grass. These are considered the finest duck 
grasses that grow and wild celery is classed by 
the government as excellent. 

"These grasses were in abundance and were 
growing in places that had not had any grasses 
in three years. The rivers have been exceedingly 
fresh this year due to the heavy rains and these 
grasses being fresh to brackish water grasses have 
thrived this year. The duck food will be in 
abundance this year unless it turns off exceed- 
ingly dry and the rivers and creeks become salty 
enough to kill the grass. 

"One significance about plenty of grasses in 
the creeks and rivers is that it affords very good 
hiding grounds for young fish and we hope that 
our supply of fresh water fish will increase ma- 
terially. 

"We also went to Mattamuskeet Lake, but the 
only thing of importance was the Scirpus amer- 
icanus grass which the geese like and feed on. 
Evidently all other grasses had died because of 
the lack of water in the lake. We could not 
even find a wet spot in the entire lake bottom 
and parts of it looked like the Sahara dessert 
with the sand blowing in drifts." 

and fish warden, has written to Assistant Di- 
rector J. K. Dixon for suggestions as to the man- 
ner in which it should be spent. 

Watauga county has already established a rec- 
ord of progress by appropriating $300 to assist 
in the construction of nursery ponds, but Assis- 
tant Director Dixon sees still further opportunities 
of developing more attractive fishing grounds and 
has advised the league that, in his opinion, an 
extension of this program would return as great 
proportion of results as could be had in any 
other way. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



jajj itxi. uu.iiO, .1 



serious question whether or not he 
superior as an all-round game bird. 



has any 
Possessed 

of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



CHARLES H. ENGLAND 
IS APPOINTED STATE 
CHIEF GAME WARDEN 



MINING OF FELDSPAR 
MAINTAINS UPGRADE 
IN OLD NORTH STATE 



Charles H. England, secretary to Governor A. 
W. McLean and an ardent sportsman, has been 
selected by the Board of Conservation and De- 
velopment as State Game Warden and will as- 
sume the duties of the office about September 1. 

Mr. England is a native of Baltimore, Md., but 
for a quarter of a century his interests have been 
entirely wrapped up in North Carolina. He 
served as secretary to Congressman W. W. 
Kitchen from 1905 to 100° during his tenure of 
office as governor. 

In 190° he became secretary to Claude Kitchen, 
holding this position until he became clerk of 
the ways and means committee of the House of 
Representatives, of which Representative Kitchen 
was chairman. With the committee until 1910, 
Mr. England became secretary to Mr. Kitchen 
again at that time and served in this capacity 
until Mr. Kitchen's death in 1923. For the past 
four years, he has been private secretary to 
Governor McLean. 

The new State Game Warden will bring to 
the office a genuine love for game and the out- 
of-doors, combined with a thorough-going con- 
ception of the importance of game conservation 
and a knowledge of requirements by which to 
realize their purposes. His appointment has been 
received with general approval by sportsmen 
over the State, many of whom have written to 
congratulate the Department on his selection for 
the office. 

Appointment of a State Game Warden is a part 
of a comprehensive game administrative reorgan- 
ization plan. Mr. England will relieve Director 
Wade H. Phillips the details of the office, al- 
though the director will still exercise supervision 
over the game program. 

Other features of the re-organization of game 
forces include decreasing the number of Deputy 
Game and Fish Commissioners in counties that 
are not in the forest fire protective districts from 
seven to four and for closer supervision on the 
part of these officials in their enlarged districts. 

In the place of part-time county wardens, the 
system that was followed during the first year of 
operation of the law, the wardens will be em- 
ployed for full time at least during and immedi- 
ately before and after hunting seasons, under 
plans outlined by Director Phillips and approved 
by Governor A. W. McLean and the Hoard of 
Conservation and Development. 



In spite of a drop in price, the production of 

feldspar in North Carolina in 1927 continued the 
upward trend which has been the order for 
several years as shown by figures gathered by 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines in co-operation with 
State Geologist H. J. Bryson. 

The output of feldspar for the State in 1927 
was 100,756 short tons, which had a value of 
$612, 214. This production, the State Geologist 
declares, is the largest on record for North Caro- 
lina. It is an increase of 9,30.5 tons and $10,194 in 
value over the total for the preceding year. At 
the same time, the average price slumped from 
$6.59 in 1926 to $6.07 in 1927, a decrease of 52 
cents per ton. 

Within the last five-year period, the production 
of feldspar in North Carolina has virtually dou- 
bled. The records of the State Geologist show 
that the output in 1922 was 56,043 tons, having 
a value of $333,745. At that time the price was 
$5.06 a ton. 

The current year, in the opinion of Geologist 
Bryson, will witness a still greater increase in 
production and activity in the feldspar industry 
in North Carolina. At present there are three 
grinding mills in operation, while contract for 
the fourth has been let. There is a possibility, 
the Geologist believes, of a fifth plant being 
erected during the year, although developments 
have not yet reached a definite stage. 



CAROLINA CONCERNS 

AID IN WOOD SURVEY 

North Carolina concerns are giving pleasing 
co-operation to the survey of non-utilized or 
waste wood now being carried on in the State 
by the National Committee on Wood Utilization 
with the assistance of this Department. 

Writing to Director Wade H. Phillips regarding 
the progress of the survey, Phillips A. Hayward 
of the Committee says: "I know that you will 
be interested in learning that the second follow- 
up which you are now sending out on the North 
Carolina survey is bringing excellent results. 

"In this morning's mail there were over sixty 
questionnaires, making a total in all, for the 
three days, of something over one hundred and 
twenty-five. As these are coming in very strong 
in each mail, we anticipate receiving a steady in- 
flow each day." 



• 






DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w: : 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indus 
prove an advertising feature | 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this e| 
ment and other booster ori' 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A I 



10 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



QUARTERLY REVIEW 
SHOWS NUMBER NEW 
FIRMS ESTABLISHED 



Returns from a limited number of question- 
naires sent out in connection with the first of 
the regular quarterly censuses of new industries 
in North Carolina being carried out by Park 
Mathewson of the Division of Commerce and 
Industry of this Department in co-operation with 
Chambers of Commerce and other trade organi- 
zations show a diversity of new concerns for 
various sections of the State. 

Outstanding among the industries that are 
becoming more firmly entrenched is canning, the 
development of which has been repeatedly urged 
by officials of this Department as being logical 
for certain sections of the State. 

Although the tabulation is not complete, it 
gives a cross-section of growth of industry in 
the State, and as a regular feature it is believed 
that it will prove both beneficial and interesting. 
The incomplete report shows in the neighborhood 
of three-quarters of a million dollars invested in 
new enterprises during the quarterly period and 
the establishment of payrools for 475 workers. 

Some of the new industries are as follows: 
Charlotte, Nebel Knitting Co., hoisery; Merricks, 
Inc., candy; Murphy, veneer plant; Monroe, 
Broom Lumber Co., lumber; Belhaven, W. T. 
Kirk, boat building; Oxford, J. J. Redyke, silk 
throwing, and Export Leaf Tobacco Co., re- 
drying plant; Washington, Washington Packing 
Co., cannery; Hendersonville, Hendersonville 
Cannery, canning. 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North i| 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an I 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close i 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the il 
of localities and that the bii [ 
have taken up with a flock '• 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. fc|,i_ 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



CITY PARKS OF WEST 

VIEWED BY FORESTER 



State Forester J. S. Holmes, on a vacation in 
the far west, is impressed by results that are being 
accomplished by cities, co-operating with the 
State and Federal Governments in the establish- 
ment of recreational facilities for the people. 

He writes: "At Fort Collins, Colo., I visited a 
recreation park belonging to the city which is 
less than half the population of Raleigh. This 
park is 30 miles away in a rough canyon sur- 
rounded by high mountains and on both sides 
of the Cache la Poudre river which supplies the 
city with water. 

"Strict management is needed to keep it pure 
and this is done jointly by the city and the U. S. 
Forest Service, which administers the Colorado 



TWO COUNTIES JOIN 
SYSTEM ORGANIZED 
TO PROTECT FOREST 



Two more counties, Northampton and Chowan, 
have joined the constantly growing group that 
has committed itself definitely to a permanent 
policy of forest protection from fire. 

These new counties have made appropriations 
for the current year and started co-operating on 
July 1. They are located in No. 5, newest 
of the fire protective districts in the State which 
observed the first anniversary of its establish- 
ment on the same date as the new counties began 
their activities. 

Starting with only two counties, Bertie and 
Hertford, the protected territory has been dou- 
bled with the first year of the existence of the 
district. L. A. Carter, district forester, who has 
headed the work in this area, carried on negotia- 
tions with the county commissioners which re- 
sulted in the signing of agreements for the crea- 
tion of warden organizations. 

Addition of Northampton and Chowan coun- 
ties brings the number of active counties in the 
forest fire control work up to the present time to 
35, and Charles H. Flory, Assistant Forester, de- 
clares that he contemplates 44 during the present 
fiscal year which began on July 1. 

Provisions have been set up in the Depart- 
ment's budget for this number of counties, mak- 
ing 11 more than were active at the end of the 
fiscal year. A number of counties are already 
negotiating with the Department for the estab- 
lishment of organizations, and it is anticipated 
that the nine remaining places will be filled within 
a short time. Of the 11, it is believed that eight 
will be in the Eastern part of the State. 

National Forest in which this is situated. There 
are stone fireplaces for camping, toilets, a large 
shelter, and a walled-in spring. There are hun- 
dreds of fishermen all along the river both within 
and without the city park. Streams are stocked 
by the State with several species of trout. 

"Denver, with its population of 285,000, has 
in addition to its numerous beautiful city parks 
some mountain parks from 20 to more than 100 
miles away in the Rocky Mountains. They, like 
the Fort Collins Park, are administered jointly 
by the U. S. Forest Service and the city, and the 
roads are also constructed and maintained jointly. 

"Why should not our North Carolina cities 
co-operate with the State or Federal Government 
in establishing attractive recreation and fishing 
grounds?" 



**- -"v^ to ^o 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



ii, ^a? = in i. vii in- 
serious question whether or not he 
superior as an all-round game bird. 



has any 
Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 




CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



11 



NETS OF FISHERMEN 
MAY BE PROTECTED 
AGAINST SEA FOWLS 



COMMERCIAL BODY 
PROVIDES FIRE FUND 
FOR FORESTRY WORK 



Pelicans and cormorants, the latter better 
known on the Carolina coast as "nigger geese" 
will in the future engage in the robbery of the 
net of fishermen at the peril of being killed. 

Director Wade H. Phillips has declared that 
these birds may be killed by fishermen when 
caught in the act of pilfering the nets or when 
about to do so. He passed down this opinion 
following numerous complaints from fishermen 
that their nets have frequently been stripped of 
fish by the voracious birds. 

He has made the ruling after a study of fed- 
eral regulations governing the taking of shore 
and beach birds and migratory wild fowl and 
communications with authorities of the U. S. 
Biological Survey, who declare that the pelican 
and cormorant are not afforded protection under 
the "Migratory Bird Treaty." 

Although they come under the "protected" 
class of birds set up by the State Game Law by 
specific provision that none may be taken except 
specifically mentioned game birds and those that 
are outlawed, another clause allows their disposal 
when "committing or about to commit depreda- 
tions." 

Particular attention is called by the Director 
to the fact that this ruling does not throw open 
these two birds to indiscriminate slaughter ex- 
cept under the conditions mentioned above. 

Some fishermen have complained to the De- 
partment that the birds, especially the cormorant, 
have been so voracious at times that they have 
been forced to fish their nets before daybreak 
to beat the marauders to the catch. It is be- 
lieved that the authority for protection from 
depredations will alleviate the sufferings of the 
fishermen to a large extent. 



BUSINESS GENERALLY 

GOOD OVER CAROLINA 



Summing up the business conditions in North 
Carolina in the July issue of the bulletin of the 
district office of the Bureau of Foreign and Do- 
mestic Commerce, Park Mathewson, assistant 
director of this Department also in charge of the 
co-operative office of the bureau, says: 

"Industrial conditions in central sections of 
State active in most lines, including furniture, 
tobacco products, chemicals, and tires. Cotton 



Establishing a precedent for the State in being 
the first commercial organization to undertake an 
official program of forest fire control, the Stokes 
County Chamber of Commerce has appropriated 
$750 for co-operation with the Forestry Division 
and has entered into a contract for the organi- 
zation of a warden service. 

This is the first case of an organization of citi- 
zens in any county entering directly into a con- 
tract with this Department for fire protection for 
its forests, although on a number of occasions 
others have given active support and urged the 
adoption of a program by the county commis- 
sioners. 

The nearest previous approach to the Stokes 
arrangement was last year when the Wilson 
Chapter of the Izaak Walton League made a sup- 
plemental appropriation to a sum put up by the 
County Commissioners for forest fire protection. 
This arrangement has been notably successful and 
has resulted in the establishment of a low fire 
damage record in Wilson county. 

As one of the typical rural counties of the 
State, viewed from the absence of any large 
towns, directors and members of the Stokes 
organization have centered their efforts for some 
time on the development of their natural re- 
sources, one of the chief among which is the 
forest. A large amount of credit for the estab- 
lishment of the new Sauratown State Game 
Refuge, which will contain more than 30,000 
acres, is due to the enthusiasm and push of the 
Chamber of Commerce of that county. 

The funds furnished by the booster organiza- 
tion, which will be met by a similar appropria- 
tion by the State, is one of the wisest investments 
that can be made. 

textiles slow, with hosiery and rayon goods in 
demand. 

"Numerous new industries being established 
and some smaller concerns discontinued. Esti- 
mated gross increase manufacturing 20 per cent 
for period. Increase in food products and early 
opening of tobacco markets in Eastern Bright 
Belt and large peach crop southern tier tends to 
stimulate all trade in those sections. Visitors and 
activities in mountain section increasing rapidly. 
Banking, credit, building and general conditions 
favorable." 





. . < t 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately afti 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
Una and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster ori 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North i 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround) 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the I 
of localities and that the bij; 
have taken up with a flock \ 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



FISHING SEASONS OPEN 



The call of the rod and reel is being heeded by sportsmen of North 
Carolina who seek recreation and relief from summer heat along the banks 
of the streams and lakes. 

LICENSES ON SALE 

The State law requires licenses from all sport fishermen, or those who 
use rod and reel, jointed rod, and who fish by casting in inland waters. 
Licenses may be purchased from Clerks of Superior Court, warden, and 
special agents in all counties. Fees are as follows: 

Resident County $1.10 

Resident State 2.10 

Non-resident L..1 ,..,. 3.10 

SIZE AND BAG LIMITS 

It is unlawful to take more fish per day of the species named and of less 
size than the number and size given below: 

No. Min. Size 

Large Mouth Bass 8 12 Inches 

Blue or Red Bream SO 6 Inches 

Brook Trout 25 6 Inches 

Rainbow Trout 25 8 Inches 

Rock 10 8 Inches 

Robin 50 5 Inches 

Goggle-eye 50 6 Inches 

Red Fin 8 Inches 

Crappie or Chinquapin Perch 50 Inches 

All license collections are spent to improve fishing facilities. State hatch- 
eries are providing millions of fish every year for stocking the waters. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



J tW MJH a n in an, oajys j.rj.1 . v 

serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION 
AND INDUSTRY 

A Bi -Weekly Publication of the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 



VOL.V 



Raleigh, N. C, August 1, 1928 



No. 15 



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*• 



A LANE OF BEAUTY 



"Review of FirSt Year of Operation of 

TSlprth Carolina Qame £aiv 

^Begins in This Issue 



, . < ■ ' ' ' ' 






DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft<| 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departnu 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through th^s <f 
ment and other booster or)| 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN, 
QUAIL A> 



i 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North ' 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of; 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close l 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake 
he has checked up on the 
of localities and that the bii| 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



HUNTERS' LICENSES ISSUED BY STATES, WITH TOTAL 
MONEY RETURNS, FOR THE SEASON 1926-27 

(Compiled by U. S. Biological Survey). 



N on-resident Money 

State. Resident and Alien Returns* 

Alaskaf 182 $ 12,860.00 

Alabama 54,635 131 83,484.24 

Arizona!! 

Arkansas § 90,000 90,000.00 

California 250,891 2,641 279,701.00 

Colorado $ 90,999 365 205,237.45 

Connecticut 37,521 599 111,070.50 

Delaware $ 2,115 356 6,064.50 

Florida 59,679 709 163,105.00 

Georgia 64,755 226 79,155.00 

Idaho $ 70,500 568 143,357.75 

Illinois 286,908 1,691 231,196.02 

Indiana $251,226 449 232,930.20 

Iowa $161,008 290 163,908.00 

Kansas 113,526 129 115,461.00 

Kentucky 90,954 62 78,850.00 

Louisiana 106,210 262 126,097.00 

Maine $ 37,241 54 62,913.35 

Maryland 62,869 2,117 117,420.55 

Massachusetts 108,746 2,621 234,556.00 

Michigan 293,084 2,385 379,003.20 

Minnesota!! 

Mississippi!! 

Missouri $255,426 3,998 313,265.48 

Montana $ 67,078 $ 3,578 145,104.30 

Nebraska $146,246 $ 474 150,995.25 

Nevada 5,506 60 8,259.00 

New Hampshire $ 52,647 $ 2,305 105,648.45 

New Jersey $167,415 $ 1,787 232,093.25 

New Mexico 16,399 723 49,388.45 

New York 615,344 5,070 822,415.00 

North Carolina 137,099 876 203,000.00 

North Dakota 34,238 160 51,943.70 

Ohio 363,000 453,750.00 

Oklahoma $ 80,169 154 82,416.50 

Oregon 53,353 715 199,916.50 

Pennsylvania 520,574 3,505 649,549.10 

Rhode Island 13,213 274 16,313.00 

South Carolina 68,048 1,065 116,466.05 

South Dakota ± 91,924 1,464 133,136.00 

Tennessee!! 

Texas 83,707 397 163,540.95 

Utah $ 52,223 $ 129 87,734.47 

Vermont $ 37,049 $ 1,128 53,454.15 

Virginia 95,054 2,194 154,242.60 

Washington $196,213 $ 729 358,656.00 

West Virginia $127,305 235 130,830.00 

Wisconsin 155,843 231 146,046.10 

Wyoming $ 23,885 $ 592 63,000.00 

Total 5,691,825 47,680 $7,807,535.06 

* Includes amounts received from combined hunting and fishing licenses, but not 
from licenses to fish only. 

t No resident license required. $ Combined hunting and fishing license. 

§ Estimated. 11 Figures not available. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Raleigh, N. C, August 1, 1928 



GEOLOGIST BRYSON 
REVIEWS MINING OF 
GOLD IN THE STATE 



In a series of articles, the first of which fol- 
lows in this issue, State Geologist H. j. Bryson 
gives a review of mining operations in North 
Carolina, taking each phase up for consideration 
separately. 

The first of these articles treats specfically 
gold mining, giving a brief history of the mines 
and some important comments on their status 
and operation. Geologist Bryson's treatment of 
this subject follows: 

The State of North Carolina has long been 
known for her great variety of minerals. Almost 
one-third of those known to exist occur in this 
State. However, most of those known to be 
present in commercial quantities are of the non- 
metallic variety. 

Several of the metallic minerals have been 
found and produced on a commercial scale. Of 
this group, such metals as gold, silver, lead, zinc, 
copper, iron, chromium, and manganese have 
been produced in varying amounts. 

Other metals known to occur but which have 
not as yet been produced commercially are alumi- 
num, tin, titanium, columbium or niobium, mag- 
nesium, and many of the rarer group, as plati- 
num, molybdenum, tungsten, uranium, antimony, 
beryllium, etc. 

Within the past year the attention of the min- 
ing men has been directed to North Carolina be- 
cause of the success of one or two companies. 
This is especially true of the Fontana Copper 
Company which is operating the only producing 
copper mitie in the State. This mine is located 
on Eagle Creek in the extreme southwestern part 
of Swain county. 

Many other companies are seeking information 
on the old gold, copper, lead-zinc, and iron mines 
and many of these properties have already been 
taken over and prospecting begun. 

Gold and Silver 

In 17°°, a 17-pound nugget of gold was dis- 
covered in the old Reed mine in Cabarrus county. 
The discovery of this nugget is about as follows: 



A tenant living on the Reed farm at that time, 
on his way from work one evening noticed a 
large bright piece of metal lying on the ground. 
Not knowing what the material was he picked 
it up and carried it home and used it for some 
time as a door prop. On his next trip to South 
Carolina for supplies he decided to carry along 
the specimen and have the jeweler to identify it. 
The jeweler at once recognized it but did not 
tell the owner what it was. Instead, he offered 
three dollars for it. In those days three dollars 
was a large amount of money so the owner de- 
parted highly satisfied with the deal. Later, 
however, he found other samples which were 
identified as gold. After finding that the larger 
piece of metal was gold, he brought suit against 
the jeweler and recovered something like $3,000 
for it. 

Interest in gold mining was further increased 
when, in 1803, a 28-pound nugget was discovered 
in the same mine. The industry since that time 
has had a rather checkered career and has met 
with many failures. As a very prominent geolo- 
gist from Washington once stated "the gold mines 
in North Carolina have been holes in the ground 
with a liar on top." This is not wholly true, 
however, as the government reports show that 
several of the mines produced considerable 
amounts of gold. The total output up to 1926 
was $23,660,385. 

After the first authentic find on the Reed 
plantation, in Cabarrus county, search was made 
elsewhere, and by 182S gold mining on a vigorous 
scale was carried on along the entire Appalachian 
slope from Virginia to Alabama. The placers or 
like deposits, were first worked, then the gossan 
outcrops of the veins, where slight skill and few 
cheap appliances were adequate for the work. 
The exhaustion of these easily worked stores was 
effected just at the time for the discovery of 
gold in California, and there was a large exodus 
of miners to that territory. The mining work 
had not recovered from the retarding influence 
of this exodus when the Civil War came and 
put an end to all work. At the close of tin- 
war only one gold mine in North Carolina wa- 
in operation. 

(Continued on Page 5) 



< < * * ' e ' » • ' ' ,'<• ' ' 

. ' . * . . 

« t « « 

c < ■ < ' ," «*** 

■■:■;•. :,; Wt S ! 

' , . i r • ' ' ' 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an| 
made public immediately afti[ 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster orj 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 

Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North ' 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround) 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close i 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake ( 
he has checked up on the i| 
of localities and that the bii| 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. \^ 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 



RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Wade H. Phillips Director 

Paul Kelly Editor 

Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



FORESTRY GROUP TO 

MEET AT GOLDSBORO 



The North Carolina Forestry Association, an 
organization that has won for itself a definite 
place as an institution of service to the common- 
wealth, is to hold what is believed will be its 
most widely attended meeting at Goldsboro, 
September 19-21. 

Invitations to speak have been accepted by 0. 
Max Gardner, and H. F. Seawell, gubernatorial 
nominees; Mark Squires, Secretary of the North 
Carolina National Park Commission; Director 
Wade H. Phillips, and G. H. Collingwood, for- 
ester of the American Forestry Association. Others 
who are expected to speak include C. M. War- 
burton, director of extension work of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and a representative of the 
Izaak Walton League in North Carolina. 

One day of the meeting will be devoted to dis- 
cussions of farm woodlands and a demonstration 
of farm woodland management will be led by 
R. W. Graeber, extension forester, at the forest 
belonging to the state hospital at Goldsboro. 

Special invitations to attend the meetings have 
been extended by officials of the association to 
all State Forest Wardens. All County and Dis- 
trict Wardens are requested by Charles H. Flory, 
Assistant Forester in Charge of forest fire control, 
to notify their Deputy Wardens of the meeting 
and to urge that they attend. 



FOREST FIRE LOSSES 

CUT DOWN FOR JUNE 



Favored by good weather conditions and in- 
creased efficiency of warden service, forest fire 
losses for the month of June tumbled to the 
lowest figure recorded this year. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



The monthly report of the Forestry Division 
showed a total of only 2,941 acres covered by 
fire in counties organized for its control. Esti- 
mated damages resulting from the fires amounted 
to $7,000. 

Only 39 fires were reported in the 35 counties 
with forest warden forces, being a decrease of 
more than two-thirds from the 118 experienced 
during the previous month. As compared with 
the month of June of last year, there was an 
increase in the number of fires but a substantial 
decrease in acreage burned and the amount of 
damage. The same month last year showed 
7,113 acres covered by forest fires and damages 
amounting to $24,666. 

AH of the fires in June of this year, according 
to the report, were, with one exception, man- 
caused and, therefore, preventable. Of the total 
of 39 fires, 9 were started from brush burning; 
7, by smokers; 8, by incendiarists; 3, by rail- 
roads; 3, by campers and fishermen; and the 
rest from an assorted number of origins. 

Standing timber was damaged to the extent 
of $2,555, and reproduction suffered to the esti- 
mated extent of $4,347. Thirty of the 39 fires 
occurred in Eastern North Carolina counties. 



CRAVEN COUNTY WILL 

HAVE FOREST TOWER 



Order has been placed for materials for the 
construction of a 100-foot forest fire lookout 
tower to be located along highway No. 10 at 
Croatan, about 11 miles south of New Bern, 
according to Chas. H. Flory, Assistant Forester 
in charge of fire control. 

The project is being financed co-operatively 
by private landowners, Craven county, and the 
State. This tower is the highest of its type for 
the State so far, being only a little lower than 
the 102-foot structure in Hertford county, which 
has an outside stairway. 

Lookouts on the new tower will have a range 
of vision covering virtually all of the lower half 
of Craven county, besides parts of Pamlico, Car- 
teret, and Jones. 

An area of some 25,000 acres on which the 
tower will be locted has been formed into a pri- 
vate forest protective association. District For- 
ester E. M. Eutsler, New Bern, handled details 
of organizing the association and the tower is 
being erected under his supervision. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



GEOLOGIST BRYSON 

REVIEWS MINING OF 

GOLD IN THE STATE 



(Continued from Page 1) 



The difficulties attending deep mining, and the 
still greater difficulty of extracting the gold from 
the sulphide ores have been about overcome at 
the present time. The gold usually occurs in the 
foliations of the slate, and to a less extent in the 
joints or with and through associated ores, such 
as quartz, galenite, etc., in so fine a state as to 
be invisible to the naked eye. 

Emmons, in his report in 1856, stated that 
gold has been observed in four different geologi- 
cal positions: 

1. It is met with in the mass of the gncissoid, 
granite, and horn-blendic rock. 

2. In quartz veins, often associated with iron 
pyrite, chalcopyrite, galcnsite, and other minerals. 

3. In ore beds contemporary with the strata 
of the rock in which they are found, as in chlo- 
ride and talcose schists, argillities, quartzites, etc. 

4. Loosely in the soil and decomposed rock, 
especially in gravel deposits, resulting from the 
alteration or destruction of the above first three 
formations. 

Gold Ores in the Northeast Belt 
The extreme northeast deposits occur in War- 
ren, Franklin, and Nash counties and cover, so 
far as explored, an area of about 100 square miles. 
The formations consist of gneissic and mica 
schists, for the most part, and is rich in ferru- 
ginous minerals, where alteration and weathering 
have extended far below the surface, and have 
given a deep red color to the tenacious clayey 
soil of the region. The gold appears originally 
to have been largely in these narrow seams of 
quartz, which, in the process of weathering, have 
been broken down, and fragments of which are 
widely distributed over and in the soil, becoming 
gradually more abundant, deeper below the sur- 
face on the bed rock, in favored sinks or chan- 
nels. From the analogies of the occurence of 
gold elsewhere in the Carolinas and Georgia, it 
is probable that the entire "country" matter of 
gneiss, etc., may also have gold sparingly distri- 
buted within it, and from which it has also been 
concentrated. 

The richer parts of this district were worked 
up until a few years ago. Many of the old 
buildings, the old derricks, and pieces of the old 
machinery are still found on the property. After 
the main building, which housed the machinery, 



burned several years ago, little or no attempt has 
been made to carry on further operations. It is 
possible that with modern machinery that much 
of this region could be worked profitably. 

The Portis and Mann-Arrington mines are the 
most noted in this area. It is reported that 
nearly three million dollars worth of gold was 
taken from the Portis mine and several hundred 
thousand from the Mann-Arrington. 

The Portis mine is located in the northeast 
corner of Franklin county quite near to both 
the Nash and Warren boundaries. It is situated 
on a hill 108 feet above Shocco Creek, from 
which the water for hydraulic work was obtained. 
It is the best known mine of that region and one 
of the best known in the State. It was worked 
longer and more extensively than any other. 
Many stories have been told of dramatic events 
which took place during its operatin. One of 
these tales is that as high as seven murders have 
been committed there in one year. Because of 
its isolation and the fact that law and order was 
impossible in those days, gambling and other 
forms of vice were carried on openly. 

Gold Ores or the Central Belt 

In what is known as the Huronian rocks in 
the western part of Moore county there arc two 




One of the interesting experiences encoun- 
tered by Thorndike Saville, Chief Hydraulic 
Engineer of the Department, and R. M. Trimble, 
Professor of Civil Engineering of the University 
ot North Carolina, on their survey of physical 
conditions along the coast from Kittyhawk to 
Core Island. 



< ' * 

... 






DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 1 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an; 
made public immediately aftil 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w I 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departing 
regular tabulations of indu; ! 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav| 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1- 
mined upon. Through this cf 
ment and other booster orj 
able to keep a closer touch j 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICA1S 



QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North ' 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close 1 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the I 
of localities and that the bii| 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



areas where gold ores occur; one ten miles north- 
west of Carthage, the second eight miles farther 
to the west which is probably connected with the 
western part of Montgomery county belt. 

In the first area, the country rock is an in- 
durated siliceous schist. At many places the 
talcose schist has become almost entirely siliceous 
in seams, and in such cases is generally enriched. 
The second area carries an ore very similar to 
the first, except the formation is traversed by 
lenticles of quartz, which seem to have come 
from the long weathering of the strata containing 
these lenticles. The most important mines in 
these areas were the Bell, Grampusville, Brown, 
Cagle, and Clegg. 

In Montgomery county, the Huronian forma- 
tion prevails but the siliceous talcose schists give 
way to clay slates which are thin bedded and 
greenish gray in color. The mines are princi- 
pally the gravel and vein type. At one time 
the mines of this county were the most prominent 
of the State. 

Another area in this belt which contains a 
great deal of gold lies on the northwest side of 
the Uharrie Mountains, between them and the 
Uharrie river. Schists of this region are not 
strikingly different from those of other parts of 
Montgomery and Randolph counties. There has 
been a great deal of altering, and the resulting 
schists vary in color from gray with a silvery 
luster, to black. These schists are usually as 
thinly and evenly laminated as a roofing slate 
but they break easily and irregularly into very 
small fragments. A group of men recently at- 
tempted to open a quarry in this region from 
which they expected to get a roofing slate. The 
entire proposition had the ear-marks of a pro- 
motion scheme. 

The ores occurring in Randolph county are an 
extension of the ores of Montgomery county and 
are similar to them in every respect. There are 
many localities in this county where gold occurs 
and in the past some of the most important gold 
mines operated in the State were located here. 
The ores of the entire county are very similar. 

In Union county, an extension of the same belt 
occurs. The ores of this area are readily classi- 
fied into auriferous and argentiferous galenite, 
auriferous pyrite, and auriferous schists. These 
ores occur in a schist, but are not far removed 
from the syenite and granite. There is only one 
mine in this county which is in operation, the 
Howie mine, and it is operated on a very small 
scale. In this area copper is known to occur 
but is not known to be present in quantity. 



A brief description of the ores and formations 
occurring in only the Howie mine is here given: 
Howie Mine 

This mine has been worked more extensively 
and has received more study than any other in 
this region. It is located about seven miles to 
the southwest section of Union county. Within 
a radius of five miles from this mine there are 
half dozen old mines which have been operated 
in the past. Among these are the Washington, 
Davis, Phiffer, Lewis, and Hemby mines. 

The ore body is said to be about 400 feet wide 
and fully one mile long, running N. 60 degrees E, 
and has been worked a greater part of this dis- 
tance. It is difficult to say where vein matter 
is not found as the rocks of the entire region are 
gold bearing as well as the so-called veins. The 
formation consists of schists, which are argilla- 
ceous with a siliceous tendency, dark colored, and 
extremely hard. These schists are penetrated by 
numerous seams of quartz, which generally seem 
to have the effect of enriching the ore body. 
This seems to be true because the richest portion 
of the ore is where the quartz is most abundant. 
Pyrite is found widely disseminated but is more 
abundant in the seams and points of the schists. 
The workable ore occurs in shoots or chimneys 
with a dip of their own in the vein. 

A deposit similar to this one has been found 
recently near Southmont in Davidson county. 
Analyses by Dr. E. E. Randolph show ore run- 
ning as high as $14 per ton in gold with some 
silver. 

The Huronian belt covers the lower Piedmont 
region and extends in a northeast-southwest di- 
rection. It covers Union, Anson, Stanly, Mont- 
gomery, Randolph, Chatham, the northwestern 
part of Moore and Richmond counties, and the 
southern extremity of Davidson, Guilford, and 
Alamance counties. In practically the whole 
area there are lenses of the old slates which con- 
tain gold ores. The most important mines of 
the State were found in this belt. 



The indications that striped bass (rock) fish- 
ing, once a great industry along the Roanoke 
River, is coming back, are present. 

Although operating with temporary equipment 
and in a temporary building, the output of the 
first year's operation of the hatchery amounted 
to 7,500,000 rock fry, according to the report of 
W. C. Bunch, acting superintendent. 

The fry were taken from the jars and distri- 
buted during the latter part of May. All were 
placed in the Roanoke River. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



OPERATION OF GAME 
LAW IS REVIEWED IN 
REPORT OF DIRECTOR 



An account of the first year of operation of 
the State Game Law is covered comprehensively 
in the annual report of Director Wade H. Phil- 
lips, who also served during this period as State 
Game Warden, made to the Board of Conserva- 
tion and Development at its recent meeting in 
Raleigh. 

For the information of the public, especially 
that part which is particularly interested in the 
success of the new statute, this report is being 
printed in two installments in Conservation and 
Industry. The first part follows: 

The Director, being required to act as State 
Game Warden, has found it necessary to give 
about three-fourths of his time to game work. 
In the performance of his duties he has visited 
each of the game districts more than twice on 
an average during the past six months and has 
observed personally the wardens' work in most 
of our one hundred counties. At the Raleigh 
office he has handled correspondence with war- 
dens and with the public, averaging about one 
thousand letters per month. Interpretation of and 
information about the game laws and regulations 



and routine letters to enforcement officers, have 
furnished the bulk of this work. 

At the request of Governor McLean, Chairman 
of our Board, the Director has been serving as 
State Game Warden since June 1st, 1927. The 
reason for placing the work of State Game War- 
den on the Director was that there was no way 
to ascertain in advance what would be the amount 
of hunting licenses collected for the first year, 
and in the interest of economy it was thought 
best to have the State Warden's duties placed on 
the Director. It was definitely understood that 
just as soon as it was ascertained that the income 
from hunting licenses would justify, the Director 
would be relieved of this duty and a regular 
State Game Warden would be appointed by the 
Board. The receipts from hunting licenses now 
amount to more than twice the budget estimate. 

The duties of the State Game Warden as set 
forth in the Act are manifold and important. 
They should require all the time of a very active 
man. The other work of the Department has 
greatly increased during the past year. Forestry 
is extending its services into more counties and 
is assisting in surveying our timber resources; 
interest in minerals is growing all the time; the 
Commerce and Industry Division is in the midst 
of a new survey of our natural and industrial 
resources, including co-operation with the United 
States in taking the manufacturers' census; the 




Superintendent W. C. Grimes' residence at the new State Game Farm near Asheboro is 
pictured above. The game farm represents one of the outstanding accomplishments of game 
law administration during the past year in North Carolina, 



'; /: .■••./:■•.: : 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately afti 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indus 
prove an advertising feature ! 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster or) 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICA1S 
QUAIL A 



• 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close l 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the ij 
of localities and that the bill 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



Water Resources Division is extending its work of 
stream gaging and power statistics; the Division 
of Publications has several pamphlets and papers 
in preparation, in addition to increasing the size 
of the Bi-weekly ; the Inland Fisheries Division 
has more work than ever before with the hatcher- 
ies and additional problems of stocking the new 
hydro-electric lakes with fish ; the Commercial 
Fisheries Division also requires attention. It is the 
duty of the Director to supervise the activities 
of all these divisions. He is responsible for the 
work being carried on in an efficient manner. He 
should keep in constant contact with the entire 
program of the Department and advise and assist 
Division Chiefs in the solution of their problems. 
He is frequently called upon to address public 
meetings on the different phases of conservation 
work. Your Director cannot properly discharge 
his duty to the other Divisions unless he is re- 
lieved of the position of State Game Warden. 
He, therefore, recommends that the Board pro- 
ceed at this meeting to elect some suitable person 
to the position of State Game Warden. 

The Director agrees to supervise the activities 
of the new warden and give him all necessary 
instructions as to the policy of the Board on 
game matters so there will be no lost motion in 
the transfer of the State Warden's duties. 

The handling of licenses and collections by Mr. 
J. K. Dixon, Assistant Director, also in charge of 
Inland Fisheries, has been conducted in a satis- 
factory manner. In order to educate the public 
to the new law during the first year, and make 
licenses easily accessible to all hunters, more than 
500 license accounts were opened up. This re- 
quired considerable bookkeeping in Mr. Dixon's 
office. It is planned for next season to have an 
average of only one license agent in each county 
in addition to Clerks of Court. 

Warden Service 

The set-up of warden service for the first year 
was necessarily experimental. Our system of ten 
districts, supervised by deputy game commis- 
sioners, has been justified by the results. These 
men have been uniformly faithful and indus- 
trious and by keeping in contact with the county 
wardens have greatly contributed to the success 
of the work. As the counties become better or- 
ganized this year, it is planned to cut down the 
number of district wardens. 

The selection of the proper men for county 
wardens has been attended with difficulty. The 
average salary of .$40.00 was, of course, inade- 



quate. Forest and fish wardens were used when- 
ever possible. In some cases they were not suited 
to game work and vice versa. Frequent changes 
had to be made. In spite of these drawbacks, 
however, the State Game Warden is pleased to 
report that about fifty of the county wardens 
have performed their duties so as to entitle them 
to re-appointment. 

County wardens spent too much time in many 
cases on the work of issuing licenses. All will 
agree that the main duty of a warden is law 
enforcement. 

It is planned for this year to place county 
wardens on a straight salary of from $75.00 to 
$100.00 per month from August to April, plus a 
reasonable expense for gas and oil used in neces- 
sary travel. All the wardens' time will be re- 
quired during the hunting season. They will not 
be permitted to receive fees from handling li- 
censes. A proper proportion of these fees should 
come to this Department to be applied to war- 
dens' salaries. Daily reports will be required 
from all county wardens. 

Law Enforcement 

It is a tribute to North Carolina citizenship that 
the new state-wide hunting law has been so well 
received. More than 138,599 citizens have paid 
license taxes to the State, amounting to over 
$204,000.00, practically without protest. Total 
cases of violations at this time for the whole 
State amount to only eight hundred and seventy- 
five. Certainly many violations occurred which 
did not receive attention. It is the purpose of 
the Department during the coming season to have 
a rigid enforcement. We cannot justify the col- 
lection of the hunting tax unless the law is en- 
forced and the supply of game is protected and 
allowed to increase. 

Game Refuges 

Another method of increasing the supply o ! ' 
game as provided by the North Carolina Hunt- 
ing Law is the creation of game refuges. Manv 
sportsmen and others interested in conservation 
of wild life have offered tracts of land to the 
Department for this purpose. The following 
refuges, location and acreage, have been estab- 
lished to date: 

Guilford County Refuge, Guilford, 3,500 acres; 
Wayah Bald Refuge, Macon, 10,180 acres; Pisgah 
,National) Refuge, Transylvania, 100,000 acres; 
Mount Mitchell Refuge, Yancey, 22,660 acres; 
Jefferson Penn Refuge, Rockingham, 1,200 acres; 
Sauratown Refuge, Stokes, 30,000 acres; Deer 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Park Refuge, Mitchell, 400 acres; Total 167,- 
940 acres. 

By order of the Board a lease was obtained 
from J. E. Burleson, of Spruce Pine, covering 
400 acres of land used by him for several years 
as a deer park, together with the herd of deer 
now living thereon, estimated at about 250. The 
lease runs for ten years and the amount paid 
Mr. Burleson was $3,500. It is planned to trans- 
fer the fawns from the park to other refuges and 
protected areas which require restocking. 

There are 66 private game preserves in North 
Carolina owned by shooting clubs and sports- 
men, which control more than half a million acres 
of land. On these areas game is well protected. 
Considerable sums are spent annually for propa- 
gation and purchase of game for restocking pur- 
poses. These organizations take the lead in game 
conservation and their example is a great help. 

The Director is of the opinion that it will be 
better to establish a larger number of smaller 
refuges, from 200 to 1,000 acres, rather than a 
few large ones. Unless a refuge is protected and 
the vermin kept down, it will prove a failure, 
causing just criticism of the Department's act in 
establishing it. It is hoped that from 25 to 50 
smaller refuges may be created this year. If 
the right kind of refuge cannot be had without 
payment to the owner of an annual rental, taxes 



for example, the Board cannot afford to assume 
the cost of such leases. 

The Pisgah and Wayah Bald refuges both have 
good warden service and the deer and other 
game thereon have increased. 

Plans are under discussion to establish a migra- 
tory wild fowl refuge on some of the Mattamus- 
keet lands, which seem well suited for this pur- 
pose. 

State Game Farm 

The Game Farm at Asheboro is complete and 
has been operating for about two months. The 
work of propagating quail and pheasants is pro- 
gressing as well as could be expected for the 
first year, having been started late. There is 
much interest in the farm. Thousands of visitors 
go there each week. It is estimated, with reason- 
able luck, 2,000 quail will be reared there the 
first year. The Department has distributed from 
the farm a number of pheasant eggs to private 
parties, many of whom are engaged in pheasant 
raising for the first time. It is estimated that 
more than 1,000 young pheasants were hatched 
recently in Davie county alone. 

Mexican Bob-White 
By order of the Board, $8,000 was spent in the 
purchase of 4,000 of these quail for restocking. 
These were distributed among all the quail coun- 




Quail and pheasants are hatched at the State Game Farm in pens shown above. Bantam 
hens are used for hatching, and become quite attached to their adopted children. 



~- 



. •, t , . 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



10 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of n< 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately afti 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this if 
ment and other booster or|| 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A ! 



Mexican quail of the first j 
buted this spring in North ' ; 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close 1 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i| 
of localities and that the bill 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. w . 



ties of the State. The game work of the De- 
partment was greatly advertised by the release 
of these birds. Sportsmen everywhere were 
pleased. Reports from the Mexican quail released 
have come from many counties. They do not 
seem as wild as our native bird. They stick to 
the place where released, for the most part. 
Several reports show they are laying at this 
time. 

Vermin 

Any program for conservation of game would 
be incomplete unless active measures are taken 
to keep down the natural enemies of game birds 
and animals. This work is of first importance 
on a game refuge. The New York State Game 
Warden pointed out recently that on one of the 
Rockefeller preserves all poaching was strictly 
prohibited but year after year the supply of 
game diminished. Then the fact was found that 
vermin, having been also protected, had destroyed 
the game. Wardens in charge of our refuges are 
required to do special work to rid the areas of 
hawks, crows, cats and other vermin. 

The State Game Warden recommends that the 
sum of $10,000 be appropriated, or so much as 
may be required, to pay a bounty of 25c for 
each hawk and crow, and that $2.00 may be paid 
for each wild cat during the months of September 
and October of this year. 

Much complaint is being made about dogs 
running at large during the closed season. War- 
dens are instructed to enforce the law as to bird 
dogs. The untaxed or outlaw dog is the biggest 
offender. If an arrangement could be made with 
the State Board of Education whereby our game 
wardens could enforce the dog tax law, a for- 
ward step would be made. It is the opinion of 
many that the tax due from outlaw dogs would 
largely pay our wardens. » 



SURVEY SHOWS NEW 
MARKETS FOR GOODS 
PRODUCED IN STATE 



What products are purchased by industries in 
North Carolina from outside of the State that 
might be furnished from sources within her 
borders? This is a question to which a solution 
was sought by a survey conducted by the Divis- 
ion of Commerce and Industry at the instance 
of Director Wade H. Phillips. 

The survey was carried out under the direction 
of Park Mathewson, Assistant Director, by means 



of a questionnaire sent to a representative cross 
section of the several thousand manufacturing 
establishments in North Carolina. 

One of the most interesting features of the 
study is the fact that a number of lines of goods 
and raw materials either being produced or found 
in their natural condition in the State are being 
imported from elsewhere, suggesting opportuni- 
ties for expansion of industry and trade within 
North Carolina. 

Seventy-three lines of goods are now being 
shipped into the State that purchasers would 
prefer to buy from home producers. Some of 
these materials reported as originating elsewhere 
for North Carolina industries include: asbestos 
fiber, auto top material, asphaltum, alcohol, boxes, 
bags, buttons, bottles, brass, bolts, nuts and 
washers, broadcloths, cartons, coal and coke, cot- 
ton, cement, cloth, cuts (butter), caskets, crowns 
(for bottles), corn (broom), gauntlet material, 
dynamite, denims, extracts and concentrates, en- 
velopes, emery, flour, fruit (crushed), flavorings, 
general mill supplies, glass, glue, gelatine, harness, 
saddlery and casket hardware, handles (broom), 
iron and steel, knit jersey cloth, leather, brake 
lining, lime plaster and plaster of paris, lard, 
lumber, mica (sheet), sheet metal, milk and 
cream, potash, packing material, paper, rayon, 
rags, sugar, silks, syrup, tankage and oil, twine, 
thread, tags, veneer, wool, wheat, and carpet 
waste. 

For the purpose of promoting manufacturing 
and trade in North Carolina, it is thought that 
the survey will provide a medium of helpful 
information. It is designed to put the consumer 
in touch with the producer and thereby serve 
interests of both. Further information will be 
furnished to either source by Mr. Mathewson 
upon specific inquiry. 

"Why should not at least a number of these 
demands of the manufacturer be produced in 
North Carolina," suggests Mr. Mathewson. This 
is information which this Department is seeking 
to work out and the results of which it is be- 
lieved, should be of intense interest and monetary 
value to the people and business interests of 
North Carolina. Although all of the materials 
mentioned may not be found therein, the survey 
does at least show that there is considerable field 
for industrial expansion in those lines that may 
be supplied by North Carolina firms. As a me- 
dium of putting the consumer and producer in 
touch with each other's needs, it is believed that 
the Department can be of service." 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



HATCHERIES PROVIDE 
GREATLY INCREASED 
FINGERLING SUPPLY 



A report made by Assistant Director J. K. 
Dixon for the period covering the first six months 
of the current year shows the progress made in 
the operation of State Fish Hatcheries since the 
passage of the new anglers' law, and the extension 
of operations of the Department toward creating 
better fishing conditions. 

The report shows that there have been dis- 
tributed already and being held at the hatcheries 
a grand total of 11,16.5,595 fish as compared with 
1,866,839 for the preceding year. 

Of the reported number for this year, 3,663,- 
595 can be classed purely as game fish and 7,500,- 
000 both game and commercial. The latter num- 
ber represents the distribution of the first year 
from the re-established co-operative striped bass 
(rock) hatchery at Wcldon, operated by this 
Department and the United States Bureau of 
Fisheries. 



A comparison of the output of game fish shows 
that this year's production is virtually twice the 
amount of last year. This was made possible 
through additions and improvements at all of 
the hatcheries from funds provided through the 
sale of licenses to sport fishermen. 

Stocking of the streams is expected to be much 
more effective this year than ever before because 
of the construction of 25 or more nursery or rear- 
ing ponds in which it is estimated by Assistant 
Director Dixon that around 400,000 fry are being 
carried to the fingerling stage. When distributed 
at the latter advanced age the percentage of sur- 
vival will be greatly increased. 

Reports of distribution of the two years fol- 
lows: 

1927 DISTRIBUTION 
Boone Hatchery, Boone, N. C: 

Iinmk Trout 239,160 

Rainbow Trout 76,554 

Brown Trout 7,900 

Total :!2:f,(ill 




Members of the Board of Conservation and Development are shown alongside the fisheries 
flagship John A. Nelson during the recent meeting at Morehead City. Governor A. W. McLean. 
Chairman ex-officio of the Board; B. B. Gossett, Charlotte; and George L. Hampton, Canton, 
are the only members not shown in the group. From left to right there appear in the group: 
Assistant Director J. K. Dixon, Fisheries Commissioner J. A. Nelson, Director Wade H. Phillips, 
and the following members of the Board: Frank H. Stedman, Fayetteville; Fred I. Sutton, 
Kinston; J. Q. Gilkey, Marion; S. Wade Marr, Raleigh; Ed. D. Cranford, Asheboro; Jas. G. K. 
McClure, Asheville; E. S. Askew, Merry Hill; Santford Martin, Winston-Salem; F. S. Worthy, 
Washington, and R. Bruce Etheridge, Manteo. Fred I. Sutton, Jr., is on the right in the front row 



Jf 



: : '.:'■:;. '. i 
::..:■••.':• . •,) 

.<,.<. ' 

..■.:■..: 5 ' 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ) 

OF NEW IN 



12 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately afti] 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w f 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departme| 
regular tabulations of indus! 
prove an advertising feature ! 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster on 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A | 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround) 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i\ 
of localities and that the bii| 
have taken up with a flock ; 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



Pete Murphy Hatchery, Marion, N. C: 

Rainbow Trout 140,000 

Loch Leven 63,000 

Black Bass 25,000 

Total 230.000 

Morrison Hatchery, Waynesville, N. C: 

Brook Trout 640,850 

Rainbow Trout 263,100 

Lake Trout 21,400 

Miscellaneous 2,330 

Total 927,680 

(U. S.) Edenton Hatchery, Edenton, N. C: 

Black Bass 24,300 

Bream 400 

Miscellaneous 33 

Total 24,735 

Frank Stedman Hatchery, Fayetteville, N. C: 

Black Bass 171,950 

Bream 4,625 

Crappie 9,325 

Total 185,900 

Roaring Gap Hatchery, Roaring Gap, N. C.: 

Brook Trout 175,000 

Grand Total all Hatcheries: 

Brook Trout 1,055,010 

Rrainbow Trout 479,654 

Brown Trout _'__ 7,900 

Loch Leven 65,000 

Lake Trout 21,400 

Black Bass 221,250 

Bream 5,025 

Crappie 9,225 

Miscellaneous 2,365 

Grand Total, 1927, All Species 1,866,839 

NO. FISH DISTRIBUTED DURING 192S TO JUNE 1 
FROM VARIOUS HATCHERIES AND BY U. S. 
BUREAU UNDER OUR CO-OPERATIVE AR- 
RANGEMENT AND NUMBER ON HAND 
FOR LATER DISTRIBUTION 

Distributed On Hand 

Boone: Brook Trout 193,000 320,595 

Edenton: Bass 21,000 

Edenton: Yellow Perch 375,000 

Frank Stedman: Bass 55,000* 

Morrison: Trout 660,000 375,000 

Roaring Gap: Trout 250,000 200.000 

Pete Murphy: Trout 277,000 250,000 

Pete Murphy: Bass 212,500 200.000 

Lake James: Bass 200,000 

U. S. Bureau from Erwin, Tenn., 

in Graham County: Trout 75,000 

Weldon Rock Hatchery operated co- 
operatively by State and U. S. 
Depart.: Rock 7,500,000 

Total 9,618,500 1,545,595 

* In addition to number of fish distributed at Frank 
Stedman Hatchery the Superintendent estimates that he 



will have for later distribution, through summer and early 

fall the following: 

Bass 75,000 

Bream 25,000 

Crappie 25,000 

Total 125,000 



FIRST FISH-FREEZING 
PLANT ESTABLISHED 
IN OLD NORTH STATE 

A new field for commercial fisheries in North 
Carolina has been opened with the establishment 
of the first cold storage plant for frozen fish in 
the State at New Bern. 

The Southeastern Ice Utilities Corporation of 
the Craven county metropolis has the distinction 
of launching the new industry in the State with 
the erection of a 600,000-pound freezing plant. 

Launching of the new industry is significant 
to the coastal section in that it should be able 
to operate not only at a profit to those who are 
investing their funds, but it should also exert 
a steadying influence on the fishing industry of 
the section. 

One of its main features is that the fish freez- 
ing indusfery will be able to absorb fishery pro- 
ducts at such times as there are surpluses on the 
market and the prices are too low for the fisher- 
men to ply their trade on a paying basis. 

On the other hand, the frozen fish industry 
will provide a stock which may be released to 
trade at any period of the year, and thus provide 
this type of food on demand to the housewife, 
restaurants and hotels. Operating on a large scale, 
the cost of holding the fish will be comparatively 
small. 

It provides facilities for the State that have 
been in existence in other states for a number of 
years and which have been operated profitably 
by the owners and beneficially to the producers. 
In addition, it is a conservation feature that is 
worthy of attention, since it is possible thereby 
to eliminate waste of fish as a natural resource 
which should be considered as exhaustible unless 
handled in such a manner that it is not abused. 

Owners of the plant have committed them- 
selves to expansion of their facilities as the mar- 
ket grows for their product. With the expanding 
markets for fishery products and the desirability 
of the industry for the State it is believed that 
extensions will be in order within a comparatively 
short time. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



13 



TERRAPIN FARMING 
BELIEVED POSSIBLE 
PAYING ENTERPRISE 



Terrapin farming is in order as a potential 
development into a paying industry for Eastern 
North Carolina, Capt. J. A. Nelson, Fisheries 
Commissioner and head of the Commercial Fish- 
eries Division of the Department of Conservation 
and Development, believes. 

This belief of the fisheries commissioner is 
strengthened by the success with which breeding 
in captivity has been been met in the co-operative 
venture of this Department and the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries at the station located at 
Beaufort. 

The terrapin industry, until recent years, pro- 
vided a considerable source of income for resi- 
dents along the Carolina coast. In fact, the dia- 
mond-back came into such general demand and 
the renumation became so great for the crea- 
tures that concern was felt for the future supply. 

After a thorough study of the situation and 
on the recommendation of the United States 
Bureau, the State Board in 1024 ordered a closed 
season for five years in order to give nature an 
opportunity to rebuild the depleted stock. This 
forbidden period will end in April, 102°, and the 
market will be re-established. 

Captain Nelson believes that the diamond-back 
terrapin is probably the choicest seafood to be 
had and consequently his concern for the future. 
As a result of the cultural efforts and the closed 
seasons, however, he expects the numbers of the 
terrapin to show a substantial increase by the 
time open season again arrives and thereafter. 

Experimental work with the terrapin began 
in 1909 under the direction of Dr. Samuel F. 
Hildebrand of the United States Bureau of Fish- 
eries. His aim was to gain information regard- 
ing the life history, general habits, and behavior 
of the animal. From such a studs' it was in- 
tended that better means hight be evolved for 
their conservation and rehabilitation. 

''The result of this work," says Captain Nelson, 
"exceeded expectations. It was not only learned 
what the duration of the laying season is, the 
length of time required for eggs to hatch, the 
rate of growth of the young animals and the 
age at sexual maturity, but it was found also that 
these animals can be grown in capitvity almost 
as easily as domestic fowls. 

"Many experiments relative to the feeding and 
treatment of the terrapins in captivity, as well as 



breeding for better stock, have been conducted, 
or are under way at the present time. One of the 
outstanding achievements of these undertakings 
is the winter feeding (in a hothouse somewhat 
similar to that used for florists) of the young 
animals whereby a year's growth is gained the 
first winter. It has been determined also that 
by keeping the animals in the nursery the death 
rate is somewhat lower than if allowed to hiber- 
nate as they do if not kept warm." 

Beginning with 1914, Captain Nelson declares, 
a few hundred to a few thousand young terrapins 
have been liberated annually. Checks on the 
"plants" of the terrapins have revealed that their 
liberation is meeting with success in restocking. 
Under co-operative agreement between the two 
governmental agencies, the number of terrapins 
liberated is being increased each year. 

"On October 24, 1927," says the commissioner, 
"6,304 young terrapins of the season's hatch had 
been removed from the egg beds. This number 
was considerably increased during the first warm 
days of spring, when others emerged from the 
sand boxes used as egg beds. It is expected that 
about 10,000 terrapins will be hatched in 1928, 
and that the annual hatch will increase each year 
until by 1930 there will be from 25,000 to 30,000 
young. 

"Those who have been closely connected with 
the experimental work of diamond-back terrapin 
culture firmly believe that terrapin fanning could 
be made a profitable business, and it is entirely 
possible that a new industry, namely diamond- 
back terrapin farming, may be established." 




A profile of George Washington running 
throughout the heart of a North Carolina 
tree. The cross-section of the tree has been 
preserved by C. N. Mease, Deputy Game and 
Fish Commissioner, Black Mountain. 



r 



:..:•.•.■• ''') 



. • ■ ■ 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from ■ 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft', 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w f 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departnul 
regular tabulations of indur 
prove an advertising feature I 
fkial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
Una and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this El 
ment and other booster orjj 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North ' 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 
W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the il 
of localities and that the bin 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 
F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



14 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



WEST COAST SHOWS 
HOW SHIFTING SANDS 
ARRESTED BY GROWTH 



North Carolina could well profit from the ex- 
ample of the Pacific coast by the planting of 
trees to hold the sand dunes along the shore, 
thinks State Forester J. S. Holmes, who was 
much interested in this phase of conservation 
while making a tour of the western part of the 
United States. 

"Both at San Francisco and at Monterey," 
he says, "shifting sand hills such as are common 
along the 'banks' in North Carolina have been 
transformed into parks, residence sites, and 
forests. 

"Strangely enough, species native only to the 
latter region have been used in both cases. The 
Monterey cypress and the Monterey pine, two 
of the most restricted conifers in distribution in 
the country, seem to withstand better than any 
other trees, the high winds and the drifting sands. 
They assume all kinds of shapes from upright in 
protected situations to prostrate on the steep 
sandy slopes where the ocean winds strike direct." 

Continuing his recital of the accomplishments 
on the Pacific coast, the State Forester says: "The 
process of reclaiming the more level sandy beaches 
is now going on. For miles along the water 
front going south from Golden Gate Park, San 
Francisco, there are broad fences strung along 
and catching the sand in a straight ridge as a 
preliminary step to planting. 

"At other places are lines of brush cut from 
trees felled perhaps miles away which start the 
orderly gathering of the sand which is the first 
step in the control operations. The results have 
been marvelous. Golden Gate Park, one of the 
most beautiful and largest city parks in the 
country, is made out of reclaimed sand hills. 

"As the sand hill region of Southern France 
was converted into a permanently productive 
turpentine forest through the foresight, faith, and 
efforts of a French engineer, M. Bremontier, so 
the drifting sands of West San Francisco have 
been converted by a Scotchman, Colonel Mc- 
Laren, during a period of 27 years into a succes- 
sion of forests, gardens, and recreation areas. 

"Similar persistent and well directed efforts 
can bring back the forests on our wind-swept 
'banks' and change desolation to beauty and 
waste to profitable production. Why not convert 
the 'banks' into State Forests for the production 
of timber, the protection of wild life and the 
fixation of the sands?" 



CHEMICAL QUALITY 
OF WATERS IS GIVEN 
IN NEW PUBLICATION 



A preliminary report on the chemical quality 
of surface waters of North Carolina with relation 
to industrial use, issued as Economic Paper No. 
61, of the Department of Conservation and De- 
velopment, sets forth the attractiveness of the 
State from this point of view to industry. 

The booklet was prepared under the direction 
of Charles E. Ray, Jr., Assistant Engineer of the 
Division of Water Resources and Engineering 
of this Department; and Dr. E. E. Randolph, 
professor of chemical engineering of N. C. State 
College. 

Analyses of 185 samples of water are carried 
in the publication, 174 of these being from sur- 
face and 11 from underground sources. All of 
the specimens presented in the bulletin were taken 
from the more important sources of supply and 
upon which industry must depend for its needs. 

Suitable water supply is one of the essentials 
in the establishment of manufacturing plants, the 
booklet sets forth, and it continues by adding 
that North Carolina provides this requirement in 
any volume of quality needed by the most exact- 
ing industry. 

"The illustrations," says the bulletin, "show 
how careful many industries must be to find a 
suitable water or to treat a water not entirely 
appropriate for their needs. Inspection of the 
analyses of North Carolina surface waters pre- 
sented in this paper will clearly indicate the 
numerous sources in this Statte which in their 
natural condition, or with the minimum of treat- 
ment, will meet the most drastic requirements 
for manufacturing and industrial use. 

"Various industries have established large plants 
in North Carolina because of the fine quality of 
water. A number of others are planning to locate 
in the State and still others are considering it as 
a suitable location. These specific industries re- 
quire exceptionally pure water. Among such in- 
dustries may be mentioned those for the manu- 
facture of paper, fine textiles, rayon, leather, 
bleacheries, dye houses, and laundries." 

The publication also carries information re- 
garding various features of the State including 
climate, labor, education, power, rainfall, and 
others. It also has as inserts power, rainfall, and 
stream gaging maps. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he 
superior as an all-round game bird. 



has any 
Possessed 

of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



15 



FURNITURE OUTPUT 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 
MAKES GAIN IN 1927 



Output of furniture factories of North Caro- 
lina was increased in 1«27 by more than five 
per cent over that of 1925, according to figures 
announced from the biennial census of manu- 
factures for the State. 

The value of the production from the Tar 
Heel furniture factories for 1Q27 was $53,551,221, 
while for the year of the previous biennial cen- 
sus it amounted to $51,208,238. 

These figures are the first to be announced 
from the census which is being taken this year 
by the Division of Commerce and Industry of 
this Department for the United States Bureau of 
the Census, Department of Commerce. Tabula- 
tions of figures bearing on other industries in the 
State are now being made and will be announced 
as they are completed. 

In the interval between the two census periods, 
the number of furniture factories in the State 
increased from 127 in 1925 to 143 last year. The 
number of wage earners in the industry during 
the same time increased by more than eight per 
cent, or from 13,456 to 14,821. 

The furniture workers received $1,686,213 more 
in wages in 1927 than they did two years pre- 
viously, the total of the payrolls amounting to 
$12,439,190 last year in comparison with $10,- 
752,977 two years earlier. Materials used in 
furniture production were valued at $27,702,378 
in 1927 and $24,944,903 in 1925. 

Workers were shown to be generally better 
paid in 1927 by the fact that while the number 
of workers was increasing by only eight per cent 
in the two years, the total payroll had grown by 
more than 14 per cent. 



PETERSON IS NAMED 

DISTRICT FORESTER 



Walter A. Peterson, of Clarkton, N. C, who 
has been engaged for the past several weeks in a 
study of forest resources in the third forestry 
district, has been appointed district forester for 
that territory with headquarters in Fayetteville. 

Mr. Peterson succeeds Charles H. Flory, Assist- 
ant Forester in charge of fire control, who held 
the post for more than a year. He is familiar 
wilh the forest problems of the southeastern sec- 
tion of the State, where the district is located, 



COPPER PRODUCTION 

MAKES BIG INCREASE 



Copper production is gaining momentum to 
such an extent that it is becoming one of tin- 
most important of the mineral industries of North 
Carolina. 

The latest figures on the output of this mineral 
shows an increase in 1927 of almost 400 per 
cent over the previous year. The report which 
has just been made public by State Geologist H. J. 
Bryson gives production of 5,443,115 pounds for 
the year. As late as 1925 the mining of cooper 
in North Carolina was on such a small scale that 
it was returned under the miscellaneous column. 

Among all of the Southern States, according 
to Geologist Bryson's report, only one, Tennes- 
see, made a better showing than North Carolina 
with a production for the year of 14,498,951 
pounds. 

Every indication, he declares, points to a 
greatly increased production of the mineral for 
1928 with the probability that the output will 
be doubled over that of 1927. 

In 1926, according to old reports of the Depart- 
ment, the estimated value of copper taken from 
the ground in the State was $178,416. Accord- 
ing to current quotations, the metal produced 
last year would be worth in the neighborhood 
of $700,000. 

There are three principal copper districts in 
North Carolina, located in Swain, Cabarrus 
counties and the Virgilina district. Of these, the 
Swain deposits have been brought into especial 
prominence during the last few years. Some of 
the richest ores being mined in the country arc 
being worked in the State. 

because of several years spent in commercial 
lumbering operations. 

The new district forester is a graduate of the 
Biltmore School of Forestry, Asheville, which 
was discontinued a few years ago. After com- 
pleting his course there, he worked with New 
England paper companies for several years. Dur- 
ing the World War, he served with the U. S. 
Engineering Corps, and entered private practice 
of engineering after his discharge. 

Begining in 1921, he was engaged in field ser- 
vice with the North Carolina Highway Com- 
mission, later entering the service of the Mont- 
gomery Lumber Company at Fair Bluff, N. C, 
until he began his duties with tin- State Forest 
Service. 






. , . ; • • • r ' 

4 — - 

DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY J 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft/, 
is proposed by this means to ' 
the industrial development w:| 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmej 
regular tabulations of indu/ 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i\ 
ment and other booster or^ 
able to keep a closer touch I 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED 



MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



The Great Destroyer 

Fire in the Forests of North Carolina 
Does Damage Amounting to More 
Than a Million Dollars Annually ! 



Unchecked Fires Mean: 

RESTRICTION OF RECREATIONAL FACILITIES 
HUNDREDS of THOUSANDS of IDLE ACRES 
ENORMOUS LOSSES in MATURED TIMBER 
DESTRUCTION OF GAME AND FISH 
IRREGULAR STREAM FLOW 
UNSIGHTLY LANDSCAPES 
GREATER TAX BURDENS 
REDUCED PAYROLLS 



IDLE WORKMEN 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of- 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround) 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close * 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake c 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bii; 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 





Fire 

Control 

Will Insure : 



SMALLER TAX BURDENS 

PROFITABLE INDUSTRIES 

EFFICIENT USE OF LAND 

GREATER WEALTH FOR STATE 

INCREASE OF GAME AND FISH 

PERPETUAL YIELD OF TIMBER 

BETTER EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS 

BETTER REGULATED STREAM FLOW 

MORE OPPORTUNITIES FOR RECREATION 



Will You Do Your Share 

to banish the most persistent enemy of 
the forests of the State ? 



iSMcm Causes More Than Nine-tenths of the Forest Fires 
and These Can Be Prevented ! 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION 
AND INDUSTRY 

A Bi -Weekly Publication of the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol.V 



Raleigh, N. C, August 15, 1928 



No. 16 




BIG GAME FOR THE FUTURE 






• • ■ ' < « ' « . • ' . 

• i « e • i r ' 

. . • ■ ■'<"•« t 

. < . . t ■ t « cl 

4 .... .<•<,,. r, , 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departing 
regular tabulations of indus 
prove an advertising feature ! 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature T 
mined upon. Through this if 

ment and other booster on I 

■ 

able to keep a closer touch I 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAIS 
QUAIL A! 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North | 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated anf 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi' 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bii 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



GOLD MINES IN NORTH CAROLINA 

BY COUNTIES 

ANSON Hamilton 

ALAMANCE Robeson 

BURKE _ Mills, Hedge, White Bank, Hancock, Glen Alpine, Carolina Queen, Gran- 
ville, Hunts Mountain, Vein Mountain. 

CABARRUS _ Linker, Meadow Creek, New Nugget, Phoenix or Miami, Reed, Rocky 
River, Quacker City, Tucker, Johnson, Stinson, Maxwell, Black, Harris, Gannon, 
Saunders, McMakin, Pioneer Mills, Mauney, Widenhouse, Nugget, Eva Furr, 
Buffalo, Allan Furr, Montgomery, Barrier, Furness, Gibb, Faggart, Barnhart. 

CALDWELL Corpening, Pack's Hill, Baker, Fleming. 

CATAWBA Shuford, McCorkle, England, Rufty, Abernathy. 

CHEROKEE England, Peachtree, Shuford or Catawba 

CLEVELAND Near Shelby. 

DAVIDSON___ Silver Valey (Lead, Zinc, Gold), Silver Hill, Emmons, Cid, Welborn, 
Conrad Hill, Laffling, Loftin, Eureka, Black. 

DAVIE Gray, Butler, Izaak Allen, Callahan Mt. 

FRANKLIN Portis. 

GASTON— Kings Mountain, Burrell-Wells, Crowder's Mountain, Patterson, Rhodes, 
McLean, Duffle, Robinson, Deer, Rhyne, Oliver, Farror, Long Creek. 

GUILFORD — Deep River, Fentress, Oak Hill, Palachian, Pine Hill, Hudson, Hoover, 
Fisher Hill, Hodges, Twinn, Lindsay, Jacks Hill, Beason, Harland, Beard, 
Vickery, Lauder, Endy, Ball. 

HENDERSON Boylston Creek 

HALIFAX Davis 

LINCOLN Hoke, Burton, Graham. 

McDOWELL Bracket Town, Vein Mountain, Marion Bullion. 

MECKLENBURG— Yellow Dog, St. Catherine-Rudesil, Capps, Frederick, Grier, John- 
son, Surface Hill, Hayes, McGee, Brawley, Smith and Palmer, McDonald, F. 
Wilson, Howell, Trotter, Carson, Taylor, Icenhour, Davidson, Blake, Point, 
Parks, Clark, Frazer, Hipp, Campbell, Todd, Arlington, McGinn, Troutman, 
Prim, Abernathy, Alexander, Dunn, Sloan, McCorkle, Cathy, Ferris, Hunter, 
Moore, Trotter, Carson, Stephen Wilson, Gibson, Neal, Brawley, Frazier, Means, 
Bennett, Kerns, Henderson, Tredinick, Ray, Ellington, Blair, Ferguson Hill, 
Shaffer, Poplin. 

MONTGOMERY— Moore, Reynolds, Carter, Sam Christian, Swift Creek, Dry Hollow, 
Bright, Ophir, Spanish Oak Gap, Island Creek, Deep Flat, Pear Tree Hill, 
Tom's Creek, Harbins Bunnell Mountain, Dutchman's Creek, Worth, Morris 
Mountain, Coggin, Saunders, Sted, Beaver Dam, Griffin, Nail, Russell, Sed- 
berrv, Rich Cogg, Iola, Montgomery, Martha Washington, Riggan Hill, Mara- 
tock'. 

MOORE Elsie, Bell, Grampusville, Brown, Bat Rost, Shields, Cagle, Clegg, Burns. 

NASH Mann-Arrington, Argo, Thomas, Kearney, Taylor, Mann, Conyers. 

ORANGE • Robertson 

PERSON Durgy. 

POLK-— Red Springs, Weatherby, Potty Adam;, Tom Arms, Splawn, Ponder, Riding, 
L. A. Mills, Carpenter, Hamilton, Neal, Maclntire, Double Branch, Price. 

RANDOLPH __ Uwharrie, Winningham, Slack, Davis Mountain, Sawyer, Winslow, Jones 
or Keystone, Lafflin or Herring, Delft, Parish, Bason, Empire, Redding, South- 
ern Homesteake, Scarlett (copper), Asheboro, Tolbert, Hoover Hill, Wilson 
Kindley, Conroy. 

ROWAN — -Gold Hill, Yadkin, Dunn's Mountain, Reimer Bullion, New Discovery, Gold 
Knob, Dutch Creek, Atlass, Bame, Hartman, Negus, Harrison Hill, Southern 
Belle, Goodman, Randleman, Roseman, Gold Coin, Park, Union (copper), 
Drexler, Steele, Butler, Rumpler, Yadkin. 

RUTHERFORD— Double Branch, Alta, Idler, Monarch, Carson, Glendale, Ellwood, 
Leeds. 

STANLY Parker, Whitney, Crowell, Barringer, Haithcock, Hearne, Flint Spring, Hen- 
derson, Lowder, Crawford, or Ingram. 

UNION Davis Phifer, Price, Black, Brewer, Indian Trail, Union, Bonnie Doon, Howie, 

Wyatt, Washington, Penman, Grand Union, Lewis, Hemby, Moore Hill, Folger 
Hill, Harkness, Long, Fag Hill, Dulin, Crump, Smart, Stewart, Lemmonds, 
Wenona, Crowell, Butterfield, Fox Hill, Secrest, Moore Hill, Bonnie Bell. 

WILKES Mount Zion 

YADKIN Dixon. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Raleigh, N. C, August 15, 1928 



NEW PROCESS SAVES 
QUANTITIES OF MICA 
ONCE WASHED AWAY 



Salvaging of thousands of dollars of materials 
formerly lost is the ougrowth of the installation 
of a new process for recovering mica from kaolin 
clays in Western North Carolina. 

Two new plants, according to State Geologist 
H. J. Bryson, are already in operation in Mitchell 
and Yancey counties; two others are under con- 
struction and will be ready for service shortly. 
The General Mica Company, Spruce Pine, erected 
the plants now operating and one each is being 
built by the Harris Clay Company and the 
Norman G. Smith Company. 

Plants now in service recover mica which will 
pass through a 20 mesh screen, and one of the 
new ones is expected to recover all courser than 
20 mesh. 

Geologist Bryson, who noted these develop- 
ments while making a survey of the mineral in- 
dustry and resources in the mountains, has been 
informed that one man can recover from two 
to four tons of the mica a day, or enough to 



bring a revenue from $100 to $125. One of the 
plants at this time reports an output of between 
10 and 12 tons daily. 

"With the establishment of this new recovery 
process at the clay pits," says the State Geolo- 
gist, "it is probable that many of the wet grind- 
ing mills will go out of business. The grinding 
mills will probably not be able to compete with 
the new process, and since the wet grinding plants 
can only produce two tons of ground mica per 
mill during a 24 hour day it can readily be seen 
that they cannot compete." 

Discussing further the significance of the de- 
velopment, Geologist Bryson says: "The mica 
has always been considered a menace to the clay 
industry and the process of extracting the fine 
mica has been a very complicated one. 

"The mica, a waste product, has been permitted 
to go down the streams and has always been 
considered as of no value. This is no longer true 
because the fine scrap mica, varying from 20 to 
200 mesh, can be sold at prices ranging from 
$20 to $120 per ton. The mica thus recovered 
can be used in a number of trades, but in this 
case is confined largely to the roofing trade." 




Open pit mica mining as it is carried on in Western North Carolina is shown here. Operation 
of the mine is a simple process. This is the property of the Biotite Mica Co., Spruce Pine 



J- 



< <■« • 

.... 

.... 



.,■>■■ ; ■ • ■ r ' 
' < . . < ' ■ 

V . ; i ■ : ■' 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately afti 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w ' 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departnul 
regular tabulations of indusi 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this 
ment and other booster orj] 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAIs 
QUAIL A 



, 



Conservation and Industry truck loadof deer 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



STOCKED ON REFUGE 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Wade H. Phillips Director 

Paul Kelly Editor 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



'JOHN A. NELSON" NAME 

OF NEW FISHERIES BOAT 



Mexican quail of the first | 
buted this spring in North ' 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bill 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Recognizing the faithful and efficient service 
of the Fisheries Commissioner, the Board of Con- 
servation and Development at its last meeting at 
Morehead City, voted to name the new fisheries 
"flagship" for Capt. John A. Nelson. 

Captain Nelson has served the State for more 
than a quarter of a century, part of the time as 
Assistant Commissioner and the rest as Com- 
sioner. Although he has been faced with many 
difficulties in the work, his judgment has been 
well directed for the interest of the fisheries in- 
dustry and the people. 

Often times, when the regulations which were 
passed for the purpose of conserving the supply 
of sea products and giving equal rights to all in 
the enjoyment of this natural resource were new 
it was the task of the Commissioner to deal pa- 
tiently and with level head with those affected 
thereby. Practically invariably, Captain Nelson 
has not only gained friends for himself in his 
dealings with the fishermen but has won over a 
majority as confirmed conservationists. 

His work has now reached a point where it is 
appreciated not only along the coast but by 
thousands all over the State. North Carolina's 
fisheries administration has become a model for 
the study and emulation of other States and a 
number of foreign governments. 

Formalities of changing the name of the recent- 
ly acquired craft, the "Hedalca," to her new title 
have been carried out. The "John A. Nelson" 
takes the place of the old "Atlantic" which has 
passed into private hands after a long and faith- 
ful period of service to the State. 



When a truck ladened with nine adult deer 
from the State Deer Park Game Farm near 
Spruce Pine arrived safely at the borders of Mt. 
Mitchell State Game Refuge, it accomplished a 
feat that was previously thought to be impractical. 

Other efforts to transport adult deer from one 
refuge to another for stocking purposes had 
proved unsuccessful and officials had begun to 
think that the self-inflicted mortality of the ani- 
mals would preclude such operations in the 
future. 

The transfer was accomplished by C. N. Mease, 
Deputy Game and Fish Commissioner, Black 
Mountain, under the observation of J. Q. Gilkey, 
Marion member of the Board of Conservation 
and Development and game enthusiast. 

The deer were driven into an enclosure con- 
structed in a "V" shape, approximately 100 feet 
wide at the opening and narrowing down to a 
foot at the point. The fence toward the point 
was padded with leaves to prevent the animals 
from injuring themselves. After being hemmed 
into this narrow runway, they were captured and 
loaded abroad the truck. 

A number of fawns had already been released 
on the preserve area. Wild turkeys, quail, and 
other game placed in the refuge are helping to 
create a stock that within a few years should 
provide excellent shooting in the contiguous ter- 
ritory. 



OUT OF SEASON DEER 

HUNTING IS CHECKED 



Between-season deer hunting in Eastern North 
Carolina received a jolt recently as a result of 
the efforts of L. E. Warrington, Craven County 
warden, who haled three offenders before the 
court in Carteret County. 

The accused men were given a stiff fine by the 
court, but it was suspended on promise of the 
defenders to observe the game laws. The magis- 
trate directed that the sentence be held over for 
a period of years and promised that it would be 
revived should the offenders be brought before 
him again within that period. 

It is thought that Warden Warrington's success 
will check violations in the "open land" district 
that have been reported from time to time. This 
section, consists of some 40,000 acres of land 
near the northwest corner of Carteret County. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



5 



OFFICIALS APPROVE 
PLANS TO BEAUTIFY 
HIGHWAYS OF STATE 



OPERATION OF GAME 

STATUTE REVIEWED 



Highway beautification on a large scale in 
North Carolina will become a reality if plans 
discussed recently by Frank Page, Chairman of 
the State Highway Commission ; Director Wade 
H. Phillips; and State Forester J. S. Holmes 
materialize. 

The officials agreed on a tentative program 
that would mean a State-wide effort to create 
more beautiful highways by the planting of trees 
along the rights-of-way. 

A suggestion of such a program was given at 
a recent meeting of the Board of Conservation 
and Development by Governor A. W. McLean, 
who declared that he would like to see State 
legislation which would authorize and empower 
the Highway Commission and the Conservation 
Board to co-operate in a program to develop 
the highway system into lanes of scenic attrac- 
tiveness. 

It was agreed at the conference between Chair- 
man Page, Director Phillips, and State Forester 
Homes to suggest legislation that would authorize 
the expenditure of State funds to work out the 
beautification plans. 

At the last session of Congress, the Federal road 
legislation was amended so that funds for this 
purpose may be used by state highway authorities 
in the planting of trees along the Federal-aid 
roads. State legislation carrying this provision 
would enable the use of money from both sources 
for this work. 

North Carolina has already gained nation-wide 
attention for her zeal and success in providing 
a great highway system. With the weight of the 
State fully behind a program of beautification, 
she can also lead the nation in the aesthetic side 
as well as the utilitarian. It is not a broad stretch 
of imagination to hope to sec her 7,500 miles of 
improved highways flanked by native and exotic 
trees which would be a joy to the eyes of the 
motorists and help to promote maximum use of 
the roads. 



The second half of the first annual report of 
operation of the new State wide (lame Law 
by Director Wade H. Phillips, who served 
during this period as Acting State Game Warden, 
is given below. The first part of the report was 
printed in the last issue of Conservation and 
Industry. The final part of the report follow-: 

The hunting law requires the Board to spend 
the license funds in the admisistration and en- 
forcement of the game law, and for the propa- 
gation and conservation of game. The rather 
large surplus at this time is due to the fact that 
the game budget was originally made out on a 
basis of $75,000 total receipts. Otherwise, much 
more would have been spent on enforcement. 
However, when all proper costs of admisintration, 
enforcement and educational work have been met, 
the balance of the funds, 25 or 30 per cent, 
should be spent on the important work of game 
propagation and game refuges and preserves. 
For this purpose it is estimated that $89,110 will 
be available from this year's receipts. 

Game Census 

In order to determine to some extent the 
amount of game in North Carolina, where located, 
and what success the hunters have, it was decided 
to take a census of birds and animals taken dur- 
ing the past season. Card questionnaires were 
mailed to everyone to whom a hunting license 
was issued. The task is not yet finished. Judging 
from the returns, however, from ten average 
counties — Catawba, Iredell, Alleghany', Hender- 
son, Randolph, Forsyth, Richmond, Craven, Hali- 
fax and Bcauford — with returns from 7,328 hun- 
ters from a total of 19,051 licensed in those coun- 
ties, the results are as follows: 83,617 rabbits, 
67,923 squirrels, 244 deer, 1,539 coons, 17,431 
opossums, 904 minks-skunk, 39 wildcats, 1,836 
muskrats, 52,795 quail, 329 turkeys, 27 grouse, 
152 pheasants, 970 snipe, 66 rails-coots, 685 wood- 
cocks, 9,144 doves, 284 geese, and 5,575 ducks. 
If those who did not answer the inquiry killed 
only half as much, the total for above ten coun- 
ties would be as follows: 155,527 rabbits, 126,- 
336 squirrels, 451 deer, 2,862 coons, 34,421 opos- 
sums, 1,681 minks-skunks, 72 wildcats, 3.414 
muskrats, 98,198 quail, 611 turkeys, 50 grouse, 
282 pheasants, 1,754 snipe, 122 rails-coots, 1,274 
woodcocks, 17,007 doves, 528 geese and 10.3o0 
ducks. Applying this scale to the total number 



. ... . 

.... 




DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an| 
made public immediately aftj 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w I 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmtl 
regular tabulations of indusi 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through th^s i 
ment and other booster orj 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAIS 
QUAIL A'< 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bii 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



of licensed hunters in the State last year, we have 
the following: 1,555,270 rabbits, 1,263,360 squir- 
rels, 4,510 deer, 28,260 coons, 324,210 opossums, 
16,810 minks-skunks, 720 wildcats, 34,140 musk- 
rats, 981,980 quail, 6,110 turkeys, 500 grouse, 
2,820 pheasants, 17,540 snipe, 1,220 rails-coots, 
12,740 woodcocks, 170,070 doves, 5,280 geese, 
103,690 ducks. 

Converting these figures into estimated value 
of game killed last year it would be as follows: 
rabbits, $311,054; squirrels, $252,672; deer, $90,- 
200; coons, $42,930; opossums, $324,210; minks- 
skunks, $50,430; wildcats, $1,800; muskrats, $51',- 
210; quail, $294,594; turkeys, $22,910; grouse, 
$375; pheasants, $2,115; snipe, $3,508; rail-coots, 
$306; woodcocks, $6,370; doves, $17,007; geese, 
$15,840; ducks, $51,845. 

Total estimated number of game killed last 
year, 4,529,590. 

Total estimated value of game killed last year, 
$1,539,376. 

While these figures are only approximate, they 
are sufficiently accurate to show that it is not 
too late to make North Carolina the first game 
state in the Union. 

State License 

Of the total of 138,599 licenses issued last year, 



it will be noted that 126,035 were county licenses, 
11,686 state licenses, and only 878 were non-resi- 
dents. 

The game census already shows that more game 
was taken per hunter by those having state li- 
censes than by either of the other classes. As a 
conservation measure, the $5.00 state license is 
probably best. It tends to limit the number of 
state-wide hunters. However, since there seems 
to be, for the present at least, a fair supply of 
game, it is contended by many that a $3.00 state 
license would bring in more revenue and be more 
satisfactory to a large number of hunters. Your 
State Warden is also of the opinion that the 25c 
fee for issuing the licenses is too much, and re- 
commends that the Legislature be requested to 
reduce it to 10c. 

Game Breeding 

There is also a demand for proper rules and 
regulations governing game breeding. Our pres- 
ent law allows permits for propagation of game 
birds and animals. A good many permits have 
been issued at $1.00 each. It is well to encourage 
private breeding of game. The law ought also 
to permit the licensing of dealers to handle dead 
game commercially. Farmers might then have 
the incentive to raise game for sale. This applies 




'■!■■'■■■ . ■■■ ■ 



•'#.* 9 



This layout of fine specimens of channel bass or red drum was taken by a group of North 
Carolina and Georgia sportsmen at Ocracoke, one of the best known grounds for this type of 
fishing along the Atlantic coast. The party includes C. T. McClenaghan, T. L. Creekmore, Jim 
Kee, John Chamberlain, E. E. Briggs, and others. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



particularly to pheasants. Those served in hotels 
generally come from England, where game regu- 
lations, as we know, are strict. 

Public Iformation 

Mr. Kelly, in charge of Department publica- 
tions, has given considerable time to game. The 
pamphlet, "Hunting in North Carolina," has gone 
to the printer. "Conservation and Industry," the 
bi-weekly paper of the Department, is being en- 
larged to take care of more fish and game news. 
The circulation of this paper will be about dou- 
bled so that it may reach more of those interested. 
The daily and weekly press have been constantly 
used in the interest of our game program. In 
six months about fifty articles on game have 
been furnished the press. Special articles have also 
appeared in "Field and Stream," "American Game 
Bulletin," "National Sportman," "Forest and 
Forest Life," "Outdoor America" and other na- 
tional periodicals. 

During American Forestry week, the North 
Carolina Radio Stations were used by the De- 
partment. It is planned to continue their use 
including regular broadcasts on game conserva- 
tion. 

The Director has contracted with makers of 



moving picture films and with the approval ol the 
Board will purchase six reels showing game and 
fish views in North Carolina. The lectures of 
the F'orestry Division include special reference 
to our game work. 

There is need for a short illustrated booklet 
on North Carolina birds. This is being planned 
by the Director and Mr. Kelly. It is imperative 
that we use every effort to put across to the 
youth of the State the message of conservation 
of wild life. 

Several proposals are on file from leading 
periodicals to advertise the game resources of the 
State. Such publicity carefully distributed, we 
think, will be well worth the cost. The Director 
recommends spending the sum of .^1,000 for this 
purpose. 

Co-operation on Game Program 

The other divisions of the Department have 
shown splendid co-operation in carrying on the 
game work, especially the Forestry and Inland 
Fisheries Divisions. This has resulted in economy, 
in better efficiency ; but the best result is the 
co-ordination of these important branches of 
conservation, impressing the public as to how 
interrelated and dependent each is upon the other. 




This fine string of bass, an inspiring sight for the eye of any angler, was caught by the 
group of Raleigh sportsmen shown in the picture. They include the following: O. R. Browne, 
"Nanny" Parker, E. R. Rowe, Dr. Sam Norris, and W. A. Queen. Their fishing ground was in 
the South River, Carteret County. One hundred and fifteen bass were landed on the trip, a 
large portion of which was returned to the water. The string is made up of fourteen bass taken 
at random from the lot, averaging 3 1-2 to 4 pounds each. 



. • , 

< r • I 



DEPARTMENT I 

QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft 
is proposed by this means to ; 
the industrial development w | 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmf 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this e: 
ment and other booster orjl 
able to keep a closer touch I 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North : 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the lj 
of localities and that the bi;. j 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. u< 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



By using the same wardens in many counties, 
the same publication, stressing the forestry, fish 
and game program as a unit, much faster progress 
has been made with the public. 

Another important support has come from the 
sportsmen. They are, after all, the chief pioneers 
of conservation in our State. Their active sup- 
port of the hunting laws and our enforcement 
officers has stimulated the interest of the general 
public. The Department has in every way sought 
to encourage the sportsmen to organize. A dozen 
or more sportsmen's clubs and Izaak Walton 
Leagues have been organized during the past 
six months. 

The United States Biological Survey, H. H. 
Brimley of the State Museum, the Biological 
Department of State College and the University 
of North Carolina, have also co-operated in the 
solution of some of the game problems. 

While county officers at first fought shy of the 
game law, some of them are now giving active 
aid, with the prospect of co-operation becoming 
better in the future. 

Non-Game Birds and Animals 

Game as defined in the hunting law, when it 
comes to number, includes only a few of our 
birds and animals. The game animals are the 
deer, bear, fox, squirrel and rabbit. The game 
birds are quail, wild turkey, grouse and pheasant. 
Fur-bearing animals are skunk, muskrat, coon, 
opossum, beaver, mink, otter and wildcat. Migra- 
tory wild water fowl, also doves and wild pigeons, 
are regulated by seasons. The wildcat is out- 
lawed with no closed season. The unprotected 
birds are English sparrows, horned owls, Coppers 
hawks, sharp-shined hawks, crows, jays, black- 
birds, and buzzards. All other wild birds and 
animals not referred to above are classed as non- 
game birds and animals. They are protected by 
law at times. They can only be taken when 
committing depredations under circumstances set 
out in the law. 

Your State Warden strongly believes we owe 
a duty to this great body of our wild life, the 
song birds, the insectiverous birds, the harmless 
little animals of the field and forest. 

Wardens will be instructed next season to give 
particular attention to the care of this part of our 
wild life. Our people should b» educated against 
killing them or destroying their nests. The De- 
partment received nation-wide good will last 
spring when our wardens saved more than a mil- 
lion robins while they rested in Randolp and 



Lincoln counties. The blue birds, and cardinals, 
have come back again and have been seen in 
numbers for the first time in many years. Some 
nature-lovers have sent our Department their 
blessings for helping to bring this form of beauty 
back to our woods. 

We plan to co-operate with the agricultural 
agents in reminding the farmers of the value of 
wild birds on the farm. 



JONES WARDEN FINDS 

ALL RELEASED QUAIL 



County Game Warden H. B. Hargett, of Jones 
County, claims a record for his county in the 
effectiveness of the distribution of Mexican quail 
last spring. 

Every bird liberated in Jones County, he de- 
clares, has been accounted for or has been seen 
since its release. One pair has a brood of 17 young 
birds and another, 14; of those released, he adds, 
only one died and its mate has since taken up 
with a native quail and a brood of the mixed 
breed is expected. 

Warden Hargett believes that the distribution 
of the Mexican quail will be much more effective 
than had been hoped for in the State. Next 
season, in his opinion, should be the greatest 
quail year for some time in North Carolina. 



FEDERAL REPORT GIVES 

REVIEW FORESTS' GAME 



Pisgah and Nantahala National Forests are 
peopled with a total of 4,120 deer, 90 black and 
brown bears, and 35 elk, according to a report 
issued by the United States Forest Service. 

With the exception of a score of deer, all of 
these animals are contained in Pisgah National 
Forest, most of them being in the game preserve 
which covers a large area in that reservation. 

This report shows that the National Forests 
take a front rank in providing breeding places 
for game and in insuring the perpetuation of 
sport for coming generations. 

It is revealed that black and brown bears show 
an increase of about ten per cent over the num- 
ber recorded in 1926. Deer are declared to have 
increased on an average of about five per cent, 
and the number taken annually by hunters is 
about ten per cent of the total. 



The state of Connecticutt leases streams from 
farm owners, stocks them with fish from six to 
nine inches in length and maintains them for 
the use of the public. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



FORESTER REGARDS 
UNPRODUCTIVE LAND 
AS PUBLIC PROBLEM 



Public ownership was advanced by State For- 
ester J. S. Holmes in a talk before the National 
Conference on State Parks in San Francisco 
earlier in the summer as being the "only stable 
and permanent solution of the forest taxation 
problem." 

In this address Mr. Holmes has simply repeated 
his advocacy of a State Forest System which he 
has continuously pointed to as a necessary step 
to insure the realization of full economic capabil- 
ities of the State and to conserve to the fullest 
extent one of the most necessary of all of her 
natural resources. 

Continuing the discussion of the forest tax 
problem, Mr. Holmes said: "What is to be done 
about the forest taxation problem? In an article 
on industrial forestry in the April number of the 
Journal of Forestry the author, Assistant Fos- 
cster L. F. Kncipp of the United States Forest 
Service says: 'As to taxes, there can be nor has 
been little dispute. The economic incapacity of 
forest lands to bear the burdens of current taxa- 
tion applicable to other more continuously pro- 
ductive forms of property has been amply de- 
monstrated not only by economic logic but by 
repeated and convincing experience. But when 
we launch out into the unexploited fields of sub- 
sidy, bonus, or public guarantee of bonds and 
debentures, the desirability of such courses of 
public action as compared to public ownership 
and management of forests is by no means con- 
vincingly established.' 

"The remedy to my mind is for the State to 
furnish an avenue through which owner of for- 
est land can dispose of it if he feels that he 
cannot afford to hold it for the production of 
timber. In this country where we demand six 
per cent interest or more on our investments 
there are few private parties who would be 
willing to put money into an investment which 
under expert management may yield only two 
or three per cent. 

When owners realize that they cannot depend 
on appreciation in value of the land as part of 
the profits in their forest investment, there will 
be an increasing tendency to unload. Public 
ownership is to my mind the only stable and 
permanent solution of the forest taxation prob- 




One of the several feldspar grinding plants 
in North Carolina that play a part in keeping 
the State in the van as a producer of this min- 
eral. The plant has a 150-ton daily capacity 
and is located at Spruce Pine. It is owned by 
the Tennessee Mineral Products Co. 



lem. I realize that with a considerable percent- 
age of land area taken off the local tax list some 
readjustment will be necessary. However, if the 
State receives the maximum returns from this 
land, the people of the State will in that way 
and to the fullest possible extent be reimbursed 
for the lack of local taxes. 

"I have made this long preamble as a descrip- 
tive definition of State Forests. They will event- 
ually consist of most of the larger areas of rough, 
mountain, swamp, and impoverished land scat- 
tered throughout the length and breadth of the 
State administrated by the State for the highest 
benefit of the people of the State and the people 
of the immediate locality. In North Carolina 
we have some 21,000,000 acres of forest land 
with not exceeding two and one-half per cenl 
in public ownership, National, State, and Munici- 
pal. 

"It is evident that there is plenty of room for 
State Forests without interfering with the Na- 
tional program already started with a total area 
of 380,000 acres acquired during the past 16 



J' 



■.-.:■..:: : 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



10 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an: 
made public immediately ait< 
is proposed by this means to ; 
the industrial development w f 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departing 
regular tabulations of indu<: 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but ' 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this v 
ment and other booster orj'r 
able to keep a closer touch f 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED 



MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of- 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround) 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close < 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the l 
of localities and that the bii| 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



years. There has been on complaint in North 
Carolina about Federal ownership; in fact every 
opportunity has been given the government to 
secure land under the Weeks and Clark-McNary 
laws. A special bill will be introduced and un- 
doubtedly passed by the next Legislature, extend- 
ing the authorization already granted the Federal 
Government to acquire land for National Forest 
purposes in the pine region of the State. With 
the proposed National Forest program carried 
out we will in time have some five per cent of 
this forest area in Federal ownership. At present 
our land held as a State forest totals only 100 
acres, a recent gift. 

"The question is how can the public receive 
the highest benefit from forest lands held and 
administered by the State. I am still old-fash- 
ioned enough to believe that the primary use of 
most of this land will be the production of tim- 
ber for the domestic use of the local inhabitants 
and for stabilizing the supply of timber for our 
wood-using industries. I believe the public only 
can afford to hold growing timber on the poorer 
land until it reached its maximum value for the 
various uses to which it is to be put. Private 
owners must turn over their money at the ear- 
liest possible moment; the tendency, therefore, 
must be to cut before the crop is mature. 

"Timber with maximum strength and lumber 
with maximum qualities for furniture and other 
uses will rarely be produced from second growth 
at a profit by the private owner. I, therefore, 
place the production of timber first in the uses 
for this area of State Forests, which in North 
Carolina, I believe, eventually will approach 20 
per cent of the total area of the State. 

"While the protection and regulation of inter- 
state streams may well be conidercd a function 
of the Federal Government which is already bc'ng 
undertaken through the National Forest, the pre- 
vention of erosion and silting and the regulation 
cf intrastate streams is of primary importance 
and should be given a leading place in the plan 
of administration of State Forests. This need 
not interfere with the production of timber, in 
fact the two objects can be^t be served by the 
same general methods of management. 

"The use of State Forests for demonstration in 
forest management has not yet been given the 
place which it deserves. We have planned for 
the acquisition of a few isolated areas, managed 
especially as demonstration forests with the ob- 
ject of showing to private landowners the ap- 
proved methods of handling the various types. 



A shop window forest such as Doctor Pack has 
shown us how to locate and use represents to 
many of us the full value of demonstration in 
forestry. 

"This is only a beginning but a very necessary 
beginning. In states like these in the west, where 
the National Forests fullfil the duties of perma- 
nent timber production and stream protection, the 
need of relatively small areas for demonstration 
for forestry methods which should be used on 
private forest holdings, calls for the establishment 
of State Forests with demonstration as their pri- 
mary object. In a very real and practical way 
all National and State Forests should demonstrate 
the most practical methods of handling such 
forests for the greatest benefit. Whether one or 
fifty per cent of the woodland of a State is 
State-owned there should be lessons in each tract 
that the citizen might learn to their advantage. 
The State Forests are thus linked up with a 
broad system of forest education. 

"But why stop here in the use of this property 
which belongs to the people? Are we not failing 
in our duty as administrators if we neglect any 
step which would help to bring about not only 
their economic welfare but their appreciation of 
and insight into nature which is a revelation of 
God? 

"If a State Forest contains a beautiful water- 
fall, a lake or some other feature which with our 
growing interest in outdoor recreation, attracts 
increasing numbers of people there would seem 
to be no need to transfer its management to some 
other department. Whatever recreational use is 
demanded should be developed so long as it does 
not interfere with our idea 'the fullest, highest, 
leng time use.' 

"Formerly our woodlands were so vast and the 
out-cf doors so boundless that we gave little at- 
tention to them. With the rapid progress of 
forest devastation and the equally rapid increase 
of population, we have been brought face to 
face with a serious situation that affects the 
physical, mental, social, and moral life of all the 
citizens. We are just beginning to appreciate the 
part the forest plays in our every-day life. 

"A proper handling of the State Forests for 
wise recreational use will be a big factor in 
developing healthy bodies and clear minds. Our 
part will be well done for the people of today 
and for the children that are to come if we pro- 
vide great reaches of forest land to which our 
people may turn in leisure to find rest, health, 
and enjoyment." 



- 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he 
superior as an all-round game bird. 



has any 
Possessed 

of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



11 



A REGULAR BUNDLE OF 

SERVICE FOR THE STATE 



While North Carolina has suffered in the past 
because it did not have a state chamber of com- 
merce to push this State industrially and com- 
mercially, that need has been t'dled since the 
creation of the State Department of Conserva- 
tion and Development. 

This Department is not only concerned with 
preserving the State's natural resources and de- 
veloping its possibilities but is actively engaged 
in publicity work for North Carolina. 

Any number of surveys have been made, North 
Carolina industrial opportunities and attractions 
listed and the State as a home for new indus- 
tries, especially those which will utilize native 
products and material, advertised as extensively 
as possible. 

With the State government solidly behind it, 
the new Department has probably had much 
more influence and been a far greater power than 
a State Chamber of Commerce would have been. 
Not only have the Governor and the council 
of State backed it up in its conservation work, 
but the same spirit of co-operation has been 
shown in developing North Carolina industrially 
and commercially. Literature and data coming 
from an office of the State government must 
make a tangible impression and show prospective 
investors and industrial heads that North Caro- 
lina believes in itself and is ready to join whole- 
heartedly in co-operating with outside capital. 

The prestige, the backing and the facilities 
offered by the State government have proved a 
decided asset in aiding the department of Con- 
servation and Development to get North Caro- 
lina before the industrial world. 

The survey of mineral products, the census of 
manufacturers and a more recent pamphlet on 
the suitability of North Carolina's water supply 
for certain types of manufacturing industries have 
constituted a service which has not only gained 
the State widespread publicity but has actually 
landed a number of new industries. 

This department appears to be on the job in 
all the manifold duties assigned to it. In a 
remarkably short time it has more than justified 
its existence, and North Carolinians arc wonder- 
ing how the State ever got along without it and 
its activity before. 

The department fits in perfectly with Gover- 
nor McLean's program of economy, in the broad- 
est sense of the word, and program of industrial 



FOLWEILER TAKES JOB 

VACATED BY SEBRING 



A. G. Folweilcr, formerly with the United 
States Forest Service at Ashevillc, has been op- 
pointed District Forester for the second district, 
replacing H. M. Sebring, resigned, who was 
stationed in this territory for several years. 

Mr. Folweilcr is a graduate of the Pensylvania 
State College school of forestry. After leaving 
school, the new district forester went with the 
New Jersey Forest Service. Later he accepted a 
position with the Applachain Forest Experiment 
Station, near Asheville, resigning this place to take 
his new position with the State. Headquarters 
of the second district is at Lenoir. His territory 
extends over the mountain counties of the 
northwestern section of the State. 

Mr. Sebring, who resigned about a month ago, 
has gone with the Florida Forest Service as dis- 
trict forester. His new territory will be in the 
northwestern part of that State with headquar- 
ters at Pensacola. 



ALABAMANS INSPECT 

STEDMAN HATCHERY 



Still another state hopes to benefit from the 
example which North Carolina is setting in the 
conservation and development of her natural 
resources. 

The latest is Alabama, which is interested at 
(his time especially in inland fisheries work. 
Recently a delegation from that state visited the 
Department's bass hatchery near Fayetteville to 
gain first-hand information regarding the cost 
of erection, the methods of propagation and dis- 
tribution, and other phases of hatchery operation. 

"These people were very much impressed with 
our hatchery," said W. E. Baker, superintendent, 
"the condition of the fish, the topographic layout, 
and the condition of the station in general. The 
•tatc of Alabama is realizing the need of fish 
propagation to rcplinish her streams which have 
become more or less depleted in the past few 
years." 

expansion and development for the State which 
Irvin S. Cobb declared several years ago needed 
a press agent. 

A safeguard of natural resources, a State 
chamber of commerce and a press agent com- 
bined — that is the Department of Conservation 
and Development. — Editorial, Rocky Mount 
Telegram. 



J 



. • I • ' - 

. ..: ■..: : 
« « ♦ • * < 

c • • e 



I ( ' 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft! 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departnu 
regular tabulations of indus! 
prove an advertising feature ! 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys ha\ , 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature I 
mined upon. Through this £>■ 
ment and other booster ori^ 
able to keep a closer touch I 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A> 



12 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



CENTRAL SYENITIC 
GOLD BELT SECOND 
ON THIS INDUSTRY 



Mexican quail of the first 

buted this spring in North 

supervision of Director Wad 

become quickly acclimated an 

selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 

they are very much alive and 

pering in their new surround) 

stances, deputy game comr 

and sportsmen who assisted 

of the birds have kept close ' 

ties where the quail were rele 

back to look after their welfa 
W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 

in the distribution in Wake < 

he has checked up on the i, 

of localities and that the bill 

have taken up with a flock 

calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 

Board of Conservation and I 

that quail distributed in B 

thriving. ^ ^^ 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Second of a series of articles on mining indus- 
tries in North Carolina by State Geologist H. J. 
Bryson is being run in this issue. It follows: 

The central Syenitic belt has a width of IS to 
25 miles, running across the State in a northeast- 
southwest course, and has long been known as 
the "Granite Belt." The older maps of the 
State show this belt beginning in Mecklenburg 
and extending over Cabarrus, Rowan, Davidson 
and Guilford Counties. In spite of the fact that 
it is called the "Granite Belt" there is little 
granite present. Mica is rare, but Chlorite, Horn- 
blende, Pyroxene and Epidote are very abundant, 
and occur in the most inextricable confusion. 
Even in a hand specimen most of these minerals 
are found as well as grains of Magnetite. Trap 
dikes are very numerous and of many varieties, 
and in weathering at times assume a sort of 
bedded structure. The term given at the head 
of this chapter would be nearer the truth than 
granite belt but it is lacking in accuracy and 
fullness as there is such a great variety of ma- 
terials found. 

In Guilford County, near the northern end of 
the belt, the mines are found on either side but 
mostly along the southeastern side near the Hur- 
onian slates and scists. At the southern extremity, 
in Mecklenburg County, the ore occurs nearly 
across the belt in a east-west direction. This 
belt of old mines practically parallels the main 
line of the Southern Railway. 

The ores of this entire belt are very similar 
and probably of the same origin. The ores in 
all of the mines are auriferous, and occasionally 
cuprigerous which is especially true of the Gold 
Hill district of Rowan and Cabarrus Counties. 
At times the ores are high in lead and zinc. The 
Silver Valley mine of Davidson County is a good 
example of this type of ore. Silver is found in 
small amounts in all the mines but has never 
been worked for silver alone. The ores are re- 
fractory only as the sulphides make them so. 

The ore veins occur usually in the syenitic ma- 
terial, the fissures ranging from a few inches to 
60 feet or more in width. These fissures are 
usually filled with slaty material, quartz and ore. 
The slates are usually very aluminous, at times 
approaching pyrophyllite, finely laminated and 
ofter very fissle ; they are usually parallel to the 
walls of the vein. These slaty veins sometimes 



do not show bedding planes and are often ver- 
tical in position. Where this occurs the slates 
are very siliceous. 

The quartz of the veins show a tendency toward 
lamination, especially near the walls, and when 
broken out the fragments split into thin plates, 
which may be said to be schistose. This phe- 
nomenon is very interesting to geologists and 
engineers who have visited this area. The only 
explanation for this condition is that some move- 
ment has taken place since the deposition of the 
vein material. No one has offered a better ex- 
planation. 

The rocks of this area have disintegrated to a 
great depth, sometimes ISO feet or more. At 
one mine a mudslide occurred at the 500 foot 
level. Due to the absence or ordinary glacial 
action and to the gently rolling topography in 
this region the weathered surface is left practi- 
cally in its original position. 

The upper parts of the veins have undergone a 
great deal of oxidation, the sulphides have been 
changed to oxides and at time the metal has 
also been removed. This is true especially of the 
copper sulphides. The brown ore holds the gold, 
which was orginally the sulphide, but in a great 
many places enriches a result of the alterations 
which have taken place. As a result nuggets are 
found, as well as grain gold, in the upper parts 
of the veins much more abundantly than in the 
lower or deeper ores. 

Few of the mines occurring in this belt have 
been worked to any great depth due to the 
pinching out of the veins. This is caused by 
the closing of the syenite walls. On account of 
this the ores seem to be concentrated in a form 
called "chimneys." Below a certain depth the 
sulphides occur in a gangue of quartz which 
forms for the most part the vein filling. The 
native gold is often attached to the sulphides in 
this zone. 

The old Silver Valley Mine, the Silver Hill, 
the Gardner Hill, and many other mines in this 
belt have been prospected within the past year 
to determine whether or not there is ore of suffi- 
cient quality and quantity to be worked com- 
mercially. From recent reports it is possible that 
some of these old mines will be worked again. 
Some very promising ore has been located on 
some of the properties. 

Other than the areas discussed above where 
gold has been found two or three other areas 
may be added here, the Rutherford area, the 
Burke area and the McDowell area. All of these 
areas are in the famous South Mountain district. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



13 



From this district, which was opened in 1829, 
over three million dollars worth of gold has been 
taken. Just before the California gold rush as 
many as .(,000 hands could be seen working on 
one stream in that area. It has been reported 
by many of the older inhabitants of that section 
that during the time of slavery the slave owners 
would send out their slaves in the morning with 
the ordinary quart fruit jars and require them 
to be filled during the day. How true this is 
we will never know but we do know that several 
million dollars in gold have been taken from this 
district. 

The gold bearing gravels of the South Moun- 
tain district occur along the lower slopes of the 
hills and mountains, in the valleys between them, 
along the beds of streams, in their channels, on 
the benches, and other places where the gold may 
accumulate. These places of accumulation are 
usually not extensive, but are quite numerous. 
The thickness of the gravels is usually a few feet 
but in an instance or two gravels .10 feet thick 
have been found. The gold occurs at the bottom 
of the coarser gravels, but is often distributed 
throughout the entire superficial earthy deposit. 

The first, or Rutherford belt, is on the head- 
waters of the First Broad River, in the extreme 
northeast part of that county and just touches 
the border of Cleveland County. It is approxi- 
mately four miles long, and from one to two 
miles wide, with Golden Valley as the central 
point. 

The famous Burke County belt, with Brindle- 
town for its main point, lies two and one-half 
miles northeast of the above. This belt is pro- 
bably not more than one and one-half miles 
wide, and is from ten to twelve miles long, 
reaching to the headwaters of Cane Creek. 

The third, or McDowell belt, is four miles still 
further west. It has a width of about two miles, 
and is situated on the headwaters of North 
Muddy Creek. 

At a few places in this district gold bearing 
quartz veins have been worked. Occasionally 
veins of moderate width, or even narrow seams, 
were worked profitably. These veins may be 
parallel to, cut across in length or dip, or both, 
the strata of the formations. The narrow veins 
are usually the richest in gold. 

On page two is given a list, by counties, of 
the old gold mines which have been operated in 
this State. Many of these mines also produced 
copper, silver, lead and zinc. It is probably the 
most complete list ever printed. 



WOOD USERS ARE URGED 

TO FILL QUESTIONNAIRE 



A follow-up letter, urging wood manufacturers 
of North Carolina who have not yet replied to 
the questionnaire of the National Committee on 
Wood Utilization for a report on non-utilized 
wood to do so immediately has been mailed out 
by Director Wade H. Phillips of the Department 
of Conservation and Development. 

"Since it appears," says the communication, 
"that you have not yet turned in the informa- 
tion sought, and since the North Carolina Forest 
Service greatly desires that all wood manufac- 
turers of this State assist the Department of 
Commerce in making the study as useful as pos- 
sible, and since this can only be done if nearly 
all of the North Carolina manufacturers supply 
the needed information, I am taking occasion 
to send you a new set of papers similar to those 
formerly sent and respectfully request that you 
co-operate in this study by returning the question- 
naire promptly. If you do not have any non- 
utilized wood, or have gone out of busine», 
wont you please so indicate on the face of the 
questionnaire?" 



ALAMANCE SURVEY IS 

MODEL FOR COUNTIES 



A creditable work is the economic and social 
survey of Alamance county, recently completed 
by John W. Harden, Graham, in co-operation 
with the Department of Rural Social Economics 
of the University of North Carolina. 

The publication has a complete review of 
manufacturing, raw materials available for indus- 
try, agriculture, other resources and also a com- 
pilation of information showing social conditions. 

It shows the factors responsible for existing 
conditions and opportunities for development. 
The survey is in a volume of 100 pages, appro- 
priately illustrated. Funds lor publication were 
furnished by Alamance county, the Burlington 
Hoard of Education, the Burlington Chamber of 
Commerce and the University Extension Division. 

Such a wealth of information carried by the 
publication which includes virtually any phase 
in which industry and individuals are interested, 
should be of great benefit to the section. Copies 
of the work are available, in limited numbers, 
at the Burlington Chamber of Commerce, the 
University Extension Division, and the Depart- 
ment of Rural Economics at the University. 



J' 



. . . • • ,• ' I" • « 

. •.: •..: : 

4 ..:."■.■■:■ 

DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a: 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft< 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departnn 
regular tabulations of indu< 
prove an advertising feature ! 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i\ 
ment and other booster orjl 
able to keep a closer touch I 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North ■; 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i[ 
of localities and that the bii! 
have taken up with a flock ; 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. L . 



14 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



SURVEY OF COASTAL 
CHANGES MOVES UP 
BEACH FOR SUMMER 



OUTDOOR ETHICS 



Summer surveys at Wrightsville and Carolina 
Beaches, a part of the study of coastal changes 
being made by the Division of Water Resources 
and Engineering, have been finished for this year. 

Field parties that have been engaged in this 
work have moved north to Atlantic Beach at 
Morehead City, and are winding up the sum- 
mer surveys at Nags Head and other beaches 
above that point. 

As part of this same program, Thorndike Sa- 
ville, Chief Hydraulic Engineer of the Division, 
and Prof. R. M. Trimble of the School of Engi- 
neering of the University of North Carolina, have 
completed a trip of reconnaissance along the en- 
tire strip of beaches from Kittyhawk south to 
Carteret county. 

In addition to making a study of the conditions 
of the beaches, the engineers made a preliminary 
examination of the feasibility of the construction 
of a dam across Roanoke and Croatan Sounds 
as called for in a resolution introduced in the 
1927 General Assembly by Senator E. S. Askew, 
of Bertie county, and passed by the law making 
body. The dam, it is believed by sponsors of the 
bill, would aid in the solution of some of the 
commercial fiisheries problems by separating the 
salt waters of the lower sounds from the fresh 
waters of those farther north. 

Running the entire distance by automobile, the 
engineers did not encounter a road for approxi- 
mately 180 miles. Whenever it was possible they 
proceeded along the beach at low tide. Their 
method of travel is of interest not only to those 
concerned with the problems of that section but 
to the motorist in general who seeks something 
new in scenery and mode of transportation. 

From Elizabeth City they drove to Point 
Harbor, where they were ferried across Albe- 
marle Sound to Kittyhawk. Proceeding south- 
ward along the beach, they observed the erosion 
and changes taking place between Kittyhawk, 
Nags Head and Manteo. It was from the latter 
place that they made observations in connection 
with the suggested dam construction. 

Leaving Manteo, they traversed the beach to 
Hatteras, crossing the inlet the next morning and 
reaching Ocracoke by noon. Here, they again 
were ferried across Ocracoke Inlet to Portsmouth 
Island. Again sticking to the beach, they con- 
tinued to Core Banks Life Saving Station where 



A condensed code of outdoor ethics has just 
been issued by the Izaak Walton Leaugue of 
America. 

"If this code is followed, even fifty per cent, 
by the vast hordes of people who are taking to 
the outdoors this summer, the condition of our 
great natural playground, hard pressed by the 
outdoor movement occasioned by modern trans- 
portation facilities, will be safe from the destruc- 
tion which threatens it," declared Dr. Henry 
Baldwin Ward, national president of the organi- 
zation. 

The code of ethics was compiled by Seth E. 
Gordon, conservation director of the League and 
an outstanding authority on outdoor ethics and 
practice. 

It follows: 

1. Your outdoor manners tell the world what 
you are when at home. 

2. What belongs to the public isn't your own 
— play fair. 

3. Respect the property of rural residents — ask 
before using it. 

4. Save fences, close gates and bars, go around 
planted fields. 

5. People, livestock, trees and birds were never 
meant to be target practice backstops. 

6. Respect the law — catch enough legal fish to 
eat, then quit. 

7. Protect public health — keep springs and 
streams clean. 

8. Clean up your camp and don't litter the 
highways with trash. 

9. Finish what you start — carelessness with fires 
is cussedness. 

10. Leave flowers and shrubs for others to 
enjoy. Do your share to keep outdoor America 
beautiful. 

a flat was employed to carry them across the 
Sound to Atlantic. 

"The trip was interesting," said Mr. Saville, 
"from the standpoint of beach studies with which 
the Division is now concerned, and also from the 
fact that there are no roads anywhere throughout 
the entire length of travel which was approxi- 
mately about 180 miles. 

"Extremely interesting dat? have been obtained 
from our studies to date and our work is attract- 
ing a good deal of attention from national scien- 
tific organizations concerned with beach changes." 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



wmamm mmm- -'mmmmmmmammmmm 

of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 




CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



IS 



PIRATES SEINE PONDS 

OF MARION HATCHERY 



EUTSLER IS APPOINTED 

AS DISTRICT FORESTER 



Fish propagation in Western North Carolina 
received a severe set-back recently when fish 
pirates seined the breeding ponds at the "Pete" 
Murhpy hatchery, near Marion and escaped 
with approximated 400 adult black bass. 

While the monetary loss is reckoned at around 
$1,000, the final effect of this piracy cannot easily 
be estimated. Brood stock such as that taken 
from the hatchery is at a premium and is not 
easily replaced. The fish weighed from two to 
seven ponds each and had been carefully selected 
for breeding purposes. 

As soon as the theft was discovered, the police 
and Department officials were notified by J. Q. 
Gilkey, Marion, member of the Board, who is 
especially close to the work at the hatchery. A 
reward of $100 for the apprehension and con- 
viction of the culprits was immediately offered 
by Department officials. 

Several months ago, approximately 60 bass of 
selected brood stock were stolen from the Frank 
Stedman hatchery near Fayetteville. These depre- 
dations have caused officials of the Department 
to renew their vigilance in the safeguarding of 
the hatchery stock. 

The culprits, in taking the fish from the hatch- 
ery, have committed a double offense — one 
against the law and another in crippling a public 
work intended to benefit all. 



STEDMAN DISCUSSES 

OPEN QUAIL SEASON 



Discussing quail season before the Board of 
Conservation and Development, R. T. Stedman, 
president of the Izaak Walton League of Win- 
ston-Salem, advocated the prohibition of rabbit 
hunting with guns before the opening of bird 
season. 

He declared that after hearing some talk that 
the open season on quail was too long that it 
was his belief that the length of the season should 
depend upon the months in which shooting is 
allowed. 

"I am sure," he said, "that more birds would 
be killed in the months of November and Decem- 
ber than in the three following months. Many 
of you have seen, as I have, coveys of late 
hatched birds that were not fully grown the lat- 
ter part of November. During this month the 
birds are not so wild and strong, and they get 



E. M. Eutsler, formerly of Fair Bluff, Colum- 
bus county, has been named as district forester 
in District No. 3, with headquarters at New 
Bern, succeeding F. H. Sipe, resigned. 

Mr. Eutsler is a graduate of the old Biltmore 
Forest School at Biltmore. He has made special 
studies of forestry in the Great Lakes section 
and in Europe. 

For eight years he has been connected with the 
Montgomery Lumber Company of Fair Bluff, 
serving in the capacity of manager of the com- 
pany. He is a native of Virginia, but has spent 
virtually all of his time since graduation from 
the forestry school working in North Carolina. 

It is believed that his experience with the large 
lumber company fits him particularly for his 
new assignment since the new district into which 
he has gone is one of the largest timber sections 
of the State. Mr. Eutsler's familiarity with 
forestery problems of the eastern part of the 
State should serve him well in his operations as 
district forester. 

up more slowly and are much easier killed than 
later in the season. 

"Throughout middle North Carolina there are 
many quail hunting lodges maintained by sports- 
men who spend vast sums of money in our State 
in leasing hunting privileges, building lodge houses, 
maintaining kennels, wardening the grounds, and 
providing food for the birds. 

"Heretofore, they paid the taxes on the leased 
lands, but now, I believe, the practice is to pay 
from 10 to IS cents per acre. This is of consid- 
erable benefit to the landowners and these sports- 
men do more to conserve our quail than any 
other agency by restocking the preserve and re- 
fraining from shooting out the coveys. I have 
heard it estimated that these men turn loose 
from $100,000 to $150,000 a year in our State, 
and it seems to me that it is well worth while to 
consider duly the benefits to the landowners and 
others, and to our game resources derived from 
the expenditures of these sportsmen." 



Of a total of 77 new textile mills locating in 
the South in the period from January l to July 
.31 of this year, D. H. Hill, Jr., of the Southern 
Textile Bulletin credits 26 with having been 
established in North Carolina 






••■■•* 
; . 



, . , . . . < 

. ■.: ■..; ! : 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of n< 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w f 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departiru 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1| 
mined upon. Through this i\ 
ment and other booster orj! 
able to keep a closer touch I 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first ( 
buted this spring in North j 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the i\ 
of localities and that the bi;; 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. u . 



The Great Destroyer 

Fire in the Forests of North Carolina 
Does Damage Amounting to More 
Than a Million Dollars Annually ! 



Unchecked Fires Mean: 

RESTRICTION OF RECREATIONAL FACILITIES 
HUNDREDS of THOUSANDS of IDLE ACRES 
ENORMOUS LOSSES in MATURED TIMBER 
DESTRUCTION OF GAME AND FISH 
IRREGULAR STREAM FLOW 
UNSIGHTLY LANDSCAPES 
GREATER TAX BURDENS 
REDUCED PAYROLLS 



IDLE WORKMEN 





Fire 

Control 

Will Insure: 



SMALLER TAX BURDENS 

PROFITABLE INDUSTRIES 

EFFICIENT USE OF LAND 

GREATER WEALTH FOR STATE 

INCREASE OF GAME AND FISH 

PERPETUAL YIELD OF TIMBER 

BETTER EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS 

BETTER REGULATED STREAM FLOW 

MORE OPPORTUNITIES FOR RECREATION 



Will You Do Your Share 

to banish the most persistent enemy of 
the forests of the State ? 



*JMan Causes More Than Nine-tenths of the Forest Fires 
and These Can Be Prevented ! 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION 
AND INDUSTRY 

A Bi -Weekly Publication of the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 



VoL.V 



Raleigh, N. C, September 1, 1928 



FOREST FIRE FLOAT 



No. 17 




S 






• '. ■•...• 

: V. :.•■••■ 

. , ,,r . , 

; . < ■ r • 

, . . • . . ■ 

• r • « < t r 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately aft/ 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmt| 
regular tabulations of indu<! 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav| 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature J 
mined upon. Through th^s i 
ment and other booster orj 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAIs 
QUAIL A'i 



Mexican quail of the first j 
buted this spring in North \ 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bill 
have taken up with a flock ' 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



NORTH CAROLINA GAME WARDENS 



CHAS. H. ENGLAND, State Game Warden. 



Chas. J. Moore Washington, N. C Assistant State Game Warden. 

F. A. Ruffin Kelford, N. C Assistant State Game Warden. 

Geo. A. Nicoll New Bern, N. C Assistant State Game Warden. 

W. C. Lisk Richfield, N. C Assistant State Game Warden. 

John C. Thomas Winston-Salem, N. C Assistant State Game Warden. 

J. P. Stepp Lenoir, N. C Assistant State Game Warden. 

(Also Chief Forest Warden) 
C. N. Nease Black Mountain, N. C Assistant State Game Warden. 

(Aiso Chief Forest Warden) 

NAMES OF COUNTY, WARDENS AND THEIR ADDRESSES: 



Alamance — J. D. Lee, Graham. 

Alexander — F. C. Thompson, Taylorsville. 

Alleghany— L. W. Bryan, Glade Valley. 

Anson — L. P. Snyder. Wadesboro. 

Ashe — W. J. Ray, Smethport. 

Avery — R. C. Franklin, Linville Falls. 

Beaufort — Bryan Moreslender, Blounts Creek. 

Bertie — B. F. Burkett, Roxabel. 

Bladen— W. R. Whitted, Elizabethtown. 

Brunswick — T. H. Lindsey, Southport. 

Buncombe — J. A. Bradshaw, Black Mountain. 

Burke — J. M. Walton, Morganton. 

Cabarrus — C. R. Honeycutt, Concord. 

Caldwell — Mark Goforth, Lenoir. 

Camden— M. C. Mitchell, Old Trap. 

Carteret — Walter Smith, Atlantic. 

Caswell— J. C. Bryant, Milton. 

Catawba — Thos. H. Phillips, Newton. 

Chatham — R. L. Hatcher, Pittsboro. 

Clay — W. T. Hunt, Hayesville. 
Cherokee — A. W. Padgett, Andrews. 
Chowan — H. T. Layton, Edenton. 
Cleveland— M. H. Austell, Shelby. 
Columbus — Morrison Formyduval, Vineland. 
Craven — L. E. Warrington, New Bern. 
Cumberland — Fred D. Williams, Fayetteville. 
Currituck — J. J. Evans, Grandy. 
Davidson — J. W. Cashatt, Denton, and 

R. F. Dorsett, Wallburg. 
Davie — T. A. Vanzant, Mocksville. 
Duplin — H. E. Kennedy, Magnolia. 
Durham — E. G. Thompson, Durham. 
Edgecombe — M. W. Haynes, Tarboro. 
Forsyth— W. H. Hicks, Prafftown. 
Franklin — A. S. Wiggs, Louisburg. 
Gaston — J. E. C. Ford, Gastonia. 
Gates — C. W. Hinton, Gatesville. 
Graham — Forest Denton, Robbinsville. 
Granville — J. L. Suit, Oxford. 
Greene— R. K. Britt, Snow Hill. 
Guilford— A. M. Benbow, Oak Ridge. 
Halifax — C. T. Lawrence, Scotland Neck. 
Harnett — J. M. Withers, Lillington. 
Haywood — G. W. Burnett, Waynesville. 
Henderson — R. J. Fletcher, Etowah. 
Hertford — T. N. Charles, Ahoskie. 
Hoke— H. R. McLean, Raeford. 
Hyde — Geo. T. Radcliff, Leechville. 
Iredell — 0. L. Lippard, Statesville. 
Jackson — F. E. Parker, Dillsboro. 



Johnston — W. D. Avera, Smithfield. 

Jones — H. B. Hargett, Trenton. 

Lee — John D. Wicker, Sanford. 

Lenoir — C. R. Brown, Kinston. 

Lincoln — J. L. Thompson, Lincolnton. 

Macon — J. J. Mann, Franklin. 

Madison — C. M. Gage, Marshall. 

Martin— J. W. Hines, Oak City. 

McDowell — Thos. H. Gowan, Marion. 

Mecklenburg — J. E. Steere, Charlotte. 

Mitchell— W. R. Garland, Spruce Pine. 

Montgomery — C. F. Baldwin, Troy. 

Moore — Alex. Fields, Southern Pines. 

Nash— W. C. Walston, Rocky Mount. 

New Hanover — James H. Morse, Wilmington. 

Northampton — J. H. Ramsey, Seabord. 

Onslow — T. M. Henderson, Jacksonville. 

Orange — M. W. Durham, Chapel Hill. 

Pamlico — John H. Pugh, Oriental. 

Pasquotank — B. F. Emmett, Elizabeth City. 

Pender — Joe F. Johnson, Burgaw. 

Perquimans — C. W. White, Hertford. 

Person — E. D. Morton, Roxboro. 

Pitt — F. E. Brook, Bethel. 

Polk — O. C. Bridges, Columbus. 

Randolph — R. C. Lewallen, Asheboro. 

Richmond — G. A. Seawell, Rockingham. 

Robeson — J. A. Barker, Lumberton. 

Rockingham — Jack Saunders, Reidsville. 

Rowan — G. R. Miller, China Grove. 

Rutherford — W. J. Hardin, Rutherfordton, Rt. 3. 

Sampson — J. M. Barbrey, Clinton. 

Scotland — A. D. Thames, Wagram. 

Stanly — T. F. Crisco, Albemarle. 

Stokes — R. R. King, Danburg. 

Surry — Martin Bennett, Mount Airy. 

Swain — W. W. Jenkins, Bryson City. 

Transylvania — E. R. Galloway, Rosman. 

Tyrrell — J. S. Brickhouse, Columbia. 

Union — A. T. English, Monroe. 

Vance — J. Harry Edwards, Henderson. 

Wake— C. L. Beddingfield, Raleigh. 

Warren — E. H. Pennill, Warrenton. 

Washington — Harry Stell, Plymouth. 

Watauga — James W. Bryan, Boone. 

Wayne — H. A. Pike, Goldsboro. 

Wilkes — H. G. Minton, Ferguson. 

Wilson — I. A. Pearce, Wilson. 

Yadkin — W. L. Wood, Hamptonville. 

Yancey — Molt Hensley, Burnsville. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 




serious question whether or nc 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Raleigh, N. C, September 1, 1928 



OUTPUT OF TOBACCO 
PRODUCTS GROWS BY 
LARGE FIGURE IN 1927 



POWER CONFERENCE 
TO MEET IN ATLANTA 
IN ANNUAL MEETING 



Showing a total value of more than $392,000,- 
000 of production of cigars and cigarettes (by 
far the greater amount being from cigarettes) the 
tobacco industry of North Carolina for the year, 
1Q27, reached a new top notch. 

These figures, from the census of manufactures, 
being taken this year by the Commerce and 
Industry Division of this Department for the 
United States Hureau of the Census, show an 
increase of $80,000,000 over the previous biennial 
census, when the value of these products amount- 
ed to $312,000,000. 

Almost 1,000 wage earners were added to this 
branch of the tobacco industry, the census shows, 
during the two-year period since the last enumer- 
ation in 1 Q 25. Wages paid the workers in the 
industry grew by more than $1,000,000 for the 
year, and about $13,000,000 more was paid for 
material and power. The value added by the 
process of manufacture last year was $166,000,000 
more than in 1925. 

With the increased output of cigarettes and 
cigars, the consumption of chewing and smoking 
tobacco and snuff has dwindled, as shown by 
the census figures. 

The chewing and smoking tobacco division 
showed a decrease of around one-third in num- 
ber of establishments reporting, amount of wages 
paid and value added by manufacture. It also 
showed a decrease of twenty-five per cent in 
wage earners, twenty per cent in expenditures 
for material and thirty per cent in loss of value 
of products. . 

By contrast, the division of cigars and cigar- 
ettes showed a consistent increase, with 25 per 
cent more establishments reporting and approxi- 
mately the same increase in total value of pro- 
ducts. This branch of the industry revealed 12 
per cent more paid for material, ten per cent ad- 
ditional for wages and seven per cent more wage 
earners employed. The growth of the cigarette 
and cigar branches of the industry by a consider- 
able margin offset the decline of the smoking 
tobacco and snuff branches of the industry. 

In addition to the large number of wage earners 



Questions vital to the most effective develop- 
ment and use of power will be considered at the 
fourth annual meeting of the Southern Appala- 
chain Power Conference in Atlanta, Ga., on 
October 8 to 10, according to an announcement 
sent out by Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, chairman of 
the executive committee. 

The organization was formed at Asheville in 
June, 1922, at a meeting called by the Governors 
and State Geologists of North Carolina, Virginia, 
South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. 
The suggestion for the conference out of which 
the body was formed came from the North Caro- 
lina Geological and Economic Survey (now the 
Department of Conservation and Development), 
which sponsored the first gathering. 

Besides the chairman of the executive commit- 
tee, other North Carolinians on the committee 
include Jas. G. K. McClure, Asheville, member 
of the Board of Conservation and Development; 
and Thorndike Saville, Chapel Hill, Chief Hy- 
draulic Engineer of the Conservation Depart- 
ment's Division of Water Resources and Engineer- 
ing. 

Some of the discussions, according to the call 
for the meeting include: the need and demand 
for power ; the location and capacity of water 
powers now developed; the location and possi- 
bility of development of other large and small 
water powers and their relation to market ; the 
relation of the larger water power developments 
to each other and how they can be supplemen- 
tary; what proportion of the power used in the 
Southern Appalachian States is developed by 
water and what by steam power; extension of 
co-operation of the Federal Government in stream 
gaging and measurement, and investigations re- 
garding stream flow, evaporation, silting, etc.; 
and the survey of the Tennessee River basin and 
other river basins now authorized by Congress. 

in the cigarette and cigar divisions, there were 
also reported a total of 4,000 salaried employees 
to whom was paid more than S7, 500,000 during 
the year, 






. 



. .... 
. ■ . < 





DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately aft! 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development wf 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departnui 
regular tabulations of indus! 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav, 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through th^s if 
ment and other booster ori| 
able to keep a closer touch I 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A '» 



Mexican quail of the first j 
buted this spring in North ! 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround) 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the lj 
of localities and that the bii| 
have taken up with a flock ! 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



Conservation and Industry 



RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Wade H. Phillips Director 

Paul Kelly Editor 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



PUBLICATION REQUIRES 

27,000 POUNDS OF PAPER 



Thirteen and one-half tons of North Carolina 
advertising material will soon be circulated in 
the form of "North Carolina — A Good Place to 
Live," a publication to be issued soon by the 
Division of Commerce and Industry of this De- 
partment. 

This is the weight of paper ordered for the 
booklet through W. F. George, Assistant Com- 
missioner of Labor and Printing. Thirty thou- 
sand of the publication will be issued. 

In materials, contents, and workmanship, the 
issue is to be typical of the State. Contract for 
the printing has been let to the Observer Print- 
ing Co., Charlotte; and the engraving work is 
being done by the Bierman Engraving Co., of 
the same city. 

It will have a highly attractive front cover and 
binding, and the art work will be in keeping with 
the outside appearance. The publication is to 
point out specifically the attractiveness of the 
Commonwealth as a home State with its in- 
fluencing factors. 



YEARBOOK IS OUT 



Commerce Yearbook (Volume I) is now avail- 
able for distribution. Sales of these books have 
mounted steadily each year, the 1926 and 1927 
editions having been completely sold out. 

This year an extra number of copies have been 
printed and all who are interested are requested 
to order while they are still available. The sum 
of $1.00 sent to the co-operative office of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce at 
the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment, Raleigh, N. C, will bring the publication. 



CHIEF FOREST WARDEN 

GOES TO FLORIDA JOB 



The State of North Carolina has lost one of 
her most enthusiastic forest workers with the 
resignation of E. P. Simmons, New Bern, Chief 
Forest Warden of the Fourth and Fifth Districts. 

Mr. Simmons has gone with the organization, 
headed by W. C. McCormick, former Assistant 
State Forester of North Carolina, which, under 
the auspices of the American Forestry Associa- 
tion, is carrying on a forestry educational cam- 
paign in the states of Georgia, Florida, and Mis- 
sissippi. It is understood that Mr. Simmons work 
will be chiefly in Florida. 

The retiring Chief Warden has been in the 
State Forest Service for several years, having 
risen from the grade of County Warden in Cra- 
ven. When the offices of Chief Warden were 
first created, he was one of the first men to 
receive appointment, because of his experience 
and good record in the lower grade. 

F. L. Hooker, County Warden of Craven, has 
been appointed by Chas. H. Flory, Assistant For- 
ester in charge of fire control, to fill the place 
vacated by Mr. Simmons in the Fourth District. 

Because of the rapid growth of forestry opera- 
tions in that section, it was decided to divide the 
work in the Fourth and Fifth Districts. County 
Forest Warden J. R. Miller, of Hertford, has 
been promoted to the position of Chief Warden 
for District 5. 

District S, which became active last year with 
two counties now has five co-operating with pros- 
pects of more being added during the year. Dis- 
trict 4 has six counties co-operating at this time, 
and others are contemplating making appropria- 
tions with which to launch such a program. 



TROUT SEASON ENDS 

FIRST OF SEPTEMBER 



Trout season for anglers passed into history 
with the beginning of September in North Caro- 
lina, ending the second season under the new 
anglers' law. 

Mountain fisherman, however, will have one 
more month during which they indulge in their 
sport since the season on small-mouth bass ex- 
tends for one month longer, closing October 1. 

In the Eastern section of the State, the prize 
goal of anglers, the black bass, remains legal 
game through several months, closing for spawn- 
ing season on April 20. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



MENHADEN FISHING 
IS LARGE INDUSTRY 
ON COAST OF STATE 



Although the public (away from the coast) is 
little familiar with its operations, the menhaden 
industry is the largest single branch of commer- 
cial fishing operations in North Carolina. 

The menhaden (belter known as the fatback) 
constitutes the most numerous of commercial 
fishes caught along the North Carolina coast. 
The small knowledge of this branch of the in- 
dustry is due principally to the fact that the 
fish is not considered as of the edible variety. 

Extent of the catch and of the importance of 
menhaden fishing is given by Capt. J. A. Nelson, 
Fisheries Commissioner, in a recent report where 
he says: 

"Menhaden is the largest single branch of our 
industry and has more money invested in it than 
any other. This class of fishing is almost as 
uncertain as Lindbergh's flight to France, as there 
is no way of ascertaining whether or not the 
result will be successful. The enormous outlay 
of capital in this business is always at the mercv 



of the elements. The bulk of the run of fish is 
during October and November when the ocean is 
most subject to stormy weather. At times there 
are untold millions of menhaden off Cape Hat- 
teras and Cape Lookout, and, although the big 
boats are in the midst of them, they do not dare 
lower their purse boats in an attempt to make 
a catch, for to do so would be suicidal. All they 
can do is to watch millions of fish go by that 
they have been trying day after day to locate. 

"Had this past season been a normal one from 
the standpoint of weather, the catch of fish would 
have been the largest in the history of the in- 
dustry, due to the fact that the fish were plenti- 
ful and that there were a great many more boats 
engaged in the business. As it was there were 
.520,670,000 menhaden caught, which sold locally 
for $659,358. From this total catch, 1,648,305 
gallons of oil were manufactured, valued at $412,- 
008 and scrap in the amount of 23,547 tons were 
manufactured, worth $588,675. 

"The investment in this phase of the industry 
amounts to $670,000 in boats; $67,000 in nets and 
equipment, besides about $1,105,000 in factories. 
There are about 1,500 men engaged in this work, 
exclusive of out-of-State crews. 




St 



Pine Lake Veres, on tin- border of Richmond and Scotland Counties, is the fi 
natural bass nursery to be established by the State in Eastern Carolina. The lake is 
admirably adapted to the rearing of this great gamester. Under plans of Department 
officials, fingerling bass reared in the lake will be distributed in other waters of that 
section. Warden. .G. A. Scawell, of Richmond County, is protecting the lake. 




. t • 

'• • • « 
I 4 • 
* • • 
..... 



DEPARTMENT I 

QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of rn 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmt 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys ha\ 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster or;! 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



FOREST INFLUENCE 
ON SURFACE WATER 
TO BE DETERMINED 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bi; 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Studies of the influence of forest cover on sur- 
face water run-off which were started last year 
on the Durham watershed have been continued 
this summer under the direction of the Divisions 
of Forestry and Water Resources and Engineering 
of this Department. 

Investigations carried out by other agencies 
have shown that forests have an appreciable 
effect toward preventing immediate run-off of 
surface waters by retaining moisture and releas- 
ing it gradually. 

In the present study of the Durham watershed 
it is the purpose of the Department to show the 
extent to which various degrees of forestation 
affect stream flow. Three main types of land 
are being studied — forested, pasture, and barren 
land. Another angle of the study is the effect 
of these types on erosion. 

The work is being carried out along Deal and 
Dry Creeks and Rock Branch. The studies are 
under the direction of Charles E. Ray, Jr., assist- 
ant engineer, and F. H. Claridge, assistant for- 
ester. 

This is the first time that comprehensive study 
of this nature has been undertaken in North 
Carolina, and it is hoped that information that 
is gained thercform will serve a definite purpose 
in the forestry and engineering programs that 
arc being pursued at this time. 

Definite information on stream flow and status 
of forestation is being obtained through the me- 
dium of gaging stations established in streams on 
the watershed and by personal studies of the 
amount of trees in the definite localities. Silting 
effects will be noted in the Durham municipal 
reservoir. 



SURVEY OF FORESTS 

IS STARTED IN WEST 



With the engagement of C. L. Fink and W. L. 
Nothstein, both formerly with the United States 
Forest Service in Western North Carolina, as 
special agents of the Forestry Division of this 
Department to assist in the survey of forest re- 
sources now being conducted in the State, pro- 
visions have been made for completing the work 
in all sections. 

Mr. Nothstein will work in the first district, 
with headquarters in Asheville; and Mr. Fink in 



INCREASED INTEREST 

IN AVIATION IS SHOWN 



The degree in which interest in aviation is 
growing with the civilian population of the 
United States is shown in statistics issued recently 
by the United States Department of Commerce. 

These figures list North Carolina as twenty- 
first of all of the States in the number of civilian 
owned planes with a total of 38 in this class on 
July 1, of which 20 have been licensed by the 
Department of Commerce. 

On the basis of comparisons pointed out by 
Thorndike Saville, Chief Hydraulic Engineer of 
the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment, North Carolina is exceeded in number of 
civilian planes in the southeastern states only by 
Georgie with 44; Tennessee, with 41; and Vir- 
ginia with 47. California's 639 is the greatest 
number of civilian planes among all of the 
States; and Texas, with 269 has the largest num- 
ber of any Southern State. 

As the interest in aviation in the country grows 
State regulations will be needed to assure safe- 
guards for the public and for the aviators them- 
selves. The steady onward sweep of the airplane 
age brings governmental problems which have 
already been accepted by the federal government. 

Many believe that state regulations are only a 
matter of a short time. Among these is Mr. 
Saville who believes that his Division is qualified 
to render service that is needed. Uniform safety 
regulations, scientifically planned and laid out 
fields, and other safeguards, he believes, will save 
lives and money for the State. 

the second district with headquarters at Lenoir. 

Because of the illness of R. C. Brown, who 
has been engaged in the survey during the sum- 
mer months, F. H. Claridge, Assistant Forester, 
has been assisting with the work in the lower 
Piedmont counties. He has compiled information 
in the counties of Mecklenburg, Gaston, Cabarrus, 
Rowan, Iredell, and Davie. 

State Forester J. S. Holmes, who is supervising 
the survey, announces that at the end of August, 
with a few exceptions, most of the counties in 
Eastern North Carolina have already been cover- 
ed by the special foresters. 

Already a great deal of interest has been 
evoked by the survey, both within the State and 
outside. Officials of the Department believe that 
it will prove to be a stimulus to the development 
of forest resources and that it will be greatly 
helpful in the conservation program. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



NEW WARDENS BEGIN 

IN FORESTRY SERVICE 



FOREST NURSERY FOR 

MOUNTAINS PLANNED 



Appointment of three Wardens in counties 
which began co-operating in forest fire control 
work during the current fiscal year has been 
announced. 

This group of new counties is situated in dis- 
trict No. 5, located in the northeastern part of 
the State. The new counties to co-operate and 
Wardens that have been appointed are: H. T. 
Layton, Edenton, Chowan County; J. H. Ram 
sey, Seaboard, Northampton County; and C. T. 
Lawrence, Scotland Neck, Halifax County. 

Speaking of the situation in this section, Assi>t- 
anl Forester Chas. H. Flory, in charge of forest 
tire control says: "Forest fire work in the north- 
eastern part of the State is receiving much atten- 
tion, especially from the sportsmen. They are 
realizing the fact that a plentiful supply of game 
depends largely upon the amount of forest cover. 
Co-operation is being extended on every hand 
and it is expected that an intensive forest fire 
organization will be built up in the new counties 
of Chowan, Halifax, and Northampton." 



SEES RESULTS 



"Yesterday while at dinner in Camden, I had 
a conference with Mr. Richard Hubbard, a travel- 
ing salesman for a salt company with headquar- 
ters in Louisiana," Lewis E. Staley, State For- 
ester of South Carolina, wrote State Forester 
J. S. Holmes. "During the time I was with him 
he mentioned the very attractive forestry float 
that I presume was gotten up by you for use 
in the parade, I believe at Wilmington. I wanted 
you to know of the very favorable comment on 
the proposition and how such things travel over 
the country, even beyond our expectations. 
Sometimes we think little is accomplished through 
our efforts, but after all the extent to which the 
news travels and the good accomplished cannot 
be overestimated." 



LIKES PUBLICATION 

"Your publication, 'Conservation and Indus- 
try,' is indeed a very worth while work," writes 
L. Earl Browder, secretary of the Marion Cham- 
ber of Commerce. I am sure that it disseminates 
information that is helpful to all it reaches. At 
any time you care to have photographs and in- 
formation which you may want to use in your 
publication from this section, please do not hesi- 
tate to call on this office." 



Resolutions adopted by the Hoard of Conserva- 
tion and Development at its last meeting at More- 
head City endorsed a suggestion of Forest r\ 
Division submitted by Director Wade H. Phillips 
for the construction of a forest tree nursery in 
Western North Carolina. 

With the hopes that financial provisions may 
be made for such an enterprise, the Forestry 
Division has considered it one of the definite 
needs of its reforestation plan, as submitted by 
Stale Forester J. S. Holmes. However, in the 
absence of any appropriation for this purpose 
its realization depends upon obtaining funds for 
this purpose. 

Officials of the Department have held out hopes 
that some co-operative plan may be worked out 
in order that the establishment of the nursery 
may be brought about in the not distant 
future. 

The purpose of the proposed nursery would 
be to provide seedlings for elevations above 
.',500 feet which require artificial planting to 
return them to production of timber and the 
provision of a complete cloak of forests. The 
State Forest nursery in Johnston County, near 
Clayton, has demonstrated fully the need for 
such an institution and has resulted in intensi- 
fied interest in reforestation throughout the State. 



COURT GIVES SEVERE 

PENALTY TO BURNERS 



Severe penalties meted out to forest incendia- 
rists in Burke County in August typify the spirit 
that is developing in North Carolina in connection 
with the burning of woodlands. 

Two offenders, charged with deliberately setting 
fire in the forests of the county after having 
spent several months in jail awaiting trial, were 
given a sentence of four months and ordered to 
leave the State at the expiration of that time 
under penalty of having a suspended sentence of 
six months invoked should they fail to meet this 
condition. 

It was charged that the two men, who had 
previously had distilleries destroyed by officials, 
attempted to wreak vengancc on the community 
by setting out approximately 40 fires. They arc 
alleged to have been witnessed in the act by 
citizens who reported them to E. A. Spainhour, 
County Forest Warden, who swore out warrants 
for their arrest. 




I I c ' . . .. <■< < 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft/ 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w f 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departing 
regular tabulations of indus! 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav, 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this if 
ment and other booster ori| 



able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 




Deer are multiplying rapidly on the Mt. 
Mitchell (Jame Refuge. These young deer 
were "shot" by the cameraman while feed- 
ing near the sign on the reservation. 



FRATERNAL BODIES 

PRACTICE 



FORESTRY 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North ! 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of' 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the 1 
of localities and that the bii| 
have taken up with a flock ! 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Forestry is recognized for its important bear- 
ing on the lives of all the people by many organi- 
zations over the country, among these being fra- 
ternal orders. 

The Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons of Pennsylvania is one of the organizations 
that has turned the weight of its influence and 
benefits of its activities toward planting and for- 
estry practice. 

In one of its reports, the lodge gives a review 
of its activities in the field of forestry. A pro- 
gram that has extended from 1010 to the present 
is recounted. This work has not been confined 
alone to any of the phases of planting such as 
shade of forest trees. 

One year's activity by one of the subordinate 
lodges shows 26,000 .Norway spruce and white 
pine seedings planted. It also shows annual and 
regularly planned settings of trees on the part 
of the Grand Lodge and individual lodges. 

A feature of the tree planting is the setting of 
a Memorial Grove, each tree named for a mem- 



GAGING OPERATIONS 
OF NORTH CAROLINA 
STREAMS INCREASE 



As needs continue to develop for data given by 
stream gaging operations, their installation by the 
Division of Water Resources and Engineering is 
continuing as rapidly as funds permit. 

The most recent report by Thorndike Savillc, 
Chief Hydraulic Engineer, shows 51 of these 
stations in operation, of which 28 are equipped 
with recorders, representing the best type of in- 
stallation. 

"By the end of the current year," Mr. Saville 
reports, "that he expects a total of at least 61 
stations to be in operation." "This number," he 
continues, "will represent the largest ever operated 
in North Carolina and the largest number in any 
except two of the Southern States. 

"It is of interest to note," says Mr. Saville, 
"that in starting on an extensive new stream gag- 
ing program recently the Virginia Department 
of Conservation and Development has pointed 
to North Carolina as an example of effective work 
in this line. 

"During the next fiscal year, we expect at 
least ten requests for gaging stations which can- 
not be met, due to lack of funds. It should be 
realized that studies of municipalities, power com- 
panies and State Departments relating to water 
supply, water power, sewage disposal, stream pol- 
lution and industrial water cannot be carried out 
unless requests for new stations can be met. 

"An item of J?l°,900 as compared to $10,510 
this year in the budget for the next biennium 
has been included to care for the operation of 
a total of 7? stations, the operation of all new 
stations to be on a fifty-fifty basis, whereby the 
co-operating party pays entire construction ex- 
pense." 

Mr. Saville calls attention to the fact that a 
total of five new stations were added last fiscal 
year in spite of inadequate funds. "Need for 
these," he said, "was so urgent that co-operating 
parties furnished the entire cost of installation." 

ber of the order killed during the World War. 

Recognition of the field of forestry as a vehicle 
of service by a large organization such as the 
Masons denotes the growing public consciousness 
of the significance of forests in the life of the 
nation. Participation of such an organization in 
forestry practice brings its importance in an im- 
pressive manner before a large number of people. 



,..__ 

of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



EASTERN CAROLINA 
IS DESIGNATED FOR 
STATE GAME FARM 



Establishment of a Slate (lame Farm in East 
em North Carolina was authorized by the Hoard 
of Conservation and Development at the meet- 
ing held at Morehead City, and an appropriation 
of $25,000 was voted for this purpose. 

Selection of a site for the proposed game farm 
was left in the hands of the name committee 
Hoard, Fred I. Sutton, Kinston, chairman, and 
Wade H. Phillips, Director of the Department. 

The proposition of a second same farm for 
the State of North Carolina was submitted by 
F. S. Worthy, Washington member of the Board. 
Mr. Worthy believes that assurance of an inex- 
haustible supply of name (taking into considera- 
tion its tendency to decrease because of the grow- 
ing number of hunters and the easy accessibility 
of the most favored grounds) calls for redoubling 
of efforts in breeding and distribution of various 
species of birds and animals. 

With detailed plans not yet worked out for the 
new game farm, it is expected that it will be 
modelled somewhat after the one now in opera- 
tion at Asheboro which was established within 
the first year after the passage of the State- Wide 
law. It is contemplated that the new institution 
will specialize on the breeding and distribution 
of birds most suited to the climate and geographic 
location in which it will be established and for 
the entire Eastern section of the State. 

Another feature which may be adopted for the 
Eastern Game F'arm is laboratory and experimen- 
tal work in breeding and in the life habits and 
welfare of animal and bird life. 



VISUAL EDUCATION IS 

SCHEDULED FOR YEAR 



Resumption of the program of visual educa- 
tion in forestry and game, started last spring, is 
planned by the Forestry Division of this Depart- 
ment this fall and winter. 

The programs, which are carried on through 
the medium of motion pictures, will be centered 
this fall in Western North Carolina since the 
first showings were made in the Eastern part of 
the State. 

W. L, Nothstein, special agent of the Depart- 
ment, who is at present engaged in the survey 







This baby bear got Inquisitive when war- 
dens were hauling supplies in the Mt. 
Mitchell State Game Refuge and was 
struck by the truck. He was taken prisoner 
until he can recuperate form his wounds, 

of forest resources in the mountain section, will 
conduct the presentations. It is the plan of the 
Forestry and Game Division to show the pictures 
first in all of the counties that have organizations 
for forest first control and later to extend to all 
in that section of the State. 

Last winter and spring, forestry educational 
motion pictures were shown in 10 Eastern Caro- 
lina counties, all of which were co-operating with 
the Department in fire control. A total of 31,- 
000 were present for the programs which were 
presented in 138 schools, 112 of which were white 
and 26 negro. 

The most impressive lessons carried in the 
reels are those showing the urgency of preven- 
tion of fires in woodlands. They also teach other 
principles of conservation such as the relation 
of fish and game life to forests. 



United States Department of Agriculture sta- 
tistical bulletin No 21 credits New York with 
having 2,125,453 acres in State Parks and For- 
ests. Four other states have more than one 
million acres each, according to the publication. 



r 



y 



r • • * '.'.." :, . ■ 

. • • • • • • . . ■ ■ , 

:• : : ..: ••• •' : •' ' '■ ! \ 

, , . . . .•■("' ' 

. , ' . ■ •«•<■ * 

• < 

A , . . . t ' ■ 

DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft 1 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w I 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmtl 
regular tabulations of indu:' 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this it 
ment and other booster orj| 
able to keep a closer touch f 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED 



MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



10 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



27 EMBRYO FORESTS ALEXANDER WARDEN 

PLANTED BY SCHOOLS IS CALLED BY DEATH 



The movement for the planting of small school 
forests on grounds or near public high schools of 
North Carolina started last spring under the 
direction of F. H. Claridge, Assistant Forester of 
the Division of Forestry, gained considerable 
headway before the end of the planting season. 

Small forests or sample plantings were made, 
according to Assistant Forester Claridge, by 27 
schools. This work is looked upon by officials 
of the Department as being one of the most val- 
uable movements in the State to carry its educa- 
tional campaign to the future guiders of her 
destiny, and one that has done much to stimulate 
interest and fire the enthusiasm of the children 
who have come in contact with these activities. 

Schools at the following places carried out 
planting programs that ranged from a few pine 
seedlings to 500: Yucama, Middletown, Clinton, 
Gibsonville, Warsaw, Kenly, Barnesville, Thomas- 
ville Baptist Orphanage, Black Creek, Princeton, 
Ellerbe, Mt. Olive, Statesville, Columbia, Far- 
mer, Autryville, Tarboro, Sunbury, Cornelia, 
Maxton, Carthage, Buncombe Farm School, Har- 
risburg, Swanquarter, Greensboro, and Gibson. 



ASSISTANT WARDENS 
ARE NAMED 



IN STATE 



Mexican quail of the first | 
buted this spring in North ! 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the ij 
of localities and that the bi;| 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



With the beginning of the forthcoming open 
seasons for game, changes in administration per- 
sonnel contemplated by officials of the Depart- 
ment go into effect. 

The main feature of this re-adjustment is a 
reduction in the number of deputy game com- 
missioners and a change in their titles to Assist- 
ant State Game Wardens. Where there were 
12 of these officials last year, there will be only 
seven for the coming season. 

The Assistant State Game Wardens, as an- 
nounced by Director Wade H. Phillips and State 
Game Warden Chas. H. England are: Charles J. 
Moore, Washington; George A. Nicoll, New 
Bern; W. C. Lisk, Richfield; John C. Thomas, 
Winston-Salem; F. A. Ruffin, Kelford; C. N. 
Mease, Black Mountain; and J. P. Stepp, Lenoir. 
These officials will operate directly under the 
supervision of State Game Warden Charles H. 
England. 



A pall of gloom has been thrown over the 
ranks of game wardens with the announcement 
of the death of one of their brothers in service, 
W. R. Wilson, Taylorsville, Alexander county 
warden. 

Mr. Wilson had served as warden since the 
beginning of operation of the game law and had 
attracted the attention of the officials of the De- 
partment by his faithfullness to his duties. 

He was declared by W. C. Lisk, Assistant State 
Game Warden, as being one of the most efficient 
wardens in the organization and one who had 
carried out well the duties of his office. On be- 
half of the Department and warden personnel, 
Director Wade H. Phillips despatched a message 
of condolence to the familv. 



FISHING ON REFUGES 

SUGGESTED TO BOARD 



Under a suggestion submitted by Deputy State 
Conservation Warden C. N. Mease, plans for 
opening up certain streams in State Game Refuges 
that are well stocked with fish to anglers during 
open seasons will be considered for next year. 

It is proposed that a system similar to that in 
vogue in National Forest lands in Western North 
Carolina be adopted by the State in its refuge 
areas where the streams show a good stock of 
fish. This system is to charge a small fee to the 
fishermen for the privilege of angling on any 
one day. The funds derived from this source 
would be used for fish propagation purposes for 
furnishing additional sport. The attractive fea- 
ture of such a system is that good fishing should 
be self-sustaining and the angler would pay 
only a small amount for his sport. 

A committee consisting of J. Q. Gilkey, Marion, 
and Jas. G. K. McClure, Asheville, members of 
the Conservation Board ; and Director Wade H. 
Phillips and Assistant Director J. K. Dixon was 
appointed to work out a satisfactory arrangement 
for the coming year. 



Dr. Harry C. Oberholser, head biologist of the 
United States Biological Survey, estimates that 
the waterfowl population of the United States, 
southern Canada, Alaska, and Mexico includes 
100,000,000 ducks and geese. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



11 



REVIEW OF COPPER 
MINING ACTIVITIES 
GIVEN BY GEOLOGIST 

In the following article, one of a series in 
which he treats various minerals individually, 
State Geologist H. J. Bryson gives a review of 
copper mining activities in North Carolina. He 
also discusses to some extent its occurrence and 
the status of this phase of the mineral industry. 
His treatment of the subject follows: 

The date of the discovery of copper in North 
Carolina is not known but it is probable that it 
was recognized very soon after the first gold mine 
was opened in 17°Q. Emmons states in his re- 
ports of 1852 that "It has been known for a 
very long time, that the auriferous pyrites con- 
sist in part of the sulphuret of iron, and, in part, 
of the sulphuret of copper. In extracting the 
gold from the sulphurets, the latter has been neg- 
lected and allowed to flow away in the washings. 
Lately, however, attempts have been made, not 
only to save the copper of the auriferous pyrites, 
but to work the veins exclusively for copper. 
Stith's mine (probably the North Carolina of 
Fentress Mine) had been worked for its gold 
for many years. It was profitable; but its owner, 
Mr. Fentress, had given up the business of work- 
ing it for gold, and it was lying useless to him- 
self, when Mr. Stith proposed working the sul- 
phuret for copper." It is probable then that 
copper was known many years before it was ever 
attempted to be worked on a commercial scale. 
And, too, copper was first produced about the 
middle of the last century. 

Evidently the Stith (Fentress) mine proved 
to be successful as Emmons later stated that "the 
mine is valuable" and that its success produced a 
"change in the working of the auriferous pyrites." 
The success of this mine caused several other 
mines to be worked exclusively for copper. 

Copper ores are known to occur at a great 
number of places in the State. The chief areas 
as outlined by Emmons are known as follows: 

1, The Syenitic Belt. This belt includes parts 
of Guilford, Cabarrus, and Mecklenburg counties. 

2. The Central Huronian Belt. This belt is 
restricted principally to Rowan, Davidson, and 



Randolph Counties. However, Chatham and 
Alamance are included. 

.5. Granville and Person Counties. This area 
is now known as the Virgilina or Blue Wing Dis- 
trict. 

4. The Western or Mountain Belt. This belt 
includes all the mines west of the Piedmont sec- 
tion of the State. 

Syenitic Belt 

In the Syenitic Belt most of the mines in the 
early days were worked for the gold but due to 
the fact that copper was the predominant mineral 
they later became copper mines. In the southern 
part of Guilford county a few very productive 
mines have been operated. Among the most im- 
portant mines are the Hodges, North Carolina, 
Gardner Hill, and the North State. All of these 
mines are in the syenite, near its eastern con- 
tact with the schists, and, therefore, favorable to 
a large content of mineral matter. Near the sur- 
face large bodies of ore were extracted but the 
result of the deeper workings were not so favor- 
able. No good records and maps were kept relat- 
ing to this district and as a result little is known 
of these mines. 

The ore occurring in the mines of this area is 
chiefly chal-copyrite but malachite and the red 
oxide of copper are found. The chief gangue min- 
eral is quartz with varying amounts of man- 
ganese, siderite, pyrite and limonite. The veins 
vary in width from a few inches up to 24J/2 feet 
with an average of about 4 or S feet. The strike 
of the veins is from N. 25° to 40° E; the dip 
varies from 38° to 60,° but neither the strike 
nor the dip is very constant. Emmons states 
that the "lode is bounded by slates or 'killas;' the 
syenite or granite on the foot wall is tough but 
on the hanging wall is soft." 

In Cabarrus and Mecklenburg counties the cop- 
per mines of the Syenitic Belt were not so pro- 
ductive as those of Guilford County. The princi- 
pal mines in these counties were worked chiefly 
for gold but considerable copper was produced 
from the Cathey, McGinn and the Kerns mines. 
The ore of this area is also chalcopyrite which 
occurs in a quartz gangue. None of the mines 
have been worked to any great depth. Hanna 
says that "it is one of the empirical maxims of 
the miners in the section, that when the blue 
rock or blue granite comes in, the end .of tin- 
mine has come." . . . "It is true that for a time 
the deposit was affected, narrowed and bent out 
of its normal course." With depth many of the 
veins squeeze out in the bottom. 



, . , . . . 

. '. • .:■..:: 

;■■..•:'..:: 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ) 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w I 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departiru) 
regular tabulations of indu; 1 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp' 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this it 
ment and other booster or^ 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAls 
QUAIL At 




The ruggedness of the Sauratown State Game Refuge in Stokes County shows the 
ideal conditions for the increase of wild life. This refuge, within easy access of large 
centers of population in North Carolina, is expected to add greatly to the attractiveness 
of that section. 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North j 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 
W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 

he has checked up on the i 

of localities and that the biij 

have taken up with a flock 

calls frequently bring a respo 
F. S. Worthy, Washingto 

Board of Conservation and I 

that quail distributed in B 

thriving. ^ 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 

quail are flourishing in their county and that 

some of the birds have begun to lay. They 

believe that the distribution has already proved 

highly successful and that hunters of their section 

will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 

provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he 
superior as an all-round game bird. 



has any 
Possessed 

of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 









CONSERVATION 
AND INDUSTRY 

A Bi -Weekly Publication of the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 



VOL.V 



Raleigh, N. C, September 15, 1928 



No. 18 




POOL WOODS 






• , . ■ ' 



. , r . • 
.... 



.... 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w I 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmt 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State, 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature J 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster ori| 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



I 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the I 
of localities and that the bill 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Minerals Found in North Carolina 

List Prepared by State Geologist H. J. Bryson 



1. 


Actinolite 


74. 


Culsagceitet 


147. 


Labradorite 


220. 


Rogersitcf 


2 


Agalmatolite 


75. 


Cummingtonitc 


MS. 


Lazulite 


221. 


Ruby 


3. 


Agate 


76. 


Cuprite 


149. 


Lead 


222. 


Ruby Spinel 


4. 


Albite 


77. 


Cuproscheelite 


150. 


Leucopyrite 


223. 


Rutherforditct 


5. 


Allanite 


78. 


Cuprotungstite 


151. 


Licbigite 


224. 


Rutile 


6. 


Almandite 


79. 


Cyanite 


152. 


Limonite 


225. 


Sagenite 


7. 


Altai te 


80. 


Cyrtolite 


153. 


Lucasitet 


226. 


Samarshitc 


8. 


Alunogen 


81. 


Damourite 


154. 


Maconitet 


227. 


Sappar 


9. 


Amber 


82. 


Deweylite 


155. 


Magnesite 


228. 


Sapphire 


10. 


Amethyst 


83. 


Diamond 


156. 


Magnetite 


229. 


Scheelite 


11. 


Amianthus 


84. 


Diallage 


157. 


Malachite 


230. 


Schreibersite 


12. 


Amphibolc* 


83. 


Diaspore 


158. 


Marcasite 


231. 


Scoroditc 


13. 


Anatase 


86. 


Diopside 


159. 


Margarite 


232. 


Sepiolite 


14. 


Andesine 


87. 


Disthene 


160. 


Marmolite 


233. 


Serpentine 


15. 


Andradite 


88. 


Dolomite 


161. 


Martite 


234. 


Siderite 


16. 


Angesite 


89. 


Dudleyite 


162. 


Meerchaum 


235. 


Silver 


IT. 


Annerodite 


90. 


Dufrenite 


163. 


Mcionite 


236. 


Sillimanite 


18. 


Anorthite 


91. 


Eclogite 


164. 


Melaconite 


237. 


Smaragdite 


19. 


Anthophyllite 


92. 


Edenite 


165. 


Melanterite 


238. 


Soapstone 


JO. 


Apatite 


93. 


Edwardsite 


166. 


Menacconite 


239. 


Sperryhte 


21. 


Aquamarine 


94. 


Emerald 


167. 


Mengite 


240. 


Spessartite 


22. 


Aragonite 


95. 


Emery 


168. 


Mica* 


241. 


Sphalerite 


23] 


Arfvedsonite 


96. 


Enstatite 


169. 


Microcline 


242. 


Sphenc 


24. 


Argentite 


97. 


Epidote 


170. 


Microlite 


243. 


Spinel* 


25. 


Arsenopyrite 


98. 


Eremite 


171. 


Mitchellitef 


244. 


Spodumene 


26. 


Asbolite 


99. 


Essonite 


172. 


Molybdenite 


245. 


Staurolite 


27. 


Auerlitet 


100. 


Euclase 


173. 


Molyfdite 


246. 


Steatite 


28. 


Augite 


101. 


Euxenite 


174. 


Monazite 


247. 


Stibnite 


29. 


Autunite 


102. 


Feldspar* 


175. 


Monazitoid 


248. 


Stilbite 


30. 


Azurite 


103. 


Fergusonite 


176. 


Montanite 


249. 


Stolzite 


31. 


Barnharditct 


104. 


Fibrolite 


177. 


Montmorrillonite 


250. 


Succinite 


32. 


Barite 


105. 


Fluorite 


178. 


Muscovite 


251. 


Sulphur 


33. 


Basanite 


106. 


Fuchsite 


179. 


Nagyagite 


252. 


Talc 


34. 


Beryl 


107. 


Gadolinite 


180. 


Niter 


253. 


Tantalite 


35. 


Biotite 


108. 


Gahnite 


181. 


Octahedrite 


254. 


Tenorite 


36. 


Bismite 


109. 


Galena 


182. 


Oligoclase 


255. 


Tetradymite 


37. 


Bismuthinite 


110. 


Garnet* 


183. 


Olivenite 


256. 


Tetrahecrite 


38. 


Bismutite 


111. 


Garnieritc 


184. 


Orthoclasc 


257. 


Titanite 


39. 


Bornite 


112. 


Genthite 


185. 


Opal 


258. 


Tin 


in. 


Boulangerite 


113. 


Glauconite 


186. 


Paranthite 


259. 


Thorite 


41. 


Braunite 


114. 


Gold 


187. 


Paragon ite 


260. 


Thulite 


42. 


Breunerite 


115. 


Goslarite 


188. 


Pargasite 


261. 


Topaz 


43. 


Bronzite 


116. 


Gothite 


189. 


Pearl 


262. 


Torbernite 


44. 


Byssolite 


117. 


Graphite 


190. 


Peninnite 


263. 


Tourmaline 


45. 


Calamine 


118. 


Grossularite 


191. 


Perovskite 


264. 


Tremolitc 


46. 


Calcite 


119. 


Gumnite 


192. 


Pharmacosiderite 


265. 


Trolite 


17. 


Carnelian 


120. 


Gypsum 


193. 


Phlogopite 


266. 


Turnerite 


48. 


Cassiterite 


121. 


Halite 


194. 


Phosphocerite 


267. 


Unakite 


49. 


Cerargyritc 


122. 


Halloysite 


• 195. 


Phosphoranylitet 


268. 


Uranite 


50. 


Cerolite 


123. 


Halotrichite 


196. 


Picotite 


269. 


Uraninite 


51. 


Cerussite 


124. 


Hatchettolitet 


197. 


Picrolitc 


270. 


Uranophane 


52. 


Chabazite 


125. 


Hausmannite 


198. 


Pierotitanite 


271. 


Uranotil 


53. 


Chalcanthite 


126. 


Hematite 


199. 


Pitchblende 


272. 


Uranothallite 


54. 


Chalcedony 


127. 


Hercynite 


200. 


Platium 


273. 


Urdite 


55. 


Chalcocite 


128. 


Hiddenitef 


201. 


Pleonaste 


274. 


Uvarovite 


56. 


Chalcopyrite 


129. 


Hisingerite 


202. 


Polycrase 


275. 


Vanadinite 


57. 


Chalcotrichite 


130. 


Hornblende 


203. 


Prochlorite 


276. 


Vermiculite* 


58! 


Chlorite 


131. 


Hiielmite 


204. 


Proustite 


277. 


Villarsite 


59. 


Chloritoid 


132. 


Hyalite 


205. 


Psilomelane 


278. 


Vivianite 


60. 


Chromite 


133. 


Hydrofergusonite 


206. 


Pycnite 


279. 


Voglite 


61. 


Chrysocolla 


134. 


Hypersthene 


207. 


Pyrite 


280. 


Wavellite 


62. 


Chrysolite 


135. 


Ilmenite 


208. 


Pyrochlore 


281. 


Wellsitc 


63. 


Chrysotile 


136. 


Indianite 


209. 


Pyrolusite 


282. 


Willcoxitc 


64. 


Chrysoprase 


137. 


Iolite 


210. 


Pyromorphite 


283. 


Williamsite 


65. 


Clinochlore 


138. 


Iron 


211. 


Pyrope 


284. 


Wolframite 


66. 


Columbite 


139. 


Itacolumyte 


212. 


Pyrophyllite 


285. 


Xanthitane 


67. 


Copper 


140. 


Jasper 


213. 


Pyrrhotite 


286. 


Xenotime 


68. 


Cordierite 


141. 


Jefferisite 


214. 


Pyroxene 


287. 


Zinc 


69. 


Corundopyllitet 


142. 


Kammererite 


215. 


Quartz 


288. 


Zircon 


70. 


Corundum 


143. 


Kaolinitc 


216. 


Rhodochrosite 


289. 


Zoisite 


71. 


Covellite 


144. 


Kararfverte 


217. 


Rhodolitet 






72. 


Crocidolite 


145. 


Kerritet 


218. 


Rhoetizite 






73. 


Crocoite 


146. 


Kreiltonite 


219. 


Ripidolitc 







Group names. 

First identified in North Carolina. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Raleigh, N. C, September 15, 1928 



FORESTRY BOOSTERS 
WANT TO PRESERVE 
VIRGIN WOOD TRACT 



STATE-WIDE WARDEN 
MEETING LAUNCHES 
IMPROVED SERVICE 



Silent patriarchs of the forests from other cen- 
turies, lonely representatives of their race in the 
section, give the distinguishing characteristics to 
Pool Woods, about four miles from Raleigh, 
which is sought by the North Carolina Forestry 
Association as State Park or demonstration area 
for college students. 

Unique among the forests of the section, in- 
asmuch as it contains virgin growth, the tract 
is within easy distance of Raleigh, about two 
miles beyond the baseball park on the old Rock 
Quarry Road, and a branch road which cuts 
through one portion. 

Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, chairman of the ex- 
ecutive committee of the forestry association, in 
describing the area, says: "The forest is made up 
of hardwoods and pine, and in that portion which 
was originally cut over nothing has been cut for 
more than thirty years. This is a forested area 
that should be acquired as a State Forest or Park, 
or as a municipal forest or park, in order to pre- 
serve for posterity a representative forest area 
of the Piedmont region. It is admirably suited 
for use as a State Forest by the State Forest 
Service, or by State College in connection with 
its forestry courses. 

"It is hoped that the preservation of this for- 
est may appeal to some public spirited citizen 
of the State, who will arrange for its purchase 
and dedicate it to the interest of forestry in 
North Carolina. It has been suggested that it 
be made a memorial forest to the martyrs of 
the World War. 

"The North Carolina Forestry Association has 
appointed a committee with Dr. Clarence Poe, 
editor of the Progressive Farmer, as chairman, to 
consider ways and means of acquiring this area ; 
and an option has been obtained. The commit- 
tee is now trying to interest some person or per- 
sons of the State to purchase Pool Woods for a 
State Forest or Park." 

The cover page of this publication presents a 
view of some of the majestic monarchs of the 
forests which would be preserved for the benefit 
of all of the people of the State if the purpose 



All Assistant State Game Wardens, County 
Wardens, and other game officials met in a con- 
ference in Raleigh on September 4-5, called by 
Director Wade H. Phillips and State Game War- 
den Chas. H. Fnglanri for instruction on the 
game law and its administration in the interest 
of increasing the efficiency of the field and head- 
quarters forces. 

Responding almost unanimously, 98 of the 100 
county wardens and all of the assistant state 
game wardens were present. The meetings were 
conducted as schools of instruction and mutual 
benefit to those taking a part in the administra- 
tion of the law. The sessions were presided over 
by Director Phillips, with Warden England lead- 
ing a round-table discussion of game problems 
at the end of the conference. 

Representatives of gevernmental agencies inter- 
ested in game, organizations of sportsmen, and 
authorities on scientific angles of game conserva- 
tion made talks. 

After an explanation of the purposes of the 
meetings by Director Phillips, M. D. Hart, cxe- 
(Conlinued on Page 5) 

of the forestry association is carried out. Efforts 
of the organization are being extended through 
public spirit and with a desire of service. Success 
of the undertaking has the well wishes of all 
friends of the forests. 

Acquisition of the wooded strip as a State 
Park would add one of the most highly desirable 
units to a system which is being contemplated 
by this Department to include places of outstand- 
ing scenic, historic, and useful features in the 
commonwealth. 

Although deep sentiment has grown up around 
Pool Woods, there arc other important features 
that would be preserved under permanent 
State administration. William R. Pool, whose 
name the tract bears and who died in 18SO at 
an age beyond the °2nd milepost, loved the great 
trees to such an extent that he protected them 
during his lifetime and sought in his will to have 
them remain unmolested after his death. 




'I 



, ■ . • • ,...'••■ 
. .:,'•■..':■.:: 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft! 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w I 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmtj 
regular tabulations of indus 1 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster ori 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Wade H. Phillips Director 

Paul Kelly _i — Editor 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



TOLL OF FOREST FIRES 

IS UNUSUALLY SMALL 



Mexican quail of the first j 
buted this spring in North f 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an I 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bi 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



The forest fire situation in North Carolina 
during the months of July and August was as 
nearly ideal as even the most enthusiastic forester 
could expect. 

For the former month, a total of only 2,941 
acres was burned and damages were estimated at 
$7,009 in the co-operating counties of the State. 
Only 39 fires were reported during the month, a 
decrease of more than two-thirds from the cor- 
responding 30-day period of the previous year. 

What is believed to be a long-time low record 
was recorded in August, when only three forest 
fires were reported during the entire month. 
The combined amount of territory covered by 
the flames was only 71 acres and the total 
damages went to only $60. 

Besides laboring to keep down the fires, the 
forest warden forces were active during these 
periods in perfecting their organizations and in 
making ready for times of greater hazards from 
the great enemy of forests. 



WATER POWER REPORT 

GIVEN TO ENGINEERS 



This Department's Division of Water Resources 
and Engineering has recently furnished to the 
office of Major Lewis H. Watkins, U. S. Army 
Engineering Corps, Chattanooga, Tenn., exten- 
sive information which was used in a report on 
water power and navigation possibilities of the 
Tennessee River and its tributaries. 

In connection with this elaborate report which 
is to be submitted to the next session of Con- 
gress, Major Watkins desired a detailed and exact 
statement relative to the power situation in all 
States adjoining Tennessee. He sent inquiries 
relative to the location of power plants and trans- 



mission lines to all state agencies, all U. S. Geolo- 
gical Survey District offices, all district offices of 
the United States Engineers Corps and other 
public engineering agencies in the several states 
concerned. 

Inquiries of the U. S. Geological Survey office 
at Asheville arid the District Engineer of the 
U. S. War Department at Wilmington were also 
referred to the Department's Division at Chapel 
Hill. 

In acknowledging the receipt of the informa- 
tion, Major Watkins wrote Thorndike Saville, 
Chief Engineer of this Department: "I thank 
you very much for your letter of August 31, 
inclosing electric power data for the Carolinas. 
This is more complete data than we have been 
able to obtain from any other source." 



SEES OPPORTUNITY NEGLECTED 



Editor Conservation and Industry, 
Dear Sir: 

The writer for a number of years lived in the 
far west and was engaged in a small way in the 
range stock business. He is now located in North 
Carolina and is in no wise interested personally 
in the following suggestion. 

It occurs to him from several vacations spent 
on the North Carolina coast that our farmers 
who live there are missing a good bet by not 
fencing under lease or purchase large areas of 
the grass lands of eastern North Carolina and 
pasturing cattle on them. When he sees the 
lush grass on thousands of acres of swamp lands 
in eastern North Carolina going to waste and 
recalls the fortunes that have been made in 
Arizona and other dry States in the cattle busi- 
ness, he wonders why nothing is done about it. 

Suppose some of the cows bog down in the 
swamps, what of it? Do not Western cattlemen 
ride the streams in spring and during dry seasons 
dragging unfortunate animals out of the mud? 
What if there be a few ticks not yet killed off 
by our eradication forces? Our guess is that SO 
cents worth of dip would keep an animal free of 
ticks for an entire season — Western cattlemen 
lose more per head in annual mortality from 
starvation. 

Millions of dollars' worth of grass in the most 
progressive State in the Union going to waste ! 
Why, please? 

W. E. Woodruff, 
Floral Greens, 
Lowgap, N. C. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 




serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



STATE-WIDE WARDEN 

MEETING LAUNCHES 

IMPROVED SERVICE 



(Continued from Page 3) 
cutive officer of the Board of Game and Inland 
Fisheries of Virginia, made the opening address 
on Tuesday morning. He was followed by these 
speakers: Fred I. Sutton, Kinston, Chairman of 
the Game Committee of the North Carolina 
Board of Conservation and Development ; James 
F. Hoge, Greensboro, Secretary of the North Car- 
olina Game and Fish League; W. L. Birsch, 
Deputy United States Game Warden, New Bern ; 
E. H. Powell, Conservation Club, Rocky Mount; 
H. R. Marshall, Izaak Walton Leaugue, Wilson. 

The afternoon session was opened by short 
introductory remarks by State Warden England, 
marking the official beginning of his duties. 
Other addresses in the afternoon included the fol- 
lowing: "The Relations of Forestry and Game," 
State Forester J. S. Holmes; "Co-operation in 
Game and Fish Work," J. K. Dixon, Assistant 
Director; and "Co-operation of Forest and Game 
Wardens," Assistant Forester Chas. H. 

Beginning with an address on and a demon- 
stration of predatory birds by H. H. Brimley, 
Curator of the State Museum, most of the morn- 



ing session of the second day was given over to 
discussions of Game Bulletin No. 1, led by Di- 
rector Phillips. 

Some of the topics discussed were: Education, 
law enforcement, violations, arrests, inspection of 
licenses, co-operation with other law enforcement 
agencies, vermin, use of fire-arms, bounties, for- 
est fires, reports and correspondency, rewards, 
permits to kill while committing depredations, 
foxes, jurisdiction of county wardens, punishment 
of violations, and protection of non-game birds 
and animals. 

All of the assistant state game wardens as well 
as many county wardens entered freely into dis- 
cussions of game and law enforcement problems. 
The following assistant game wardens were pres- 
ent: Chas. J. Moore, Washington; Geo. A. Ni- 
coll, New Bern; W. C. Lisk, Richfield; John C. 
Thomas, Winston-Salem; F. A. Ruffin, Kelford; 
C. N. Mease, Black Mountain; and J. P. Stepp, 
Lenoir. 

District foresters and their cheif wardens were 
also present at the conferences. These included: 
W. K. Beichler, Asheville; A. D. Folweiler, Le- 
noir; W. A. Peterson, Fayetteville ; C. N. Hearn, 
Fayetteville; E. M. Eutsler, New Bern; F. L. 
Hooker, New Bern; L. A. Carter, Windsor; and 
J. R. Miller, Windsor. 




This truck will tour all of North Carolina in interest of educational work in for- 
estry and game. It is equipped with a complete motion picture outfit. W. L. Xothsteiu, 
operator, is shown standing' at its side. 



. . ,.. f 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w I 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmi 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
facial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 



tinued development. 

Several of these surveys ha\ 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster or; 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 






IMPORTED MEXICAiN 
QUAIL A 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



VIRGINIAN REVIEWS 
IMPORTANT TOPICS 
ON GAME PROGRAMS 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround) 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the 1; 
of localities and that the bi:! 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



One of the most instructive addresses given 
during the two-conference of game wardens in 
Raleigh early in September came from M. D. 
Hart, executive officer of the Virginia Board of 
Game and Inland Fisheries. 

Mr. Hart is one of the veteran conservationists 
of the South and the remarkable success attained 
under the Virginia law is due, in a great part, 
to his efforts. Excerps from his address follow: 

"Up to half a century ago, no constructive 
methods of wild life conservation had been un- 
dertaken in any of the United States. To be 
sure in nearly all of the older states, game laws 
of local application were to be found. As the 
population increased, the hunters increased and 
the game became scarcer and scarcer. The New 
England states were the first to pass stringent 
laws prohibiting the sale of game. 

"When the northern hunters were driven out 
of the hunting fields of the northern states they 
came south ; though our northern neighbors pro- 
hibited their game from being marketed they 
were not averse to having it come from else- 
where. The restaurants and hotels continued to 
be supplied by the game dealers who obtained 
their supply from the market hunters in the 
south and west. You cannot find on the statute 
books of any state a law for the conservation of 
game which was put there through the efforts 
of any market or pot hunters. 

"The Southern States did not realize what was 
happening until the early nineties. Hornaday, 
Grinnel and Geo. O. Shields, through his little 
monthly called "The Recreation" were sounding 
the warning of our vanishing wild life with all 
the force they could. In 1907, two "John the 
Baptists in the Wilderness," as I term them, ap- 
peared upon the scene of the southern game con- 
servation, Col. J. H. Wallace, of Montgomery, 
Ala., and Dr. T. Gilbert Pearson, of Greensboro, 
N. C. Pearson did the best he could here in 
North Carolina — his ability was recognized by 
William Dutcher, president of the National Au- 
dubon Societies, who induced him to go to New 
York where he continued to grow in grace and 
usefulness until now he stands out as one of the 
best minds in the work, nationally and interna- 
tionally." 

Mr. Hart traced the growth of game legisla- 
tion in the south, saying that Alabama was the 



first to obtain such in 1907 and that Virginia, 
he thought, in 1916, was the second. He then 
reviewed some of the early history of administra- 
tion of the law through 1926, when a bill pro- 
viding for a five-man commission was passed, and 
when the Virginia program of wild life conserva- 
tion was placed on "a plane where merit and 
efficiency assures permanency of positions to the 
men engaged in the work." 

"We now have 119 game wardens," he con- 
tinued, "including eight supervising game war- 
dens. For the year ending June 30, 1928, these 
men travelled 1,169,906 miles, made 5,991 con- 
victions with fines and costs of $55,041, killed 
11,258 dogs, attended numerous meetings of 
county boards of supervisors, sportsmen, and 
farmers. We have men on the force who were 
appointed by our first commissioner who today 
rank as our very best men. 

"After 12 years of actual experience in game 
warden work as an executive officer, I venture to 
say that a game warden to be successful has to 
possess commonsense, tact, judgment, and 'guts.' 
He must know the law, the reasons of the law, 
the justness of the law and be able to explain 
how its observance will ultimately redound to 
the benefit of all. He must realize that the let- 
ter of the law ofttimes killeth while the spirit of 
the law always quickeneth. The laws he is en- 
forcing are merely restrictive ones with little 
moral turpitude involved in the violation thereof. 
He does not have to deal with a malicious crim- 
inal class. 

"We have found that our best wardens were 
hunters themselves. These men turn in year in 
and year out more convictions than any men we 
have, on the theory that 'it takes a thief to catch 
a theif — they seem to sense just where to be to 
have some illegal hunter walk right into their 
clutches. These men take pride in their work, 
they have initiative and exercise it and when 
salaries are raised they are the men who get it. 

"I am not unmindful of the struggle the for- 
ward-looking wild life conservationists of North 
Carolina have been through and how recently 
you finally induced your General Assembly to 
create a State Conservation Department. No 
friend of conservation felt a greater thrill than 
I when the news flashed over the wires that you 
had done so. 

"Let me implore you to give your whole- 
hearted support to the splendid men you have at 
the heads of its various bureaus. From what I 
can learn you could not have selected better men. 
Even in a very short time they have accom- 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



plished much, as much as it has been humanl> 
possible, (live them your loyal support and in 
ten years from now North Carolina will be hunt 
ers' paradise. 

"While here I want to net the name and ad- 
dress of every North Carolina name warden in 
the counties bordering on Virginia and send them 
a copy of our Virginia name law pamphlet I 
will also send them the name and address of the 
Virginia name wardens nearest to them and in- 
struct our men to meet the North Carolina war- 
den at some convenient point in order that they 
can formulate plans to apprehend the citizens of 
either State who jump across the line to hunt or 
fish without first complying with the state laws. 
I have reason to believe that a great deal of 
North Carolina game is being bootlegged and dis- 
posed of in Virginia. If we can be advised of 
any such shipment we wish to assure yo uwe will 
have a Virginia warden reads' to confiscate it as 
soon as it reaches Virginia." 

Here Mr. Hart reviewed the history of the 
operation of the Virginia State Game Farm under 
the direction of W. B. Coleman, who has the dis- 
tinction of being the first game breeder in the 
world to establish the fact that quail can be 
raised in large numbers in captivity. 

"I want to take exception to some of the 
theories I see advanced to the effect that we can- 
not improve upon nature and that quail can be 
increased naturally by maintaining refuges, much 
more so than we can ever expect to increase by 
artificial methods. The American poultry busi- 
ness has increased to an enormous extent by 
keeping hens laying and hatching eggs in incu- 
bators. 

"The most benighted people on earth are those 
who haven't tried to improve on nature. It will 
be a sorry day for us when we subscribe to this 
theory in wild life conservation, and to my mind 
every dollar we spend in research work to this 
end is money well spent. When the sportsmen 
of America fully realize that the niggardly sums 
most of our State game departments have at their 
disposal is insufficient and that the burden of the 
conservation is being carried on the backs of 
about ten per cent of its citizens they will readily 
see that we will also have to make some improve- 
ment on human nature. 

"I am optimistic enough to believe we can 
improve on human nature by showing those who 
are not helping us carry the burden of the con- 
servation of the wild life of this nation that 
they are cheating posterity and though they may 
not hunt or fish their children and their children's 




"Hill" and "Nell" arc the prized posses- 
sions of .1. Harry Edwards, Vance County 
Game Warden. They are shown standing 
quail on a hunt last season. "Bill" is a 
great grandson of Count Featherstone, 
owned by Renfrew Jackson. While "Nell's" 
ancestry is not definitely known by War- 
den Edwards, he declares that she is en- 
tilled to registration. 

children may want to enjoy this glorious privi- 
lege and that it is their duty to help make this 
possible for them. 

"Every citizen of this nation is, or should be, 
vitally concerned in the conservation of all of 
the wild life resources of this country and everj 
person of taxable age should be made to pay, 
annually, according to his means, a certain sum 
to be used for this special purpose and then those 
who take wild life should pay, in addition, a 
privilege tax to do so. 

"An old maid and an old bachelor are required 
to pay a school tax though they may never have 
children of their own, yet, the general welfare of 
the nation is just as important to them a- in 
other people and it is right that they should con 
tribute to the cause of education. 1 submit there 
is nothing more important for the general wel- 
fare of the nation than the sane conservation o\ 
its wild life and other natural resources, and 
everyone should help to carry the burden." 



■. •■: ' ;"• :':* ! 
........ 

teat ' * . ' r » - J 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w " 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmt 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
Una and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this I 
ment and other booster or; 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED 



MEXICATs 
QUAIL A 



8 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



BRIMLEY DELIVERS 
TALK ON PREDATORY 
BIRDS TO WARDENS 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround] 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the l 
of localities and that the bii 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. — — — 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



With the opening of the season for bounties 
for sharp-shinned and cooper's, crows and 
hawks, great horned owls, and wildcats in Oc- 
tober, all wardens and game officials are familiar- 
izing themselves with the predatory species. 

Under authority of the Board of Conservation 
and Development, bounties amounting to ISc on 
crows, 25c on hawks and great horned owls and 
$2 on wildcats will be paid during the months of 
October and November. 

H. H. Brimley, curator of the State Museum, 
in a paper read before the State-wide meeting of 
game wardens and officials early this month gave 
some important pointers in the identification of 
the predatory birds. His paper follows: 

Certain Predatory Birds 

The birds that do material injury to fish, game 
and poultry in North Carolina are few in num- 
ber. That is, not including the herons and other 
fish-eating birds, of which I will have something 
to say later on. 

Leaving out the rarer species that are not 
plentiful enough to have any economic import- 
ance, there are only three species of hawks and 
owls found in North Carolina that are very 
destructive to game or poultry. These are the 
great horned owl, the cooper's hawk and the 
sharp-shinned hawk. The most destructive of 
all is the great horned owl, a bird so fierce and 
powerful as not to be afraid to attack and kill 
a grown turkey at times. With us, its favorite 
food seems to be rabbits, with game birds and 
poultry and other birds constituting most of the 
remainder of its diet. This bird is a killer and, 
though it does destroy some field rats and mice, 
it does much more harm than good to the game 
preserver and the farmer. Sometimes it takes up 
around pigeon boxes, and when it does, good- 
bye to the pigeons. 

Next to the above, and even worse on game 
birds comes the cooper's hawk. This is the 
greatest bird destroyer of all. It doesn't bother 
much with rabbits or other ground animals, its 
diet being mainly made up of birds. Game birds, 
poultry and smaller birds all seem to look alike 
to this hawk, and he is as bold as he is fierce. 
From the point of view of the game preserver 
or bird-lover, there is nothing good to be said 
about the cooper's Hawk. 



The sharpshinned hawk is just a smaller edi- 
tion of the cooper's. The two species are hardly 
distinguishable except in size, but more will be 
said on this point when we come to the question 
of identifying the different species. Being com- 
paratively small, it is not able to handle grown 
hens, or other medium large birds, but it is 
death to small chickens, young quail and all other 
birds small enough for it to handle. 

The red-tail hawk — often called hen hawk 
— is our largest species of hawk, with the possible 
exception of the fish hawk, or asprey. This 
big, heavily-built bird looks like a killer, and the 
country people give it the credit of destroying 
a lot of poultry. But this reputation is not well 
deserved. In 562 stomachs examined by the 
United States Biological Survey, less than ten 
per cent contained game or poultry, about nine 
per cent contained remains of other birds, while 
more than five hundred of the stomachs contain- 
ed remains of rats, mice and other small mam- 
mals, snakes, lizards, frogs, crawfish, insects, etc. 
So it would seem that this big, powerful hawk 
does much more good than harm. 

All the other species of the commoner hawks 
and owls are decidedly of benefit to the farmer 
and not injurious to the preserver of game. Most 
of them will kill a bird or two every now and 
then, but for every bird killed they destroy num- 
bers of field rats and mice. Even the little spar- 
row hawk, whose name would indicate a bird- 
catcher, feeds mainly on insects. 

Now, to fish-eating birds; and what I have 
to say about them represents my personal opin- 
ion only, and I have no doubt that some of you 
look at the matter in a different light. 

Previous to 1913, when the Federal Migratory 
Bird Act was adopted, there was a heavy killing 
of gulls, terns, certain species of heron and other 
fish eating birds for the milinery trade. Before 
1913, State laws had restricted the killing of these 
birds, so that the heaviest destruction of these 
groups of birds probably took place during the 
closing years of the last century. 

American egret, snowy heron, least tern, 
common tern and other species — all fish-eaters 
— had been slaughtered almost to the point of 
extinction. Brown pelicans had been killed for 
their wing quills to such an extent that their 
numbers had been greatly reduced. 

Do we have any records of any great increase 
in the take of fish due to the destruction of fish- 
eating birds? We do not! And yet these birds 
were killed literally by the millions. 

They have never anything like regained their 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



former abundance, though all the species named 
are coming back slowly. 

My conclusions from the foregoing, as well as 
from direct observation, are that the fishes of our 
streams and sounds are under no danger of deple- 
tion from the birds mentioned. 

When these birds were a hundred times more 
numerious than they are now, there were a great 
many more fish taken. Nature usually strikes 
a correct balance in the long run, and it is man's 
interference with the course of Nature and his 
greed in destroying more than he should that 
causes game and fish to become scarcer. 

The kngfisher is so thinly scattered along out 
streams that I do not consider his destruction of 
fish to amount to anything. 

But there are exceptional cases. Around fish- 
hatcheries, breeding ponds, and protected ponds 
that are heavily fished, I should certainly advise 
the destruction of fish-eating birds that frequent 
them. But on the larger public waters I do not 
believe that the destruction of fish by herons and 
kingfishers amounts to anything worth noticeing. 
But, in the case of cormorants and other birds 
robbing the fish nets, it seems to me only logical 
to allow the owners to protect their property 



Even if a little damage is done mi the publil 
waters, I would personally much rather catch 
a few less fish and have the pleasure of watching 
some of the fish-eaters at work than catch more 
fish in waters free of these interesting bird- 
Birds in general — particularly the song-bird-, 
those of beautiful plumage, and those that feed 
mainly on insects. 

All these should be strictly protected. It has 
been said that if all the insect-eating birds were 
destroyed, it would be impossible to raise crops 
of any kind. Be that as it may, such species are 
certainly of untold value to the farmer. And any 
man who possesses the least love of nature — and 
that is practically all of us — would find the woods 
and fields and streams mighty dull places il all 
the bird-life were taken away. There is some- 
thing beyond the dollars and cents value of our 
birds to be considered. 

Identification of Hawk and Owls 

This is largely a matter of practice; of ex- 
perience. 

To begin with, among the hawks and owls 
the female is always larger and more powerful 
than the male. This difference is often so great 




Main building of the Morrison state Pish Hatehery, near Waynesville. This hatch- 
ery is one of the largest of the game fish propagation units operated by the Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development. It has an annual output of around a million 
front. Prattle J. Reiger Is superintendent. This photograph was taken hy State Geo- 
logist ii J. Bryson. 



' i ■ 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmt 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature I 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster or; 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICANS 
QUAIL A 



\ 



10 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround) 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bii 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



that one can determine the sex off-hand by the 
size of the specimen. 

But it is very difficult to describe the character- 
istic features so that the different kinds can be 
readily identified and the differences between 
them easily understood. 

A point that adds to the difficulty is the differ- 
ent plumages in a single species due to age and 
sex. Take the marsh hawk, for instance, which 
is often called rabbit hawk. This hawk has 
three distinct types of coloration. In the com- 
paratively young birds the colors are darker, and 
show reddish tints, that are not found in those 
that are fully adult. The old males are light gray 
on the back while the old females are brown. 
Fortunately, in this species the upper tail coverts 
are always white, no matter what the other parts 
of the plumage may be, this being our only hawk 
that shows a white spot above the root of the 
tail when flying. If it were not for that, and 
for the presence of a kind of ruff, or ring, around 
the face, the female is very similar in size, build 
and colors to the immature female cooper's 
hawk. 

The word "immature" is used in preference to 
the word "young" for the reason that the bird 
may be several years old before it becomes fully 
adult so far as its plumage is concerned. I sup- 
pose one sees fifteen or twenty or more marsh 
hawks that are either immature birds or females 
to every one in fully adult male plumage. I 
have seen very few adult males. 

The plumages of both cooper's and sharp- 
shinned hawks are very similar. They are often 
called big and little blue darter. The general 
color of the adults in both species is a rather 
dark bluish-slaty-gray on the back, the under 
parts having cross bars of a rusty color. The 
younger birds are brown above, with streaks — 
not cross-bars — of dusky brown. A very large 
female sharp-shinned is sometimes difficult to dis- 
tinguish from a very small male cooper's. But 
the shape of the end of the tail is one distin- 
guishing mark. Spread the tail feathers slightly; 
if the end of the tail appears rounded, it is a 
coopers; if square,a sharpshin. Another method 
is by measuring the bird. Lay it flat on the table, 
on its back. Stretch it out, and measure from 
the tip of the bill to the end of the tail. If it 
measures under 14 inches, it should be a sharp- 
shin; if over 1SJ^ inches, call it a coopers. 

An immature red-shouldered hawk is very 
similar in plumage to an immature cooper's, but 
the red-shouldered is a heavier-built bird. But 



EDUCATIONAL FILMS 

FOR FAIR SCHEDULES 



Beginning with the first showing at the annual 
meeting of the North Carolina Forestry Associa- 
tion at Goldsboro this month, the visual educa- 
tional program of forestry and game has been 
launched this fall under the direction of the 
Forestry and Game Divisions. 

A new motion picture truck, specially designed 
for the purpose, was put into service with the 
showings at Goldsboro inaugurating the second 
campaign of education to be carried on through 
the medium of motion pictures by this Depart- 
ment, the first having been last spring. 

Chas. H. Flory, Assistant Forester in charge 
of forest fire control, announced that the truck 
will carry 10 full reels of films, one of which is 
a special comedy and the others forestry and 
game educational features. The truck is equipped 
with a Kohler generator, capable of developing 
1,500 watts and 110 volts. It has an Acme S. 
V. E. projector, a Silver King screen, a daylight 
screen, and stereopticon. 

For the rest of September and through the 
month of October, the truck and motion picture 
outfit will be used exclusively in fair showings. 
Engagements at the exhibitions are as follows: 
Chowan Fair, Edenton, October 1-6; Four- 
County Fair, Dunn, October 8-13; Robeson 
County Fair, October 15-20; State Fair, Raleigh, 
October 22-27; Cape Fear Fair, Fayetteville, 
October 30-November 3. 

Beginning November 5, a regular program of 
pictures will be followed out in District No. 1, 
Asheville headquarters, and the outfit is sched- 
uled to be brought back into the eastern part of 
the State around the first of the year. At least 
five showings will be made each week, covering 
all of the schools in counties visited and showing 
before civic clubs, Boy and Girl Scouts, 4-H. 
Clubs and other organizations. The truck and 
machine will be operated by W. L. Nothstein, 
Asheville. 

this is not a good identification mark unless the 
two can be seen side by side. The naked part 
of the legs — the tarsus — shows scales down the 
front edge, while in the cooper's this part is 
smooth. 

The great horned owl can be told from all 
other owls by its size, its great, staring yellow 
eyes and by its long ear-tuffs. There is no mis- 
taking it for anything else. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



11 



STATE'S KNIT GOODS 
FACTORIES ENLARGE 
OUTPUT DURING 1927 



Manufacture of knit goods, one of the ten 
major industries of North Carolina, set a Batter 
inj; pace in growth for the year 1027 over 1025, 
according to figures furnished by the biennial 
census of manufactures being taken through the 
Division of Commerce and Industry of this De- 
partment for the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 

Comparisons prepared by Park Mathewson, 
statistician of the Department, show the number 
of knit goods factories as having increased from 
111 in 1025 to 120 last year. Wage earners in 
this branch of the textile industry increased from 
13,000 to 17,000 and their wages form $8,287,- 
238 to $11,063,107. The amount paid for mate- 
rials and power increased during the two-year in- 
terval by one-third and the value added by man- 
ufacture by about 45 per cent. The total value 
of products jumped by more than 40 per cent, 
reaching a new total of $61,370,220. 

One of the giants of the textile industry, cot- 
ton goods (yarn and woven fabrics more than 



12 inches in width), has also shown an increase in 
all figures except cost of materials, which exper- 
ienced a drop of li per lint ami total dollar 
value of products. However, the decrease in 
value ol products was only 1.7 per cent, reflect 
ing a lower cost of material overbalancing the 
drop in value of finished goods. Ten new estab- 
lishments reported in the census of this branch 
of the industry; 14 per cent more wage earner- 
were recorded as drawing 2.\ per cent more wages 
and adding l<> per cent more value than reported 
in 1025. 

Other smaller units of the textile group show 
the following results from the census: Men's 
clothing, two new establishments and increase in 
all factors including almost a million dollars in 
value of products; silk, paying more than a mil- 
lion and a quarter dollars in wages and producing 
more than seven and one-half million dollars; 
six men's shirt factories with $670,577 in value of 
products; and cloth gloves and mittens with 
total products valued at $612,233. 



State Game Warden Chas. H. England has be- 
gun a tour of inspection of game law operation 
that will take him, before it is completed, into 
every district in the State. 




Old Fori .Macon from an interior view is pictured here. It is said that the battle- 
ments of this fort is one of the host preserved specimens of prc-Civil War defense. The 
building is the center of interest at Port Macon State Park, near Beaufort and More- 
head City. Photograph was taken hy Thorndike Savllle. 



... '.-< t « c - * 

, 



.•••.,■:'.,:: *,\ 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of n> 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development wf 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmel 
regular tabulations of indus' 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature J 
mined upon. Through this I 
ment and other booster or; 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAIN 
QUAIL A 



12 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



STONE PRODUCTION 
REACHES NEW MARK 
IN NORTH CAROLINA 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bi;| 
have taken up with a flock ! 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Building stones worth slightly less than five 
million dollars in round numbers or $4,967,542 
were produced in North Carolina in 1927, accord- 
ing to figures compiled by State Geologist H. J. 
Bryson in collaboration with the U. S. Bureau of 
Mines. 

The value of these products during the pre- 
vious year was $4,285,873, a gain for 1927 of 
$671,660, making the latter year the banner one 
in the history of the State. 

Granite, as the most important of this group, 
claimed the major share in importance of all of 
the stones, reaching for last year a value of $4,- 
597,821. This material came chiefly from Surry 
and Rowan counties with the names "Mt. Airy 
gray" and "Salisbury pink" being well known 
trade names throughout the eastern part of the 
United States. They are distinguished particu- 
larly because of the uniformity of color and 
durability. 

"The 'Mt. Airy gray' granite," says Geologist 
Bryson, "is to be used in the new Arlington 
Memorial bridge at Washington. Only recently 
a block of this same granite was supplied for the 
memorial erected to the soldiers, sailors, and 
marines in Wisconsin, who died in the World 
War. 

"A $.300,000 contract was sucured by a North 
Carolina company to supply stone for a new 
bridge near Philadelphia. The production of 
granite in 1926 amounted to only $3,847,062, an 
increase of $606,909 for the year. 

"The marble and limestone comes principally 
from Cherokee, McDowell, Henderson, and Mad- 
ison counties in the western part of the State, 
while shellrock and marl come entirely from the 
eastern counties, especially New Hanover, Craven, 
and Jones. The production of these materials 
for 1027 was $425,264 or an increase of $86,453 
over that of the previous year. 

"In the past year a great deal of activity has 
been shown in Cherokee and Madison counties. 
A new company has been organized in Cherokee 
county to produce marble for building, tomb- 
stone, and crushed stone for construction work. 
Considerable core drilling was carried on which 
revealed a large supply of white, 'Confederate' 
gray, and the 'regal' blue. 

"Gang saws, polishers, and other machinery 



GAME REGULATIONS 

STRICTLY ENFORCED 



First of the fall hunting seasons opened at the 
beginning of September with a fair indication of 
what is to be expected from efforts by officials of 
this Department to tighten the game law en- 
forcement in the State. 

The first of September marked the resumption 
of active warden service in all of the 100 counties, 
although their opportunity for field work only 
extended through three week days because of the 
attendance at the State-wide conference in 
Raleigh. Rainy weather also hampered traveling 
in all sections. 

In spite of the handicaps a total of 19 arrests 
and convictions were reported for the week to 
State Game Warden Chas. H. England. For the 
second week, 21 were reported to headquarters, 
making a total of 40 for the first two weeks. 
All of these were on charges of hunting without 
licenses or out of season. 

In addition to the convictions, State Warden 
England declares that a number of trials of al- 
leged offenders were held over until the third 
week and that they will add substantially to the 
number already returned. 

"The daily and weekly reports of the war- 
dens," declares Warden England, "show that they 
are on the job. Their activity in the interest of 
game is gratifying. There also seems to be a 
steadily mounting interest on the part of the 
general public in game conservation." 

are being installed to furnish stone for the va- 
rious trades. It has been reported that two com- 
panies are installing small furnaces for the pur- 
pose of carrying on certain tests to extract the 
metal magnesium for the dolomitis marble and 
limestone. Theoretically, pure dolomite has been 
discovered at a number of localities in both 
Cherokee and Madison counties. If the process 
of extracting magnesium proves successful and 
economical, a very important industry will be 
added to the many already existing in this State. 
"Two processes for extracting magnesium have 
been worked out already, one by a German con- 
cern and another by an American firm, and both 
have been proven successful. These processes 
have been suucessful on materials similar to those 
found in this State. The metal magnesium will 
be used in competition with aluminum." 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



1.5 



PULP MILL WASTES 
WILL BE STUDIED BY 
CO-OPERATIVE FORCE 



CAROLINA NEWSPAPERS 

SHOW GREAT PROGRESS 



Representatives of pulp and paper industries 
and the State have taken a step of deep signifi- 
cance in the formulation of a plan of study of 
paper mill wastes looking toward a practical 
solution of existing problems of stream pollution 
caused by various wastes from the manufacture 
of paper. 

This action was taken by a committee of spe- 
cialists known as the "technical committee' on 
pulp and paper mill wastes, which is provided 
for in an agreement between pulp and paper mills 
of the State and the Board of Health and the 
Department of Conservation and Development, 
the two State departments having statutory juris- 
diction in the matter of prevention of stream 
pollution and the control of sewage and industrial 
waste disposal. Under this agreement, each of 
the industries concerned and each of the two 
departments designates from its technical staff a 
representative on this committee. 

In drawing up the agreement, the following 
\ycrc represented: the Champion Fibre Company, 
Canton, Dr. Jno. D. Rue; the Sylva Paperboard 
Co., Sylva, E. L. McKee; the Conservation De- 
partment, Thorndikc Saville, Chief Hydraulic 
Engineer; and the State Board of Health, H. E. 
Miller, Chief Engineer, who is also chairman of 
the committee. 

The Halifax Paper Co., Roanoke Rapids, was 
the only party to the agreement not represented. 
However, considerable work has been done in the 
past year on the study of wastes at this com- 
pany's plant by the State agencies with the full- 
est co-operation on the part of the officials of the 
plant. 

This working agreement with the industries is 
the result of the joint activities of the two State 
Departments working as one agency under a 
committee known as the Stream Sanitation atid 
Conservation Committee, composed of the execu- 
tive heads and chief engineers of the Conserva- 
tion Department and the State Board of Health. 

Through this committee all matters of stream 
pollution control and investigations in any way 
concerning the State's interests arc handled. This 
action has made possible the most efficient utili- 
zation of the Conservation Department's organi- 
zation of specialists and facilities for the deter- 
mination of stream flow and other hydrologic 
determinations and the preparation of maps cs- 



Ncwspapers, which probably constitute one of 
the closest gages of the progress and prosperity 
of the area in which they are published, in North 
Carolina show a substantial rise in volume of 
business in 1927 as compared with 1925, accord- 
ing to figures supplied through (he biennial cen- 
sus of manufactures. 

The amount of business transacted by these 
North Carolina periodicals is shown to have in- 
creased from $7,697,496 to $8,960,742 or 16 per 
cent. The value added by operations was $7,- 
005,315 in 1927 and $5,942,683 in 1925. 

A total of 157 establishments are included in 
the 1927 census as compared with 145 in 1925. 
The total number of establishments do not, how- 
ever, account for all the newspapers, which 
amount to about 200, since a number arc held 
under the same ownership and others do busi- 
ness below the minimum amount included in the 
enumeration. 

There were 1058 wage earners in 1927 and onl) 
924 in the previous census. These received $1,- 
S19.469 in wages in the former year and $1,598,- 
835, in the latter. The numbers do not include 
salaried employees numbering 004 j n 1027 who 
received $1,838,282. The salaried class is those 
engaged chiefly in editorial and staff work as 
distinguished from the mechanical workers. 

scntial to such investigations and the State Board 
of Health's organization of specialists and its 
facilities for the sanitary and analytical studies 
;nd investigations. 

Under the direction of the technical commit- 
tee, the Champion Fiber Company will begin ac- 
tual studies about September 1 on ways and 
means for the correction of the existing waste 
pollution of the Pigeon River. Studies will also 
be undertaken soon at Sylva by the Sylva Paper- 
board Company where a stream gaging station 
on Scotts' Creek has already been established to 
measure stream flows. These studies will in 
each case be prosecuted jointly with the co-opera- 
lion of the respective specialists of the State 
Departments. 

This marks a most important and far-reaching 
development in that it is the first instance in the 
history of North Carolina in which industries 
have joined hands with the State in the develop- 
ment of plans to study waste disposal in the in- 
terest of adequate protection of the rights of the 
people of the State in the matter of improving 
conditions of stream pollution. 



'" 



. , * < t. 



.' 

1 
_ 

DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w * 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departing 
regular tabulations of indu;! 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature I 
mined upon. Through this if 
ment and other booster orj! 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED 



MEXICA1S 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround) 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the lj 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock ' 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



14 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



PRIVATE GAME FISH 
HATCHERY IS BUILT 
BY STATE RESIDENT 



Proof that industry grows out of development 
of recreational and sporting facilities of a state 
and that additional payrolls are established is 
furnished by the recent establishment of the first 
commercial bass hatchery in North Carolina. 

The hatchery is being constructed by George 
H. Cress, of Concord, with the advice of W. E. 
Baker, superintendent of the Frank Stedman 
hatchery near Fayetteville, whose services were 
furnished through the courtesy of Director Wade 
H. Phillips. 

Mr. Baker assisted Mr. Cress in laying out a 
plan for the nursery plant. He reports that two 
ponds, containing ten acres each have been com- 
pleted, and that five nursery ponds, IS by 30 
feet each are now under construction. 

The hatchery superintendent reports that the 
builder has spent a considerable amount on the 
construction of the project and he estimates that 
the cost will run to at least $10,000 when com- 
pleted. It will be modern in every respect, and 
Mr. Baker declares that he looks forward to 
successful operation. 

Department officials believe that the commer- 
cial hatchery will be able to help meet the de- 
mand for game fish that the State hatcheries 
cannot nearly supply because of the increasing 
calls. Full co-operation is being given by the 
Department to all such projects for increasing the 
facilities for making the streams and all fishing 
waters of the State more attractive. It has been 
estimated that several times the number of fish 
the State is able to furnish at this time are need- 
ed to stock and maintain the supply of game fish 
in North Carolina. 



SMALL-MOUTH BASS 

SEASON IS EXTENDED 



Fishermen who did not have an opportunity 
this summer to indulge in the sport of angling 
for small-mouth bass in the mountain section 
have been allowed an additional month for this 
sport. 

The Game and Inland Fisheries Division of the 
Board of Conservation and Development, Fred 
I. Sutton, Kinston, chairman, has authorized the 
suspension of the regulation closing the season 
on this game fish on the first day of October and 



COPPER DISTRICT IS 

DISCUSSED BY BRYSON 



In the following article, one of a scries pre- 
pared by State Geoligist H. J. Bryson, a dis- 
cussion of copper areas is begun. This paper is 
on the Central Huronian belt: 

This copper belt is probably the widest and 
best known district of the State. It lies to the 
east of the Syenitic belt and extends from Row- 
an county eastward to Chatham. Most of the 
mines in this belt were worked principally for 
gold but many of them produced copper. In 
this belt occur such well known mines as the 
Conrad Hill, Gold Hill Mines, Cid, and others 
of lesser importance. Two or three of the old 
mines are being investigated at the present time 
to determine whether or not ore of commercial 
value still exists in them. 

Mining began in this district about 1824. The 
first mines opened were worked for gold but as 
the workings increased in depth, the sulphide 
ores were reached which carried cooper as well 
as gold. These two metals, along with silver, 
were the principal metals sought until the mines 
closed down a few years ago. 

The rocks of this entire area consist of highly 
metamorphosed, coarse and fine acid volcanic 
tuffs. During the deposition of these rocks land 
waste was intermixed. Metamorphism has been 
so intense that it is hard to say where one type 
of rock stops and the other begins. At places 
these older rocks are cut with numerous dikes, 
sometimes so abundant that the whole forma- 
tion assumes a bedded appearance. 

allowed this month for the angler to catch this 
particular variety of fish. 

Notices sent out by J. K. Dixon, Assistant 
Director of the Department, read as follows: 

"Pursuant to authority conferred upon the 
undersigned, Special Rule No. 12 of the Inland 
Fishing regulations, notice is hereby given that 
Rule No. 4 of the Inland Fishing Regulations is 
hereby suspended, pending next meeting of the 
Conservation Board, in so far as it prevents bass 
fishing in the Mountain Counties during the 
month of October, 1028. In other words, the 
open season for bass fishing in the Mountain 
Counties is extended to Nevember 1, 1928." 

This action is taken, according to Assistant 
Director Dixon, to allow the fishermen an op- 
portunity to enjoy the sport which was greatly 
curtailed for a large part of the season by rainy 
weather and swollen streams. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 




■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■Ba 

serious question whether or not he has any 

superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 

of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 

slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 

powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 

If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 

here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



15 



Much jointing and faulting occurs throughout 
the whole belt. As a result of this condition, the 
geology is very complicated and hard to work 
out. Much detailed field work is required before 
anything definite can be determined as to the 
extent and value of any of the mineral deposits. 

The veins occurring in the mines of this belt 
may be classed under three chief types, namely: 
(1) veins which are highly silicificd; (2) veins 
which have developed along fractures; (.3) veins 
of the true quartz variety. 

Veins of the first type vary in width from a 
few inches to .300 or 400 feet. They are highly 
silicious and the ore is distributed throughout 
the entire width. The veins as well as the walls 
resemble chert. The walls in this case are not 
well defined. 

The veins of the second type are rather pecu- 
liar and may or may not follow the schistosity of 
the "slate" rock. At times it seems that the quartz 
occurring in the fractures was injected while at 
others it seems to have been deposited from solu- 
tion. The ore in this type of vein occurs as thin 
leaves, at least at times, which follows the frac- 



ture planes or the planes of schistosity. The 
veins arc usually quite thin but a great number 
may occur in a distance of only a few feet. The 
veins arc seldom over fractions of an inch thick, 

The quartz veins vary greatly in thickness from 
a few inches to a few feet. However, veins of 
this type are sometimes very barren. This type 
of vein is usually well defined, parallel to the 
planes of schistosity or at angles to them. When 
they are at angles to the planes of scistosity they 
usually follow the joint planes. In trend and 
dip they may or may not conform to the strike 
and dip of the country rock. The dip is usually 
at a great angle to the northwest or southeast 
while the strike is usually northeast. 

The ores are chiefly auriferous pyrite and chal- 
copyrite. Sometimes quartz, the chief gangue 
mineral, includes free gol das well as chalcopy- 
rite. Some very good specimens of this type have 
been found recently in the old Clegg mine in 
Chatham county. Laney states that there were 
two periods of mineralization. The first period 
produced the high gold-low copper type while 
the second produced the high copper-low gold 
type. 



FISHERIES BRANCHES SHOW INCREASES FOR STATE IN BIENNIUM 



All branches of commercial fisheries during the 
biennium of July 1, 1026, to June .30, 1928, 
showed some increase over the preceding similar 
period, according to the report of Capt. J. A. 
Nelson, fisheries commissioner to the Board of 
Conservation and Development. 

The greatest advance of any was in oysters 
and escallops, according to the commissioner, due 
in a large measure to the sanitary control over 
the industry and to the opening to the oystermen 
of grounds on which the State had planted thou- 
sands of bushels of shells and seed oysters. 

Continuing in his report, Captain Nelson says: 
"There has also been a marked increase in the 
production of food fish, but the prices paid for 
them have averaged low. The reason for this 
is unknown to me, but I believe that it is due 
in some measure to the general depression exper- 
ienced by most of the food markets. The va- 
rieties of food fish have been as great and the 
quality as good as heretofore, but the demand 
at good prices has been below the general aver- 
age. The clams and crabs have also shown some 
increase in catch, but the market has been only 
fair." 

Of food fishing, he says: "This is the most ex- 
tensive branch of the industry, but not neces- 



sarily the most important. Food fishing covers 
a vast area of water, is carried on all over the 
eastern part of the State and is done in many 
different ways. Some of the methods of fishing 
are -just as unfamiliar to the fishermen in the 
different localities as they would be to the farmer. 
For instance, pound net fishing is quite different 
from long-haul fishing; or the seine fishing, from 
gill and fyke net fishing. A new method is now 
being introduced, known as the trawl-net fish- 
ing. This fishing is done in the ocean three miles 
from the beach, and I have not yet been able 
to determine just what effect it will have on the 
general fishing situation. 

"We started out in 1027 with the best shad 
fishing in fifteen years, but on account of a vio- 
lent wind and snow storm the first of March, 
which destroyed about ninety per cent of the 
nets, the season was accounted a near failure. 
Had it not been for the loss of the nets, the sea- 
son of 1027 would in all probability have been 
one of the best, if not the best shad season ever 
enjoyed in our State. However, nature ofttimes 
strikes a balance in man's favor, for shad fishing 
this season, 1028, has been excellent in spite of 
the fact that there were not so many nets fished 
as before the storm." 



; i , • r • 

. . . . , ■ 

, , , r ■ • . . . <-c < 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departm* 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature I 
mined upon. Through th*s it 
ment and other booster or; 1 
able to keep a closer touch f 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAI^ 
QUAIL A> 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North J 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround] 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the 1 
of localities and that the bill 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



NORTH CAROLINA GAME LAW 



DIGEST: 



REGULATIONS IN FORCE MAKE IT UNLAWFUL: 

To hunt without a license. 

To take or kill game birds or animals out of season. 

To take in one day more than bag limit. 

To kill a female deer during the next five years. 

To buy or sell any game except rabbits and squirrels. 

To take game by trap or poison, to hunt by auto or boat, to bait for upland game. 



OPEN SEASON WHEN THESE GAME BIRDS AND ANIMALS MAY 



LAWFULLY BE TAKEN: 



BAG LIMIT 



Squirrel September 

Rabbit November 

Deer October 1 

Bear October 1 

Raccoon October 1 

Opossum October 1 

Quail December 

Wild Turkey December 

Dove Sept'ber 1 

Woodcock December 

Ruffed grouse, mongolian. 

Chinese, or ring-neck December 

Rail (except coot and galli- 

nule) > Sept'ber 1 



IS to January IS. 

1 to March 1 

to January IS 

to January IS 

to January 31 

to January 31 

1 to March 1 

1 to March 1 

6 to Dec'ber 31 
1 to December 31_ 



.10 in day. 
.None. 

-2 a day — \ a season. 
.None. 
.None. 
None. 
10 a day. 

2 a day — S a season. 
25 a day. 
.4 a day. 



1 to March 1 25 aggregate a day 

to Nov'ber 30 



25 aggregate a day of rails, coots, 
gallinules, but not more than 
IS of any one species of rails 
(other- than sora) and galli- 
nules a day. 

Gallinule , November 1 to November 30 

Coot November 1 to January 31__. . 

Wilson or jacksnipe November 1 to January 31__20 a day. 

Ducks November 1 to January 31^25 a day. 

Geese, brant November 1 to January 31 8 each a day. 

(Migratory waterfowl in Currituck, Dare and Hyde Counties are not subject to State 
administration. Local and federal regulations govern shooting of these birds in the above- 
named counties. Rest of game in the three counties under State administration.) 



LICENSES 

County resident $1.25 

State resident - — 3. 25 

Non-resident State 15.25 

Make application for license to COUNTY GAME WARDEN, Authorized Agents or 
Clerk Superior Court. 

It is unlawful to hunt on lands of another without permission. 

PREVENT FOREST FIRES AND THUS PROTECT GAME. 

Violation of game law is a misdemeanor in the jurisdiction of the Superior Court. 

Hunters must wear their hunting button and have license with them at all times when 
hunting. 



*^- 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 




serious question whether or not h 
superior as an all-round game bird, 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION 
AND INDUSTRY 

A Bi -Weekly Publication of the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 



Vol.V 



Raleigh, N. C, October 1, 1928 



No. 19 



k, :seA 






r« :. 



-• ?&: 



-W*', 



, » t w* -** 



TYPICAL NORTH CAROLINA HIGHWAY 



. € t t » 
.... 

.... 



..... . ■ ' . . < 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft] 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w I 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departnu 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster ori 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim 1 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the ij 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock ! 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



NORTH CAROLINA GAME LAW 



DIGEST: 



REGULATIONS IN FORCE MAKE IT UNLAWFUL: 

To hunt without a license. 

To take or kill game birds or animals out of season. 

To take in one day more than bag limit. 

To kill a female deer during the next five years. 

To buy or sell any game except rabbits and squirrels. 

To take game by trap or poison, to hunt by auto or boat, to bait for upland game. 



OPEN SEASON WHEN THESE GAME BIRDS AND ANIMALS MAY 



LAWFULLY BE TAKEN: 



BAG LIMIT 



Squirrel September IS to January 15_ 

Rabbit November 1 to March 1 

Deer October 1 to January IS 

Bear October 1 to January IS 

Raccoon October 1 to January 31 

Opossum October 1 to January 31 

Quail December 1 to March 1 

Wild Turkey December 1 to March 1 , 

Dove Sept'ber 16 to Dec'ber 31 

Woodcock December 1 to December 31_ 

Ruffed grouse, mongolian. 

Chinese, or ring-neck December 1 to March 1 

Rail (except coot and galli- 

nule) Sept'ber 1 to Nov'ber 30 



Gallinule November 1 to November 30 

Coot November 1 to January 31 

Wilson or jacksnipe November 1 to January 31 — 

Ducks November 1 to January 31 

Geese, brant November 1 to January 31__ 



10 in day 

None. 

2 a day — 

None. 

None. 

None. 

10 a day. 

2 a day— 

25 a day. 

4 a day. 



5 a season. 



25 aggregate a day. 

25 aggregate a day of rails, coots, 
gallinules, but not more than 
15 of any one species of rails 
(other than sora) and galli- 
nules a day. 



20 a day. 
.25 a day. 
8 each a dav. 



(Migratory waterfowl in Currituck, Dare and Hyde Counties are not subject to State 
administration. Local and federal regulations govern shooting of these birds in the above- 
named counties. Rest of game in the three counties under State administration.) 



LICENSES 

County resident $1.25 

State resident 3.25 

Non-resident State : IS. 2 5 

Make application for license to COUNTY GAME WARDEN, Authorized Agents or 
Clerk Superior Court. 

It is unlawful to hunt on lands of another without permission. 

PREVENT FOREST FIRES AND THUS PROTECT GAME. 

Violation of game law is a misdemeanor in the jurisdiction of the Superior Court. 

Hunters must wear their hunting button and have license with them at all times when 
hunting. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 




serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Raleigh, N. C, October 1, 1928 



LOCATION OF RAYON 
PLANT AT ASHEVILLE 
PROVES ADVANTAGES 



OPENING OF OYSTER 
SEASON IN CAROLINA 
MARKED BY ACTIVITY 



Decision of the American Enka Corporation 
to locate its first rayon plant in the United States 
near Asheville not only assures the State of one 
of the largest developments of its kind, but it 
also carries a deeper significance for the State. 

After considering thoroughly more than half 
a hundred cities in leading industrial localities in 
the United States, this company selected a North 
Carolina site. The advantages offered by all were 
considered from every angle and decision was 
made only after the advice of the most qualified 
engineers and experts. 

These men found that North Carolina provided 
the most ideal location for their industry. They 
found a plentiful supply of soft water, one of 
the requisites of rayon manufacturing; labor, 
known for its efficiency, intelligence, and loyalty 
offered itself ; power service to meet every de- 
mand immediately at hand; and a market for 
its products presented itself in close proximity. 

As the second rayon plant to be located in the 
State, the new concern gives North Carolina 
assurance of being one of the leaders in produc- 
tion. The first mill was located at Burlington 
and the initial unit is now about ready to begin 
operation. The psychological effect of the choice 
of North Carolina for sites for these two plants 
will doubtless be reflected to others that are now 
looking for locations. 

After an invitation from Governor A. W. Mc- 
Lean to the directors of the American Enka 
Corporation several months ago to consider 
North Carolina as a location of its first Ameri- 
can plant, this Department, through Director 
Wade H. Phillips and Park Mathewson, of the 
Division of Commerce and Industry, has followed 
through the efforts to secure the plant for the 
State by furnishing fundamental information, 
statistics and other aid. 



Oyster production swings under way oil the 
Carolina coast this month with the official open- 
ing of the season on October 1, and preparations 
are being made for a large output of this select 
seafood. 

Indications at the opening of the season, as 
expressed by Capt. J. A. Nelson, fisheries commis- 
sioner, are that this year will witness a continua- 
tion of the expansion of the North Carolina in- 
dustry which has been the rule for the last 
several years. 

Production of the oysters for the season of 
1927-28, according to statistics prepared by the 
fisheries commissioner, was the largest for several 
years; and he expects this year to experience at 
least as large if not a larger gain in amount. 

One of the most pleasing factors to officials of 
this Department last year was the growing de- 
mand from North Carolinians for native sea- 
foods, which are declared to be equal in quality, 
flavor, and nutritiousness to any of the country. 
Hotels, restaurants, and house-wives are being 
urged by officials to call for native products in 
order that a worthy industry and a means of 
subsistence for thousands of North Carolinians 
may be built up. 

A tendency for North Carolina oysters to be 
shipped to outside distributors and to be re-ship- 
ped to the interior markets of the State is noted 
by officials to be steadily decreasing. They de- 
clare that this old practice demonstrates the 
proven quality of the native oysters and shows 
the possibilities for expansion of local industries. 

T. R. McCrea, sanitary engineer of the State 
Board of Health, who for several years has been 
assigned to the Commercial Fisheries Division of 
this Department, has returned to Morehead City 
to work with the fisheries commissioner, giving 
assurance of the most exacting health safeguards 
and protection of the industry. 



This Department's exhibit at the State Fair Thonulike Saville, chief engineer of the Divis 

in Raleigh on October 22-27 is designed to be ion of Water Resources and Engineering, i> sched 

the largest and most complete display of natural uled to address the Appalachian Power Confer 

resources assembled in the State for fair purposes, ence on October o at Atlanta, Ga 



. . . ' ,1 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 

A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately a 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w ? 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmfl 
regular tabulations of indus! 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature J 
mined upon. Through this i\ 
ment and other booster or; 1 : 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



an 



IMPORTED MEXICAIV 
QUAIL A ; 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North ; 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the 1 
of localities and that the bit 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. iL 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 

Wade H. Phillips Director 

Paul Kelly ^Editor 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with of 
without credit. 



INCREASING SPORT 



Perhaps the most encouraging develop- 
ment since the passage of the State Game 
and Fish laws is the whole-heated support 
extended to the officials by sportsmen over 
the State, both individually and collective- 

ly- 

Organizations of sportsmen have sprung 
up all over the State. These groups have 
taken as among their functions work for 
better local hunting and fishing conditions. 
They have found that they can assist in 
the accomplishment of this purpose most 
effectively by co-operation with the au- 
thorities in charge of administration of the 
laws. 

To bring still further results there are 
positive channels that have scarcely had 
the surface scratched in North Carolina 
although in some parts of the country they 
have already gained appreciable headway. 
The outstanding feature of such a pro- 
gram is the restoration of covers and 
streams with game and fish. 

It is true that the law lays down as one 
of the duties of its administrators the re- 
sponsibility for such a program, but the 
field is so broad that co-operation must 
come from sportsmen if conditions are to 
be improved as rapidly as the enthusiasts 
would like. 

One of the most promising fields for 
creating better sport in every community 
lies in the construction of game fish nur- 
sery ponds. This movement was started 
in North Carolina several months ago 
upon the advice and at the urgent request 
of this Department, and it has gained 



gratifying results when it is realized that 
at least a score of these exist today when 
none were being operated a year ago. 

This work has centered largely in West- 
ern North Carolina, although much re- 
mains to be done. In Eastern North Caro- 
lina there is a definite need of bass nur- 
series. Anglers often complain of the 
scarcity of this favorite gamester, but 
never will fishing be developed to its full 
possibilities until a comprehensive system 
of rearing ponds that will turn out thrifty 
fingerlings into the waters of the State. is 
established. 

For every group of sportsmen here lies 
a wonderful opportunity to assure greater 
sport. With a total of receipts amounting 
to only around $17,000 a year from 
angler's licenses for the past two years, 
the Department has had to maintain a 
warden service, make limited improve- 
ments at the hatcheries and meet head-> 
quarters, and other expenses. There has 
been little to spare for a positive program 
of game fish restoration. 

Sportsmen in other states are providing 
hundreds of thousands of game fish < for 
their own benefit annually by rearing the 
fry to fingerling size before distribution. 
The Department of Conservation and De- 
velopment is eager to assist by advising 
in the construction of the ponds and will 
furnish baby fish to the limit of its means. 
Here is an opportunity for sportsmen to 
carry on and reduce the time between 
bites. The movement is spreading. Why 
should not North Carolina be among the 
first in this respect?; tis- 



TABLET IN MEMORY 
OF HERO EXPLORER 
UNVEILED ON GRAVE 



On the towering heights which often furnished 
him inspiration and on the grave, which marks 
his last resting place, a tablet to Dr. Elisha 
Mitchell, explorer, whose name Eastern Amer- 
ica's highest peak proudly bears, was dedicated 
to his memory on Friday, September 28. 

The unveiling was performed by.,. Miss Mary 
D. Summerall, of Asheville, a great-grand-daugh- 
ter of the scientist, and the principal, address of 
the occasion, was read by State Forester J. S. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Holmes for Mrs. Hope Summcrall Chamberlain, 
of Raleigh, Doctor Mitchell's grand-daughter. 

Tracing the early life of Doctor Mitchell, Mrs. 
Chamberlain said that he came to North Caro- 
lina in 1818 after teaching for several years at 
Yale, his alma mater. He served at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina first as professor of mathe- 
matics and afterwards had the chair of geology 
and chemistry. 

"Doctor Mitchell's," she declared, "love of 
science was blessed with a virgin field of research, 
both in geology and botany. North Carolina was 
a wilderness of unclassified forms, a country of 
unexplored formations, 

"The flora of our State has families and species 
named by Doctor Mitchell. He made the first 
geological survey ever attempted. In the year 
^835, he measured this mountain. It was owing 
to, a controversy as to which peak he had indeed 
measured as the highest point of the Black Range 
which led to his death in 1857. Crossing the 
ridge in a dense fog, he was bewildered and fell 
into a pool at the foot of Mitchell's Fall. He 
was lost on Saturday, June 27. 
. "During the search of eleven days for his 
body, the devotion of his friends of the moun- 
tain land was shown, and it was by the wood- 
craft and shrewdness of Big Tom Wilson, the 
veteran guide and hunter, as well as by the 
patience of the rest, that it was at last found. 

"His remains were buried in Asheville at first, 
and rested there a year, and then were conveyed 
to this peak where they rest 'in hope of the 
blessed resurrection.' The first monument was 
placed by the request of his daughter, Mrs. E. 
N. Grant, and has been destroyed. This monu- 
ment is a tribute from the State of North Caro- 
lina and certain citizens of it, while the bronze 
tablet bearing the inscription was prepared by his 
descendants scattered all over the United States. 

"They have felt honored to share this piety 
among them. The inscription is the same as the 
older monument bore, and records the fact that 
Doctor Mitchell was an ordained minister as 
well as one of the leaders among the early scien- 
tists of the United Statw." 



TURKEYS PLENTIFUL 

IN CHATHAM COUNTY 



this magnificent bird that has been seen in years, 
This is the report that is brought out of the 
county by R. L. Hatcher, county game warden 
and widely known guide. Warden Hatcher is 
well qualified to know whereof he speaks since 
he has been a game enthusiast and a keen obscr 
ver of conditions in the fields and woods since 
boyhood. 

During recent rounds of the county, Warden 
Hatcher declares that he has seen anywhere from 
one to three droves of wild turkeys daily and 
that almost any day he has flushed from one to 
four coveys of quail. "There are great increases 
in all varieties of game in Chatham county," he 
asserted. "We feel that this is largely due to the 
operation of the State-wide game law which has 
given birds and animals the only really fair op- 
portunity they have ever had to increase in 
recent years." 




Chatham county, long noted for its wild tur- 
key shooting grounds, will provide with the open- 
ing of the coming season, the greatest supply of 



This fine buck, taken 1>\ .1. <,>. Gilkcy, 
.'Marion member <>r the Board of Conser- 
vation and Development and enthusiastic 
sportsman, testifies to the increase of bin 
game in the mountain districts. Areas 
around the State and Federal refuges are 
benefitting from rigid protection and re- 
stocking. The deer was killed last season. 



, . , . . . 

' . . . . 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft! 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w I 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departing 
regular tabulations of indus! 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 

Department in the past, but 

plan as a permanent feature 1 

mined upon. Through this if 

ment and other booster or;? 
'I 

able to keep a closer touch I 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED 



MEXICAIS 
QUAIL A 



NATURAL BASS FOOD 
DEMANDS THOUGHT 
SAYS HATCHERY HEAD 



Mexican quail of the first j 
buted this spring in North ; 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the i| 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. L I. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Provision of natural foods for bass and 
allied species of the so-called warm water fishes 
is a problem not only confronting the sportsman 
but also the most qualified fish culturist today. 
Realizing that this question is one that must be 
solved in order to bring about more satisfactorily 
stocked fish ponds and streams, W. E. Baker, 
superintendent of the Frank Stedman hatchery, 
Fayetteville, gives some interesting suggestions. 

Superintendent Baker declares that he has 
found from his experiences in bass culture that 
the best natural food is forage fish and aquatic 
vegetation which he discusses in the following 
paragraphs: 

Manure and Vegetation 

, Ponds that can be drawn should be manured 
each year as much as possible in order that they 
may produce a greater abundance of both vege- 
tation and plankton organisms, for the young 
fish to feed on. Sheep manure, or cotton seed- 
meal and phosphate or both are very valuable for 
this purpose. The vegetation may consist of the 
following plants namely Cabomba Viridifolia, 
Ludwigia Mulertti, and Sagittaria Natans. It is 
very necessary in ponds where it can be done 
to work the manure in the soil with plows or 
harrows. 

Forage Pish 

The stocking of ponds with forage fish where 
rearing bass and their allied species have proven 
very encouraging and it is believed that by the 
proper use of such fish that the output of the 
bass can be increased greatly. Several species of 
forage fish have been experimented with for the 
purpose of determining the best suited for this 
purpose. 

We find after giving considerable time and 
study to this matter that the following fish is 
best suited to our waters: The Roach, or Shiner, 
(Notemigonus crysoleucas) Blue-gills, (Lepomis 
Incisor) Black head minnows, (Pimephales Pro- 
melas) and the top minnow, (Gambusia-affinis) 
all of these fish feed upon, to a certain extent, 
vegetable matter and debris in addition to the 
small crustation and minute life that forms in 
the water from the vegetation, and consequently 



uterlize a food resource that is not directly avail- 
able for bass fingerlings. It is true that for a 
short time after they begin feeding the forage 
fish compete with the small bass fingerlings but 
this competition is not serious as the rapid grow- 
ing bass soon prefer insects and fish to the small 
animal life. 

Artificial Fish Poods 

In cases when sufficient natural foods cannot 
be produced it is necessary to feed all fish, and 
especially when rearing bass in small confinement. 
There is a number of foods that might be used 
successful for this purpose and the following have 
been found to be very satisfactory: Namely: 
fresh fish that have had the bones and fins re- 
moved, any specie may be used. However, beef 
hearts and livers are used mostly by all hatch- 
eries since beef heart is considered one of the 
best foods available and can be had from the 
packing plants at a reasonable cost. 

Sheep plucks and pork livers may also be used 
very successful, but should be boiled before using 
in order to harden the flesh so it can be cut, or 
ground as the case may be. When using artifi- 
cial foods in small pools or aquaria it must be 
remembered that it will be necessary to clean 
once daily in order to keep the water in a sani- 
tarv condition. 



YELLOW COON TAKEN 

IN HALIFAX SWAMP 



What is said to be the first yellow raccoon 
taken in North Carolina was recently brought 
to Raleigh by F. A. Ruffin, assistant State game 
warden of Kelford, who had confiscated the 
animal after it has been taken out season. 

The yellow coon was one of a brood of three 
taken with mother in Halifax county between 
Enfield and Scotland Neck. The other two and 
the mother appeared to normal in every respect. 

Harry T. Davis, curator in the State Museum, 
after looking at the unusual animal, declared that 
it is the first that he had ever seen of the color. 
He was at a loss to know how to account for 
the different hue of its pelt, saying that it might 
possibly be an albino or that there is possibility 
of a cross between the coon and some other 
animal, perhaps a yellow cat. 

The four coons will form part of the exhibit 
of the Department at the State Fair, October 
22-27. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



not he has any 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



^ 



I 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



WATER RESOURCES 
DIVISION GETS NEW 
HIGH WATER DATUM 



Floods which reached, in recent weeks, their 
peak with the overflow of rivers in Eastern 
North Carolina brought to light one of the most 
interesting and important duties of the Division 
of Water Resources and Engineering in connec- 
tion with its scientific work. 

As a result of the activities of the Division, 
there are now available for the first time meas- 
urements of flood flows on the Tar and Neusc 
Rivers and of higher water on the Cape Fear 
than have ever been made before. 

The actual measurement of the quantity of 
water flowing in these floods is of extreme im- 
portance in the design of highway bridges and 
in undertaking measures to alleviate flood flows 
in the future, as well as being of value in navi- 
gation projects. The Army Engineers and State 
Highway Commission constantly call for such 
information in their operations. 

During the recent floods, the Division has not 
only utilized its own engineers but borrowed 
personnel from the State Board of Health and 



from the State Highway Commission. All of the 
work was directed from the Chapel Hill office 
of the Division. A total of eight engineers were 
constantly at work for the better part of ten 
days measuring flood flows. 

For several years, in co-operation with the 
U. S. Geological Survey, the Water Resources 
and Engineering Division has operated stream 
gaging stations on the Cape Fear River at Fay- 
etteville and on the Roanoke River, near Roan- 
oke Rapids. In recent months, new stations have 
been established on the Neuse River at Clayton 
and on the Flat River near Durham. Because 
of the character of the rivers and the lack of co- 
operative funds to assist, it has been expensive 
and difficult for the Division to maintain gaging 
stations on eastern streams, Thorndike Saville, 
chief hydraulic engineer of the Division, declared. 
Co-operative funds from cities, industrial firms, 
and from other sources have come almost entirely 
in the past from the Piedmont and the western 
part of the State. Recent flood measurements 
have supplied much information that has been 
hitherto lacking. 

"It may be realized," says Mr. Saville, "what 
a task a single measurement of this kind is when 
it is considered that for one man, expert in mak- 
ing such measurements, to make a single discharge 




The body of Dr. Klisha Mitchell, explorer, who lost his life on Mt. Mitchell, rests in 
this grave at the foot of the stone tower atop the peak. The tablet which was recently 
dedicated to his memory may be seen through the iron fence, Ed. Wilson, park war- 
den, is se^n standing at the right. 



r 



♦ • »t » ■ . • 
»♦••• '. ••**. 
> 



I € ft * • 

; 

r * • I ■ • 






DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately aft 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w" 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departm< 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but ' 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i\ 
ment and other booster or; 1 
able to keep a closer touch \ 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAIs 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround] 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the 1 
of localities and that the bi:l 
have taken up with a flock ; 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



measurement on the Roanoke River above Roan- 
oke Rapids takes a whole day. When this river 
is in flood the width is in the neighborhood of a 
half mile, and a heavy instrument for measuring 
velocity with a 30-pound weight attached to it 
has to be lowered down into the water every 20 
feet across the bridge, and the velocity taken at 
.2 and .6 of the depth at each point." 



TANNING MATERIALS 

VALUE IS INCREASED 



Manufacture of tanning materials and dye 
stuffs, according to figures just completed from 
the biennial census of manufactures being taken 
by the Division of Commerce and Industry of 
this Department in co-operation with the United 
State Bureau of the Census, is gaining a better 
foothold and becoming established on a broader 
basis in North Carolina. 

These industries which are classed together in 
the United States Bureau's tabulations show 
among the largest increases of any line of manu- 
facturing in North Carolina between the census 
periods of 1Q2S and 1927. 

The total value of products of the two indus- 
tries in 1927 amounted to $1,277,273 as compared 
with $1,097,131 in 192S, and as expressed in per- 
centage, a gain of about 16 per cent. 

Seven establishments were reported as oper- 
ating in 1927, an increase of one concern during 
the period. The number of wage earners in the 
industries grew from 198 to 234. Value added 
by manufacture jumped by more than SO per 
cent, the totals being $491,565 in 1927 and $327,- 
381 in 1925. 

Chestnut bark has been the chief provider of 
tanning materials and likely the blight that is 
causing the death of many of the tuees is stimu- 
lating the use of the tree. In co-operation with 
the United States Department of Agriculture, the 
Forestry Division has been conducting studies of 
the situation with a view to determining its causes 
and if possible to replace the seemingly doomed 
species. Introduced trees will probably be brought 
into the State. 



"Will you kindly note the change in my ad- 
dress as I do not wish to miss my copy of 'Con- 
servation and Industry.' It is too valuable a 
publication for a native of the Old North State 
to miss," writes Berard D. Rucker, Los Angeles, 
Cal. 



HOGE ASSERTS GAME 
HAS DEFINITE VALUE 
FOR STATE FARMERS 



Economic value of game and the positive side 
of law were emphasized by James F. Hoge, sec- 
retary of the North Carolina Game and Fish 
League and also drafter of the State Game Law, 
in an inspirational talk before the conference of 
game officials in Raleigh last month. 

"Let no one mislead you," he said, "that the 
conservation of game is a whim of the sports- 
man or a traditional or legendary fancy. True, 
hunting is with the Anglo-Saxon people an age- 
long heritage, recalling the days when game Was 
the property of the king. But the conservation 
of game finds its merit not only in tradition but 
in economics and the demand for its protection 
is an economic mandate of the same gravity that 
requires the conservation of our forests, the pre- 
servation of our minerals and the general safe- 
guarding of all our natural resources. It is not 
long as time goes since our plains swarmed with 
countless birds and animals and our streams 
abounded with fish and water fowl. 

"Now to bring back those days we have a 
State-wide game law and with that you are 
immediately and vitally concerned." 

Speaking of the work of the wardens, Mr. 
Hoge continued: "I address myself earnestly to 
you gentlemen in the firm conviction that the 
success of the law and the progress of conserva- 
tion must, in the final appraisement, be meas- 
ured by the fidelity, intelligence, and effectiveness 
with which you discharge your duties. 

"You are the liason officers between the people 
and the people's constituted authority, the State. 
The people will not know the Board of Conser- 
vation and Development, the Chief Game Warden 
and other officials in Raleigh. They will know 
you and you will know them. That puts the 
responsibility squarely upon you and out of the 
conviction that I have already expressed, I would 
emphasize that responsibility. 

"No sadder situation exists in any govern- 
mental matter than one in which through pre- 
judice or any other cause the rural inhabitants 
are arrayed against the urban citizenship. It will 
be more than sad in administering the game law. 
It would be fatal. 

"The game lives upon the lands of the rural 
population. If it is hunted it must be hunted 
upon those lands. The co-operation of the farm- 
er is vital to the success of our law, and you 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



must impress upon the farmer the fact that the 
success of the law will bear profit to him. For 
if game has a monetary value it is impossible to 
separate that value from the land. 

"You must know game and game conditions. 
The Department in Raleigh will depend upon 
you for advice pertaining to the amount of game 
in your territories, any conditions affecting the 
amount of game, and changes needed in the ad- 
ministration of the law as pertains to your terri- 
tory. This requires, in the first place, that you 
be interested in the subject and that you have 
some knowledge of it. It requires also that as 
you go along with your work, you study it. 

"You must have a proper understanding of the 
causes for scarcity in game. Now sometimes 
efforts are made to close a territory entirely, but 
the better thought is that conservation is not 
helped by that means. 

"The scarcity of game, generally speaking, is 
brought about by our present fashion of living. 
In 1025, there were more than 6,000,000 people 
who took out hunting and fishing licenses in the 
United States. Good roads and land clearances 
have made it possible for more people to go 
afield and at the same time have lessened the 
supply of game. 

"You are a representative of the Department 
in the education of the people on the subject of 
conservation. Through you the people over the 
State must learn the aims of the law and the 
benefits to be obtained under it. When people 
learn these things and believe in the law, your 
duties as patrolmen will be slight. We are told 
in Holy Writ that love is the fulfillment of the 
law. And, indeed, one Commandment was sub- 
stituted for all ten. And the theory in that is 
simply that where people love one another — or 
a law as in this case — they arc of themselves 
restrained from violating positive commandments 
directed toward respecting the rights of other 
people. 

"You are the minister to the spirit of the law 
and the welfare of the people. And do not 
forget that the two are inseparable. In govern- 
ments for the people, the law, both in spirit and 
in application, must coincide with the welfare 
of the people. 

"In closing, let me say to you that there are 
a dream and a vision wrapt up in this State- 
wide game law. And as one of those who nour- 
ished and cherishes that dream let me record 
with you a plea for its fulfillment. Nowhere in 
all this country is there a more suitable climate 
and topography for game conservation than here 



in North Carolian. Spring, summer, and fall 
are ideal for propagation and the winters in 
their mildness do not give the problem which 
states to the north have. The varied types of 
soil, variable altitudes, interspersing forests and 
plains, highlands and lowlands, all combine in 
as attractive a field for game conservation as can 
be found in the whole Union." 



"Thank you very much indeed for Economic 
Paper No. 61," wrote G. W. Freeman, of Griffin, 
Johnson & Mann, Inc., New York City, to Chas. 
E. Ray, Jr., of the Department's Division of 
Water Resources and Engineering after receiving 
a copy of the preliminary report on industrial 
waters of North Carolina. "It is most complete 
and comprehensive for such a preliminary study 
and extremely valuable. This particular work 
is one that was very badly needed and I am sure 
will meet with the hearty welcome from every- 
one who is interested in the industrial develop- 
ment of North Carolina." 




The State is host to visitors to the sum- 
mit of Mt. Mitchell. This cabin is the home 
of Ed. Wilson, park and game warden. 
It also contains a large reception room 
where visitors may (iml shelter and rest. 



. . .... t 

■ ■ ■ ■ 

: : : 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of rn 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft' ; 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w T 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmil 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
Iina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav. 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i\ 
ment and other booster or;! 
able to keep a closer touch 1 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED 



MEXICANS 
QUAIL A 



i 



10 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



WACCAMAW REGION 
IS ORGANIZING FIRE 
SYSTEM FOR FOREST 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North \ 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround] 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Private landowners and the State are joining 
in the creation of the Waccamaw Forest Protec- 
tive Association, an organization for the protec- 
tion of a total of around 50,000 acres of forest 
lands in Columbus and Bladen counties, of which 
approximately 30,000 have already been placed 
under signed agreement. 

This area is to the northeast of Lake Wacca- 
maw. The largest landowners in the proposed 
association are as follows: Cooper River Timber 
Co., Hugh MacRae & Co., Clyde Council, Eric 
Norton, and the Waccamaw Lumber Co. Re- 
presentatives of these concerns and individuals, 
at a conference with Chas. H. Flory, assistant 
forester in charge of fire control, and W. A. 
Peterson, third district forester, laid out plans 
for the protective association. 

Preliminary plans call for the erection of a 93- 
foot steel lookout tower about four miles north- 
east of Wannanish, connected by telephone with 
lines that run along highway No. 20 and the Sea- 
board railroad. 

Other plans call for the appointment of a for- 
est warden in charge of fire prevention in the 
area and regular fire crews at: Lake Waccamaw, 
Bolton, Byrdsville, East Arcadia, and Council. 
The crews will be fully equipped with fire-fight- 
ing tools, and a lookout will be maintained on 
the tower through the fire seasons. The lookout 
will be able to cover an average radius of about 
10 to 12 miles, affording speedy detection of fire 
within an area of some 200,000 acres, much of 
which is heavily forested. 

Landowners with less than 1,000 acres will 
be asked to join the association when definite 
plans are completed in order that all forest lands 
within the area may have the advantage of fire 
protection. 

Assistant Forester Flory reports that the At- 
lantic Coast Line Railroad is greatly interested 
in the project, since the lookout will cover about 
20 miles of its right-of way through Columbus 
County. He also hopes that the Seaboard will 
join the movement. 



FOOD PRODUCTS SHOW 

INCREASED OUTPUTS 



Food products are shown by the Division of 
Commerce and Industry in the biennial census of 
manufactures to have enjoyed a consistent growth 
in many line during the past two years. 

The growth of the food products industries in 
North Carolina since the last census of manu- 
factures has been extremely encouraging to a class 
of industry which it is vitally important that the 
State should endeavor to expand in every pro- 
fitable way. 

Commenting on a tabulation prepared by him, 
Park Mathewson, Department statistician says: 

"When the State supplies its own people, as 
well as those of adjoining states, with such food 
supplies as canned and preserved fish and other 
sea food, butter, bakery products, confectionary 
and roasted coffee, besides its farm foods, it will 
improve its economic as well as its health posi- 
tion materially." 

Seven lines of food products show the follow- 
ing increases for 1927: 



INDUSTRY 


No. of 
estabsh- 
ments 


"3 22 

AM 


« Si, 
*j to 
o rt 
H is 


M ft 

as 


> a. 


>> 

£ • a 

•O C w 

< £<2 




% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Canning 


- 












sea food 


25 


25 


87 


32 


102 


601 


Butter _ _ 


42 


90 


72 


25 


34 


89 


Bakery 














Products 


20 


50 


50 


12 


3i 


65 


Confectionery . 


15 


24 


25 


50 


35 


18 


Ice Cream - _- 


40 


18 ' 


10 


19 


30 


41 




21 


7 


6 


4 


19 


23 







Figures for 192S coffee roasting are not avail- 
able for comparison, but the 1927 figures for 
North Carolina show a gross profit of 30 per 
cent which would indicate a very satisfactory 
margin for the industry for sales and adminis- 
trative expenses and profits. 

Value of products for 1927 for leading food 
industries were: bakery products, $6,108,949; Ice 
Cream, $3,890,497; Ice, $3,803,508; Confection- 
ery, $1,227,886; butter, $987,491; coffee roast- 
ing, $286,817, preserved seafoods, $152,076. 



SALES OF LICENSES 

BEYOND $2 5,000 MARK 



Starting with a rush, sales of hunting licenses 
this year are showing promise of equalling if not 
surpassing, the unexpected, mark of last season 



•^ 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



I 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



11 



when more than S20S.000 was collected from 
hunters. 

With only two major seasons for fame birds 
and animals open, remittances of receipts from 
license agencies over the State had amounted 
to more than $25,000 before the close of Septem- 
ber. This figure, however, does not include all 
of the reports, since many will not be received 
until several days after the end of the months 
when the wardens have had time to check up 
with all of their selling agencies. 

Readiness with which hunters are buying the 
licenses, appears to forecast still more popular 
hunting seasons this year. One of the noticeable 
features of the sales is the increased number of 
State licenses that are being taken out this season 
with the decrease of the fee from S5.25 to S.i.25. 
Reports from many counties are that more State 
licenses than County are being issued. 

The two principal seasons that opened during 
September were for squirrels and doves. On 
October 1, the taking of deer, bears, raccoons and 
opposums will be legal. However, it will be 
December 1, opening of the quail season, before 
the real army of hunters get into the field. 



ELECTRICAL RELATION 

TO FARM IS STUDIED 



A recent tabulation reveals that 24 of the 48 
states in the Union have started studies through 
some official agency for the purpose of securing 
for agriculture the fullest benefits of electricity. 

These agencies are seeking primarily to work 
out solutions of problems that so far have stood 
in the way of the enjoyment of the full measure 
of electrical service by the farmer and rural dwel- 
ler that has been reached in the cities and towns, 
the questions being attacked from the viewpoint 
especially of the agriculturist. 

Numbers of surveys have shown conclusively 
that agriculture has received, proportionately, 
only a small degree of the benefits of the present 
day of electricity in comparison with other lines 
of industry. Committees, commissions or similar 
groups undertaking these studies are generally 
made up of representatives of agricultural col- 
leges, departments of agriculture, other state 
agencies, and representatives of power companies. 

Through its Division of Water Resources and 
Engineering, the Department of Conservation and 
Development has been seeking to create interest 
in similar studies in North Carolina. There are 
numerous uses, including lighting and other mod- 
ern conveniences, to which electricity can be ap- 
plied on the farms, and the agricultural popula- 
tion of the State should receive the full benefits 
of this service in the same degree as others. 




A view of kilns at the Mt. Gilead Brick Company, Mr. Gilead, X. ('. This is one 
of the plants which is a material factor in producing the approximately )«4,0<M>,«MK» 
worth of 'brick made in North Carolina annually. Tin' industry is expanding rapidly. 



. . . ■ ■'€••• ' 

. . ' . ' ' ■ ' ' 

. ■ ' . • 

■ . . . • ■ ' ' ' ' . ' 

I-, , 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of rn 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft 1 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departing 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature ! 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through th's <\ 
ment and other booster or;' 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



. 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 1 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an I 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround: 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the l 
of localities and that the bi: 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



NEW MINERAL MARK FOR 
NORTH CAROLINA 



1927 

Brick and tile $ 3,834,494 

Kaolin 327,688 

Cement products 671,242 

Coal l 400,000 

Feldspar 612,214 

Gold 1,015 

Granite 4,562,879 

Iron 81,753 

Limestone, marble, etc 477,316 

Mica 114,514 

Pottery 25,192 

Quartz 19,853 

Sand and gravel 871,416 

Silver 5 

Talc, pyrophyllite 

Miscellaneous")' 793,373 

Total $ 12,569,433 



t Includes copper, millstones, and talc. 



o< — ioc3oi — >o< — >o<73Qi — >o< 






1926 
$ 4,225,653 
331,487 

243,000 

602,020 

1,631 

3,802,017 

33,045 

338,811 

204,410 

31,248 

17,457 

968,021 

13 

97,004 

199,991 

$11,274,224 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION 
AND INDUSTRY 

A Bi -Weekly Publication of the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 



VOL.V 



Raleigh, N. C, October 15, 1928 



No. 20 



STATE FAIR EDITION 







MAIN BUILDING, STATE FAIR 



— 





■ . : ; . : : 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft- 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmt 
regular tabulations of indus 
prove an advertising feature ! 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opt 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through th's i\ 

ment and other booster or;i 

i 

able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A* 



Mexican quail of the first J 
buted this spring in North ; 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround; 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close • 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the ij 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock j 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. ^ 



North Carolina Game Wardens And Districts 

District No. 1, C. N. Mease, Black Mountain, N. C, Assistant State Game 
Warden (Also Chief Forest Warden) in Charge 

Buncombe J. A. Bradshaw , Candler 

Clay W. T. Hunt Hayesville 

Cherokee A. W. Padgett Andrews 

Graham Forest Denton Robbinsville 

Haywood G. W. Burnett Waynesville 

Henderson R. J. Fletcher Etowah 

Jackson F. E. Parker Dillsboro 

Macon J. J. Mann Franklin 

Madison C. M. Gage Marshall 

Polk 0. C. Bridges Columbus 

Swain W. W. Jenkins Bryson City 

Transylvania E. R. Galloway i Rosman 

Yancey Molt Hensley Burnsville 

District A T o. 2, J. P. Stepp, Lenoir, N. C, Assistant State Game Warden 
(Also Chief Forest Warden) in Charge 

Alexander F. C. Thompson Taylorsville 

Alleghany L. W. Bryan Glade Valley 

Ashe W. J. Ray Smethport 

Avery R. C. Franklin Linville Falls 

Burke J. M. Walton Morganton 

Caldwell Mark Goforth Lenoir 

Catawba Thos. H. Phillips Newton, Rt. 1 

Lincoln J. L. Thompson Lincolnton 

McDowell Thos. W. Gowan Marion, Rt. 3 

Mitchell W. R. Garland Spruce Pine 

Rutherford W. J. Hardin Rutherfordton, Rt. 3 

Surry Martin Bennett Mount Airy 

Watauga James W. Bryan Boone 

Wilkes H. G. Minton Ferguson 



District A r o. 



Alamance 

Caswell 

Davie 

Forsyth 

Guilford ...__ 

Iredell 

Orange 

Rockingham 

Stokes 

Yadkin 



3, John C. Thomas, Winston-Salem, N. C, Assistant State Game 
Warden in Charge 

J. D. Lee Graham 

J. C. Bryant Milton 

T. A. Vanzant Mocksville 

W. H. Hicks Pfafftown 

A. M. Benbow Oak Ridge 

O. L. Lippard Statesville 

M. W. Durham Chapel Hill 

Jack Saunders Wentworth 

R. R. King Danbury 

W. L. Wood Hamptonville 



Anson 

Cabarrus _ 
Cleveland- 
Davidson. 



District No. 4, W. C. Lisk, Richfield, N. C, Assistant State Game Warden 

in Charge 

L. P. Snyder Wadesboro 

C. R. Honeycutt Concord 

M. H. Austell Shelby 

J. W. Cashatt Denton 

R. F. Dorsett Wallburg 

J. E. C. Ford Gastonia 

H. R. McLean Raeford 

C. F. Baldwin Troy 

Alex Fields Southern Pines 

R. C. Lewallen Asheboro 

G. A. Seawell Rockingham 

G. R. Miller China Grove 

A. D. Thames Wagram 

T. F. Crisco Albemarle 

A. T. English Monroe 



Gaston 

Hoke 

Montgomery _ 

Moore 

Randolph 

Richmond 

Rowan 

Scotland 

Stanly 

Union 



(Continued on Back Page) 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Raleigh, N. C, October 15, 1928 



Conservation Has Become Important 
Factor in North Carolina Government 



Conservation, in its broadest term, as a State 
function and encouragement of the development 
of natural resources are relatively new terms to 
receive appreciable attention in North Carolina. 

They have become definite objectives of the 
State government and have been assigned to a 
department especially charged with carrying out 
a program designed to bring about their realiza- 
tion in the future. The State has recognized the 
importance of these two duties by creating a 
Department of Conservation and Development. 

Although some of the features of the program 
of the Department had been undertaken for 
some years before its creation by other State 
agencies, it was the vision of Governor A. W. 
McLean and upon his recommendation that the 
General Assembly of 192S created the Depart- 



ment upon the foundation laid by the old State 
Geological and Economical Survey. 

However, it was two years later, in 1927, that 
its scope reached its present extent. The General 
Assembly, on recommendation of Governor Mc- 
Lean, merged the old Fisheries Commission Board 
with the Department and placed the administra- 
tion of the newly enacted State Game Law under 
its jurisdiction. Together with expansion of the 
program under its previous authority, the new 
duties added to the Department more than dou- 
bled its scope of operations. 

The governing board of the Department was 
enlarged with absorption of the new features 
and now consists of 13 members with Governor 
A. W. McLean as chairman ex-officio; other 
members include: Fred I. Sutton, Kinston; Ben 




Air view of Lake Tahoma, one of the attractive recreational centers in North Carolina. The 
lake is located near Marion. Each year it is drawing an increasingly large number of visitors. 



~- 



■ ... • 

. . ■.;;..: 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w I 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departing 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster orj] 
able to keep a closer touch I 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the ij 
of localities and that the bi:' 
have taken up with a flock ! 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. ^ 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 

Wade H. Phillips Director 

Paul Kelly Editor 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



B. Gossett, Charlotte; Jas. G. K. McClure, Ashe- 
ville; Sanford Martin, Winston-Salem; J. .Q. 
Gilkey, Marion; F. S. Worthy, Washington; R. 
Bruce Etheridgc, Manteo; Frank H. Stedman, 
Fayettcville; Ed. D. Cranford, Asheboro; E. S. 
Askew, Merry Hill; S. Wade Marr, Raleigh; and 
George L. Hampton, Canton. Wade H. Phillips, 
as director, is the Department's executive head 
and in charge of carrying out its program. 

For administrative purposes, the Department 
has been divided into eight divisions covering the 
subjects of forestry, game, commercial fisheries, 
inland fisheries, geology, water resources, com- 
merce and industry, and public relations. Each 
of these operate under the supervision of a Divi- 
sion Chief. 

Objects of the Department 
As defined by the law which created it, the 
duties of the Department, are as follows: 

1. To take over the powers and duties exer- 
cised by the State Geological and Economic Sur- 
vey, the State Geological Board, and the State 
Geologist, as provided for in chapter one hun- 
dred and one of the Consolidated Statutes of one 
thousand nine hundred and nineteen, and other 
statutes relating thereto. 

2. By investigation, recommendation and pub- 
lication, to aid — 

(a) In the promotion of the conservation and 
development of the natural resources of the 
State ; 

(b) In promoting a more profitable use of 
lands, forests and waters; 

(c) In promoting the development of com- 
merce and industry ; 



(rf) In co-ordinating existing scientific inves- 
tigations and other related agencies in formulating 
and promoting sound policies of conservtion and 
development ; and 

(e) To collect and classify the facts derived 
from such investigations and from other agencies 
of the State as a source of information easily 
accessible to the citizens of the State and to the 
public generally, setting forth the natural, eco- 
nomic, industrial and commercial advantages of 
the State. 

The assignment of duties formerly carried out 
by the Fisheries Commission Board to the De- 
partment of Conservation and Development in- 
volves the passage and enforcement of regulations 
for the preservation and increase of the supply 
of commercial and inland fish. This requires a 
close contact with the condition of the fishing in- 
dutry and sport fishing, including the compila- 
tion of reports showing the prevalency or the 
decrease of the various varieties of fish. 

Incorporation of game law administration 
within the Department's jurisdiction added the 
responsibility of the conservation of useful species 
of wild birds and animals and the rehabilitation 
of the supply where they had become depleted 
under existing conditions. 

In attempting to enumerate the work being 
undertaken by the various Divisions it is possi- 
ble because of their broad scope to mention only 
the most outstanding. 

Activities and Accomplishments 

Forestry — Most extensive and comprehensive of 
the duties of the Foresty Division are forest fire 
prevention and control. These functions arc car- 
ried out by educational programs and by a field 
force. 

Under the system now in vogue, warden organ- 
izations for fire prevention and protection are 
created by the voluntary co-operation of coun- 
ties with the State, two agreements being used ; 
one calling for the appropriation of equal 
amounts by the State and the county and the 
other for the county to make available a maxi- 
mum amount for actual fire fighting operations 
and for the State to spend a sum equal to the 
maximum amount in furnishing equipment and 
paying administration and educational costs. 

Duties of the Forestry Division cover all of 
the fundamental forestry work. It is endeavoring 
to assure to the future a permanent supply of 
timber and the preservation of sufficient recrea- 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



J 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



tional facilities for the health and enjoyment of 
the people. 

Starting with the ground work of protection 
against forest fire, the Division follows with re- 
forestation, handling, and proper utilization of 
wood products. The major emphasis is placed 
on efforts to eliminate an average waste of more 
than $1,000,000 annually in North Carolina from 
forest fires. Forty-nine counties, with the co-oper- 
ation of the State,, are now maintaining active 
warden organizations. 

Operations of the Forest Warden forces in the 
past few years have shown more concrete results 
than during any period in the history of the 
State. In 1°2S, fires claimed damages amount- 
ing to $1,947,509; in 1926, this was reduced to 
$1,1.53,151; and the losses had dropped to $763,- 
880 in 1927; while the most effective work was 
shown in the first six months of 1928, when a 
total damage of only $121,603 was reported. 
The area under the protection has grown from 
3,872,100 acres in 1922 to 8,120,900 in 1928. 

Estimates of foresters place the number of 
acres of land in North Carolina idle but which 
should be growing timber at 4,000,000 acres. It is 
also estimated that an average acre of forest land 
should produce timber worth $2 per acre. These 
idle acres mean an economic loss of at least $8,- 



000,000 annually. The Forestry Division has set 
as one of its objectives the return of these areas 
to production. To encourage this, it has estab- 
lished a forest tree nursery to furnish seedlings 
for replanting where nature has been so handi- 
capped that natural growth does not come. The 
seedlings are provided at a price below the cost 
of production. 

Another feature of the program of the Forestry 
Division is the administration of State Parks and 
Forests. Although the entire chain is now less 
than 2,000 acres, plans are being made to develop 
a system that will place a State Park or Forest 
within easy reach of all sections of the State and 
to preserve for the enjoyment of all of the peo- 
ple places of outstanding scenic and historic in- 
terest and ample facilities for recreation. 

Game Division 

Although only a little more than a year old, the 
Game Division has developed into one of the 
largest of the Department's branches, from the 
standpoint of public funds entrusted to its care 
and the force required for administration of the 
law. Both the regulative and constructive side 
of the law have been emphasized, as witnessed 
by the results brought about up to this time. 

The co-operation which has come from the 
hunters testifies to the popularity of the law and 




Net sale day on the coast. Fishermen who placed their nets in forbidden territory forfeit 
them when seized by commercial fisheries officials. This photograph was taken at Manteo 
ust after a sale was made to the highest bidder. 



T 



I . > r ■ 

■ " , • 

. . . ■ . , 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of ni 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately aft>[ 
is proposed by this means to ] 
the industrial development wf 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmd 
regular tabulations of indus' 
prove an advertising feature ! 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys ha\ 
Department in the past, but j 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this if 
ment and other booster ori| 
able to keep a closer touch r 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A> 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North j 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround; 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the i| 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



their conception of its importance to the State. 
Even the most enthusiastic sportsman was sur- 
prised at the revelation that a minimum of 139,- 
170 persons were sufficiently interested in game 
to purchase licenses. This number did not in- 
clude those who hunted legally but were not 
required under the law to purchase licenses, such 
as landowners and tenants hunting on their own 
lands or on those under their control. Total col- 
lections of licenses for the first game seasons 
amounted to approximately $208,000. 

Scarcely had the law gone into effect before 
the construction of a State Game Farm for the 
propagation of game with which to restock de- 
pleted covers had been started. Approximately 
$20,000 was spent on completing the improve- 
ments and operation for the first year. It is 
estimated that the first year's output will amount 
to approximately 900 quail and 350 pheasants. 
This number will be increased, under plans of 
the Department, until the total distribution 
reaches 10,000 birds annually. 

Last spring 4,000 quail were imported from 
Mexico and some were distributed in every 
county in the State. According to reports re- 
ceived from a majority of counties, the birds 
have thrived and hundreds of new coveys of 
birds will be ready for the hunting this season. 
It is contended by some sportsmen that inter- 
breeding between the Mexican and native quail 
brings a slightly larger and more gamey bird. 

Constructive work in game rehabilitation has 
been carried further by the Department in the 
establishment of a series of game refuges with 
provisions for public shooting grounds around 
their margins. There is now a total of 171,570 
acres in public refuges in North Carolina, includ- 
ing one federal refuge. There are seven State 
refuges, ranging in size from 350 to 30,000 acres. 

Commercial Fisheries Division 

Protection and promotion of an industry which 
fujjriishes th'« livelihood for approximately 50,000 
persons is the function of the Commercial Fish- 
eries Division, placed under the administration 
of this Department with the merger of the for- 
mer Fisheries Commission Board. 

The work of this Division consists largely in 
regulation of the industry for the protection of 
the rights of all those engaged therein and of the 
general public. It also exercises a safeguard for 
markets and for the consumer by the mainten- 
ance of sanitary supervision over the shellfish 
beds and distribution. 

Regulative meaures include the setting of sea- 



sons for protecting the fish during spawning and 
reproduction periods; setting of size limits as a 
conservation measure that has as its object the 
maintenance of a permanent supply ; prohibiting 
destructive equipment in catching commercial 
fish; propagation of various species that have 
been depleted; and carrying on scientific research 
to determine steps that must be taken for per- 
manent supplies of sea products. 

Importance of the commercial fisheries opera- 
tions is shown by a total output of 46,159,610 
pounds of food fish during the 1926-28 biennium, 
a substantial increase from the yield of 26,285,618 
pounds for the 1922-24 biennium. 

The production of oysters and escallops for the 
last biennium amounted to more than $600,000 
in value, an average of more than $300,000 a 
season. Inspection of this great output is one of 
the major operations of the Division. 

Inland Fisheries Division 

Administration of the laws governing game 
fishing and the operation of a program of repopu- 
lating the streams of the State with game fish 
are the main duties of this Division. 

With the passage of the State Anglers' act by 
the 1927 General Assembly, the first provision 
was made for carrying out a broad program for 
conserving the fish life in inland waters of North 
Carolina. A warden service to enforce regula- 
tions governing seasons, size, and bag limits was 
organized and operated last year and this year. 

Licenses for sport fishing were collected from 
approximately 12,000 persons during each year, 
and around $17,000 annually in collections were 
recorded. With these funds, the capacities of the 
five previously established hatcheries were en- 
larged and one new hatchery constructed. The 
Division continued co-operation with the U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries in the operation of one 
hatchery and the two agencies together opened 
another. 

As a result of the increased activities in fish 
propagation, the combined estimated output of 
State-operated and co-operative hatcheries was 
increased from slightly more than 2,000,000 in 
1927 to around 9,000,000 this year. 

The Division has taken the lead in urging the 
establishment of a series of nurseries in which the 
baby products of the hatcheries may be reared 
to such a size that their average survival when 
released in fishing waters will be much greater. 
It is estimated that approximately 500,000 fry 
have been held at hatcheries this year until they 
have reached the fingerling stage. Besides these, 






of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



«( 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



hundreds of thousands of others have been reared 
in nurseries constructed on the advice of fish 
rulturists of the Division. 

Division of Water Resources 

Fundamental work in safeguarding the inter- 
ests of the people in the development of the 
State's water resources and engineering is 
among the outstanding features of the various 
functions of this Division. Operation of stream 
gaging stations has long been one of its major 
operations, and this work has grown until today 
North Carolina leads the South in number of 
these stations. This has played an important 
part in the development of hydro-electric re- 
sources, aiding in the solution of municipal water 
supply sewerage disposal and other problems. 

Within recent months, a Committee on Stream 
Sanitation and Conservation has been organized 
by this Division in conjunction with the State 
Board of Health. This committee is seeking to 
work out plans to improve the condition of pol- 
luted surface waters and prevent, in interest of 
public health, fish life, and industry, the spread 
of this condition. Its work is being done in co- 
operation with industries that must dispose of 
wastes creating the problems. 

Exhaustive studies are being made of the in- 
dustrial waters of the State to encourage more- 
widespread use in manufacturing processes. A 
preliminary report carrying chemical analyses of 
almost 200 typical specimens of waters, showing 
their suitability for any type of industrial use, 
recently issued is contributing to the industrial 
development of the State. 

A series of studies of the erosion and accretion 
along the coast has been started by this Division. 
The primary aim of this work is to aid in the 
solution of problems arising from damages by the 
elements to improvements along the beaches, 
navigation, and supply of fish life. 

Rainfall, silting, evaporation, and surface 
water runoff are also subjects receiving attention 
by the engineers. A large amount of surveying 
and mapping of State properties have been done 
by the Division. 

Mineral Resources Division 

Although North Carolina has long been known 
merely as a "sample case" of minerals, this Divis- 
ion is going far toward showing the world the 
commercial value of its deposits. Tabulation of 
output, location, and deposit extent have con- 
tributed much to the development of the minerals 
of the State. 



Speciments of minerals are examined free of 
charge by the State Geologist and the owners 
are advised of their value. The constantly grow- 
ing number of these samples received by the Di- 
vision shows the stimulation of interest in this 
great natural resource. 

Another angle from which the development of 
minerals is encouraged is by putting the producer 
and the consumer in contact, thereby building up 
markets for the mineral output. A new law, 
passed by the 1927 General Assembly, requires 
the registration of every mineral producer with 
the Division of Mineral Resources. This has 




This photograph shows the extent of clay 
mining at one of the largest pits in the State, 
belonging to the Harris Clay Co., and located 
near Penland. North Carolina is the largest 
producer of residual kaolin clay. 



... ... 








DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of in 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begir 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft- 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmt 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster or; 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surroundi 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the ]| 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock ; 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



given an index which has been mutually helpful 
to both producer and consumer. 

The Division has assisted marterially in a num- 
ber of specific developments and is now engaged 
in furnishing advise for the exploitation of a 
number of deposits which will create additional 
enterprises, provide large payrolls and bring 
money into the State. 

A steadily increasing volume of mineral out- 
put during the past several years shows most 
vividly the growing interest in this resource. In 
1900, the total mineral production amounted to 
$1,604,078; in 1905, $2,439,381; in 1910, $2,- 
848,078; in 1915, $3,584,725; in 1920, $8,117,- 
916; in 1926, $11,274,224; and in 1927, $12,- 
569,433. 

Division of Commerce and Industry ' 

Operations of this Division may be included 
within the scope of promotion of the commerce 
and industry of the State. This is done through 
a variety of sources, largely by means of funda- 
mental research and tabulations which are broad- 
casted for the benefit of other agencies within the 
State working toward the same end. 

Its results are conspicuous in the contributions 
toward the securing of two large rayon plants 
for North Carolina, in addition to active assist- 
ance in the location of other industries. 

One of the largest operations of the Division 
was the taking of the Census of Manufactures 
for 1927 in North Carolina in co-operation with 
the U. S. Bureau of the Census, this State being 
only one or two in the entire country which are 
carrying on this work. Tabulations from 
the enumeration have already been released, 
months in advance of the time they would other- 
wise have been available. The figures are now 
being used for the benefit of commerce and in- 
dustry. 

Another large undertaking on the part of the 
Division is a survey of natural resources and 
industry of North Carolina, which is being car- 
ried out in co-operation with the other Divisions 
of the Department and State agencies. The ob- 
ject of this study is to promote the develop- 
ment of the natural resources of the State, 

Division of Public Relations 

This Division, with limited provisions, has 
undertaken to advertise the accomplishments and 
the opportunities for development in North Caro- 
lina through display advertising and news arti- 
cles. 

Photographs have also been used as a medium 



STATE FAIR EXHIBIT 
PRESENTS OUTLINE 
DEPARTMENT WORK 



A representative review of the functions and 
activities of the various Divisions of the Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development is pre- 
sented in the exhibit in the main building at the 
State Fair grounds. . 

The exhibit covers a space: with a 60-foot 
frontage, having a depth of 10 feet in the north- 
east corner of the building. Six booths in the 
space represent the eight divisions, four being 
combined in two of the spaces. 

In the background of the exhibit is a painted 
scene, depicting the work of each division. This 
scene is continuous for the 60 feet and a 10-foot 
stretch on the side. 

The Division of Forestry display contains a 
forest fire scene, the background of which is a 
complete sketch of raging forest fire. As con- 
tract is drawn between forests protected against 
their greatest enemy and another ravaged by 
fire. ..-.-. 

Game operations by the Department are repre- 
sented by a forest and field scene, containing spec- 
imens of mounted birds and animals found in the 
State. An auxiliary display of leading species 
of game is outside the building. These live speci- 
mens include deer, bears, foxes, raccoons, pheas- 
ants, and quail. 

The display of the Commercial and Inland 
Fisheries Divisions is featured by a model hatch- 
ery containing living specimens of the principal 



of broadcasting the natural advantages and prog- 
ress of the State. These have been sent out to 
scores of publications throughout the United 
States. 

"Conservation and Industry," Departmental 
publication, is issued under the direction of the 
Division, which seeks to keep residents of the 
State informed regarding activities of the vari- 
ous Divisions. 

An important feature of the public relations 
work has been an intra-State educational program 
showing the need of conservation of natural 
resources and suggesting channels of aid in car- 
rying out such a program. This has been done 
with the co-operafion of the progressive press 
of the State. ,. ,. „,-■• -, 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



not 



he 



t ms m 
has 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



?! 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



varieties of aquatic life that are propagated for 
the restocking of fishing waters of the State. A 
spread of samples of shellfish, fin fish, game fish, 
and other fishery products is used to present an 
idea of the range of fish life in commercial and 
inland fishing waters. 

Mineral resources are represented by a collec- 
tion of both commercial and rare mineral pro- 
ducts. These give a good idea of the variety 
and scope of minerals in North Carolina. Some 
conception of the extent of development and the 
possibilities for future exploitation is given by 
the display. 



Water resources operations of the Department 
are represented by a comprehensive display of 
charts, maps, and statistical data prepared by 
the personnel of the Division. A model stream 
gaging station gives a physical demonstration of 
one of the most important angles of its work. 

A demonstration of the work of the Divisions 
of Commerce and Industry and Public Relation- 
is combined in one of the sections of the exhibit. 
This display gives some conception of the funda- 
mental research in applying statistical information 
to practical problems of conservation and devel- 
opment of North Carolina's natural and human 
resources. Samples of various publications and 



Tabulation Census of Manufacturers for 1927 



INDUSTRY 



No. 
F.slab. 



POTAL 1927 (All industries) 3,008 

TOTAL 1925 (All industries) > 2.IH4 



1 All Textiles and products, 1027 

(a) Clothing, Men 

1927 Total 

1925 Total 

(b) Cordage and Twin 

1927 Total 

1925 Total 

(c) Cotton Goods 

1927 Total 

1925 Total 

(d) Cotton small wares 

1927 Total 

1925 Total 

(e) Dyeing and finishing 

1927 Total 

1925 Total 

(f) Gloves and Mittens 

1927 Total 

1925 Total 

(g) Knit Goods 

1927 Total 

1925 Total 

(h) Woolen Goods 

1927 Total 

1925 Total 

2 Tobacco products 

1927 Total 

1925 Total 

-1 Lumber Including planing mills 

1927 Total 

1925 Total . 
.'! Furniture 

1927 Total 

1925 Total 
5 Fertilizer 

1927 Total 

1925 Total 

(i Flour and Meal 

1927 Total 

1925 Total .. 

7 Cotton Seed oil, cake and meal 

1927 Total 

1925 Total 

8 Leather, tanned and cured 

1927 Total 

1925 'Total 

9 Car Construction and Repair 
(Steam Railways) 1927 Total 

1925 'Total 

10 Printing and Publishing 

1927 'Total 

1925 Total 



595 



374 
304 



129 
111 



21 
21 



750 

009 



I4:f 

127 



1 33 

115 



22.S 
21S 



Wage 

Earners 



204,707 
1X2, 2:i I 

123.532 

1,547 
1.051 

1, 150 
1,137 

95 , 809 
84,139 

101 

44 

2,548 
1.294 



17.430 
13.727 

1,158 

832 

15,970 
15,715 

21,, '100 
20,709 

14,821 
13,567 

1 .842 
1,790 

502 
181 

1.118 
I . 120 

1 ,342 

1 , 020 

1,611 

1.870 

1.753 

1,028 



Wages 



$158,287,197 
134,237,097 

80,145,015 

914,305 
007,144 

915,094 
040,515 

66,122,495 
53,939,704 

171,694 
43,627 

2.229,800 
999.703 

91,091 

102.828 

1 1 .903, 107 
8,287,238 

I .028,981 
038.055 



2,545.075 
2 . 000 ,215 



, 170, 166 
.530,054 



4.417.590 
0.752,977 



I .532,31,4 
1.419.240 



5 19,010 
142.024 



I .007.922 
802,933 



1 .237,243 
878.001 



6,369, 117 

0, 305. 201 



2,830.028 
2,018.074 



Fuel and 
Power 



$502,080,283 
550,700.905 

256,887,670. 

2,977,290 
2,575,739 

4,113,524 
4,658,202 

184,758,009 
207,273,801 

420,960 
143,416 

13.575,705 
, 006 , 1 1 1 

393,902 
277.275 

32.372.944 
27,994,889 

3.320,912 
3,359,450 

121,712,918 
113,395,720 

25,533,021 
20,021,877 

27.702,378 
21.94 4.903 

13,902,784 
13,956, 128 

15,046,938 

15.227,237 

13.902.2 15 
1 1,770.990 

12. 128.432 
8.232.977 

7,209,774 

7.800, 133 

2,979.000 
2.795.152 



'Total Value 
Products 



11,154 

1 , 050 



017,030 
434,117 



425,437,522 



310 
310 



113 

343 



,728,769 
,179,121 

.520,058 
,300,284 

801,860 
008,931 

850,515 
255,077 

.402,448 

.510.852 

012.233 
575.431 

.370.220 
,300,819 

.189.127 
,394,940 

274, 111 
075,007 

189,052 

002.015 

551.221 
208.238 

293.087 
008.5 10 

8 17. 152 
201>,542 

012.879 
18 1.24 1 

405.354 
042.480 

117, 133 
993.594 



259,220 
000, 430 



Value added 

by Manuf . 



$592,531,353 
499,727,152 

169,549,840 

4.706,005 

3,754.si;u 

2,400,534 
1,648,082 

120,043.791 
108,794,970 

435.555 
111,001 

5.820,743 
2.504.74 1 

218.331 
298 . 1 50 

23.997,270 
10,305.930 

5,510,039 
4,754,390 

288,501.190 
129.079,781 

27,055.758 
28.037.738 

25.848.843 
26,263,335 

1.330.903 
II. 112.118 

2 . 800 .514 

2.971.305 

3. 050. 03 1 
2.707,254 

1.270.922 
2. 809.. ".11:1 

7.237.05H 
7. 193. 163 

9,279,560 

8.205,278 



..... 



H 



. . ; 

4 " ■• '" 

— — == I 

DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have ' 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately aft>[ 
is proposed by this means to ; 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departms 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature ! 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster or; 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL AJ 

Mexican quail of the first f 
buted this spring in North ; 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround; 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close • 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the ij 
of localities and that the bi;| 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



10 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



advertising data show some of the applications 
of compiled information. 

The entire display of the Department has been 
assembled with a view of permanency, however, 
allowing for improvements, amplifications, and 
adjustments annually. It was arranged under the 
direction of Chas. H. Flory, Assistant Forester 
in charge of forest fire control. 



GAME FISH NURSERY 
TO BE ESTABLISHED 
CHEROKEE COUNTY 



Officials of the Home Mortgage Company, Dur- 
ham, have recently requested one thousand leaf- 
lets, "North Carolina Facts and Figures," for use 
in an advertising campaign. This leaflet, edited by 
Park Mathewson, statistician of the Division of 
Commerce and Industry, has been exhausted in 
two press runs and a third is now being pre- 
pared. 



"We appreciate the work you have done in 
adding new firms to the exporters' index," F. W. 
Darnell, assistant manager of the Norfolk office 
of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce, has written to Park Mathewson, head of 
the Division of Commerce and Industry of this 
Department. "I do not know of another co- 
operative office which has added so many during 
the past year." 



Co-operation of counties and individuals in a 
group of western counties with the Inland Fish- 
eries Division of the Department of Conserva- 
tion and Development has made possible the 
establishment of a comprehensive group of fish 
nursery ponds. 

Arrangements have been completed for the 
location of the new nursery near Andrews in 
Cherokee county. Co-operative funds aggrega- 
ting $1,500 have been pledged to the Department 
which will meet this sum by furnishing $1,000. 

The establishment of the hatchery was made 
possible through a generous gift of 15 acres of 
land from Mrs. Billie Boyd Collett, wife of 
Richard W. Collett, deceased, and her brother, 
George Collett, of Andrews. 

Mrs. Collett's gift is a memorium in honor of 
her husband, who was an enthusiastic sportsman 
and conservationist. Mr. Collect was for several 
years connected with the State Department of 
Agriculture. He was also at one time in the 
employ of the Dupont interests. 




Grandstand at the race track, State fair Grounds. Seating capacity for more than 3,000 
spectators is provided here. Opposite the grandstand is the large stage upon which free acts 
will be given. Powerful flood lights will be thrown from the roof of stand to the stage and 
race track. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not ne nas any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 




he has 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



11 



Tentative plans for the construction of the 
nursery were made during a series of conferences 
between J. K. Dixon, assistant director of the 
Department; Jas. G. K. McClure, member of the 
Hoard of Conservation and Development from 
Asheville; Frank J. Reiser, superintendent of 
hatcheries, and county officials and sportsmen. 

Mr. Dixon reported that the following funds 
have been promised: Cherokee County, $500; 
Graham County, $500; Clay County, $250; and 
citizens of Andrews, $250. 

As quickly as preparations can be made, con- 
struction work will be started under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Reiger. Ponds for rearing both rain- 
bow trout and bass will be developed. Distribu- 
tion will be principally in the counties surround- 
ing the proposed nursery. 



GAME ENTHUSIASTS 
OFTEN CARELESSLY 
MAR OWN PLEASURE 



STATE GAME WARDEN 

VISITS SAURATOWNS 



After his first inspection of the Sauratown 
State Game Refuge in Stokes County, State Game 
Warden Chas. H. England recently declared that 
the area affords one of the best opportunities 
for restoration of old-time hunting that he has 
seen. 

This game sanctuary, containing more than 30,- 
000 acres, is the largest of the several preserves 
which the State has established. Its creation was 
made possible by the co-operation of residents 
of Stokes County, Winston-Salem sportsmen, and 
others with the Game Division of the Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development. 

State Game Warden England asserts that the 
territory is ideal for many kinds of game since a 
large part of the territory is wooded, has good 
cover, and is amply supplied with game food. 
Its rugged nature gives it an especial attraction 
for birds and animals. 

According to the observations of the State 
Game Warden there is little game in the terri- 
tory at this time, but he expressed interest in 
undertaking extensive restocking efforts. He be- 
lieves that this area is one of the best in the 
State to reintroduce the valuable beaver, the last 
specimens of which reported taken in the State 
coming from this section. Warden England de- 
clared that he is considering plans for Stocking 
the refuge with a variety of game birds and ani- 
mals. 



It is one of the ironies of life that persons 
often destroy those things which they prize most 
highly, little realizing the consequences of their 
acts. 

Every true sportsman who goes into the fields 
and the woods wants to preserve the ancient heri- 
tage of hunting, but often (and it is proven by 
well-kept records) as a group they unwittingly 
and without proper thought are the chief offend- 
ers in curtailing the enjoyment of the facilities 
with which nature has provided them. 

Fresh and productive covers and forests are 
necessary as the fundamental requirement in 
maintaining satisfactory hunting conditions. 
Fire is one of the worst enemies of game life, 
which cannot exist when carelessly started flames 
destroy the homes and food sources upon which 
it must depend. 

Records of the Forestry Division of this De- 
partment show that a large percentage of the for- 
est fires in North Carolina is caused by the care- 
lessly handled fires in the hands of hunters and 
fishermen. A recklessly flipped match, cigarette 
or cigar stump, pipe ashes, or deserted campfire 
may destroy hunting for years and drive game 
completely out of a large area. 

The Forestry and Game Divisions of this De- 
partment are working in full co-operation toward 
the control of fires in the woods. Their program, 
in this respect drive toward the same object — 
preservation of the attractiveness of the State 
for game. In an appeal to sportsmen and to the 
public, W. A. Peterson, district forester, Fayette- 
ville, says: 

"Another hunting season is with us and with 
it comes the attendant but absolutely needless 
danger to the forests from lire. There are many 
other causes, such as in the case of forest fires 
started by careless smokers, by industrial con- 
cerns such as railroads and sawmills, and some, 
I am sorry to say, started with a deliberate at- 
tempt to set fire to forest areas owned by another. 
The latter case, I am glad to say, i> in the minor- 
ity, but this class of vandhl deserves no sympa 
thy and should be dealt with as severely a- Un- 
law will allow. 

"There are many causes of foresl lire-, Ian the 
results are always the same Large stands of 
young growing timber, as well a- much timber 






DEPARTMENT I 

QUARTERLY ] 

OF NEW IN 



12 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of rn 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begir 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w f 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmd 
regular tabulations of indus* 
prove an advertising feature ! 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav, 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature ]' 
mined upon. Through this <> 
ment and other booster or;| 
able to keep a closer touch f 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



of merchantable size is annually destroyed, while 
the resting places of game birds and the shelter 
and cover afforded by the forests for all kinds 
of game is destroyed for a long term of years. 
"The owner of woodlands is the heaviest loser 
from a purely monetary standpoint when the for- 
ests are destroyed, yet the loss to sportsmen 
through depleted game supplies and the corres- 
ponding loss in pleasure can not be measured in 
mere dollars and cents. The landowner and 
sportsman are not the only losers. Everybody 
is damaged when forests are destroyed. Who 
can find pleasure in riding along a highway bor- 
dered by the stark, fire-blackened stumps which 
was a beautiful green forest full of singing birds 
and happy animal life? 

"The State is spending large sums of money in 
trying to protect the forests and the game and 
in the protection of streams and lakes and the 
fish that are yearly growing scarcer. Much of 
this money comes from the sportsmen in the 
payment of fishing and hunting licenses, and it 



is for this reason that I make my appeal to the 
sportsmen to help in the great work of forest 
protection, for his own pleasure and the profit, 
happiness and well being of his children and the 
generations to come. 

"We ask your co-operation not only along the 
lines of actual prevention and suppression but 
along educational lines. Inform your boy of the 
dangers of carelessly setting fires . to the woods, 
and how much his future pleasure and happi- 
ness depends on his co-operation along these 
lines. 

"Only in this way can we insure for future 
generations the much desired state of affairs, 
which our carelessness and the lack of interest 
has done so much to destroy. The protection of 
forests is the public duty of every good citizen. 
Where a county is co-operating with the State 
Forest Service in forest protection, do your bit 
by reporting fires to the wardens not only when 
they are too large for you to extinguish, but 
when one is put out, that he may investigate the 
cause and prevent a repetition. Sportsmen, your 
duty is clear, what are you individually going 
to do about it?" 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround; 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close - 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock ' 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 




This photograph shows one of the most beautiful views at any of the State fish hatcheries-— 
"Pete" Murphy hatchery, near Marion. The scene is westward from near the entrance, looking 
toward the superintendent's cottage with the mountains in the background. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



; has ; 






serious question whether or not he nas any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



l.i 



SURVEY OF TEXTILES 
SHOWS OPPORTUNITY 
FOR DEVELOPMENT 



In the first of a series of analyses from census 
figures of 1027 (recently completed for North 
Carolina by the Commerce and Industry Divisor) 
of this Department working in co-operation with 
the United States Bureau of the Census) t he- 
character of textile development is reviewed. 

Although already claiming a front place in the 
textile field, North Carolina is shown by the 
survey to offer opportunities for a wide develop- 
ment in unoccupied branches of the industry. 
This study shows, according to Director Wade 
H. Phillips' analysis, that in the future the growth 
of textile should tend toward a diversification. 

The survey, preliminary in nature because of 
the lack of certain statistics for its completion, 
gives suggestions regarding the branches oi the 
textile industry not now represented by plants 
in North Carolina, at least part of which show 
promise of profitable exploitation in the State. 

Featuring the analysis is a tabulation showing 
the amount of production of leading branches of 
textiles and their products in the United States 
as a whole in comparison with North Carolina. 
While figures of last year are used for this State, 
it was necessary to use those for the country at 
large of 1925 since the latest national figures 
arc not yet available. 

It is pointed out that the United States Census 
of manufactures lists 54 groups of textiles and 
their products, while only 21 of these are shown 
to be produced in North Carolina. This signifies 
that there are 33 lines of textiles and their pro- 
ducts being manufactures in the country that 
arc not being turned out by mills in this 
State. 

Although this analysis is not offered as final 
or conclusive, it may be taken as a guide and an 
index for further research in the fields of textiles 
that are open to the State. Conferences with 
leaders in the textile industry in North Carolina 
recently have brought the opinion that at least 
a part of the unrepresented group would enjoy 
profitable operation and be desirable for North 
Carolina. 

Among the branches of textiles and their pro- 
ducts listed in the survey as not being represented 
in North Carolina are included the following: 
artificial leather, asphalt fell base Boor covering, 
men's collars, corsets, cotton laces, felt goods 



(wool or hair), hat and cap material, lur and 
felt hats, linen goods, linoleum, oilcloth, wool 
pulling, wool shoddy, worsted goods, and others. 
Another angle of the survey gives large 
branches of the textile industry that have only 
a limited output in North Carolina. This group 
includes, awnings, tents, sails, bags and other 
paper not made in textile mills, carpets and tug 
wool other than rag, certain groups of men'^ and 
women's clothing, cordage and twine, cotton 
small wares, waste, and other groups. 



182 CONVICTIONS ARE 

SECURED BY WARDENS 



Activity of the game wardens of the State 
during the first month of the fall hunting season 
is shown by reports to Chas. H. England of 1S2 
convictions on charges of law violation. 

In addition, there were 21 cases in September 
which did not come to trial during the month, 
making, according to the reports of County 
Warden, a total of 2CM arrests for the month. 

By comparison with last year, the wardens arc 
checking up more closely on violators. A total 
of 875 arrests were made during the entire sea- 
son, with convictions being obtained in a majority 
of the cases. 

Most of the arrests this year have been on 
charges of hunting without license or put of 
season. Game officials' determination and in- 
structions to wardens to enforce the laws more 
vigorously than before are bearing fruit. Under 
this policy, it is expected that violations will be- 
come steadily fewer, although the number of 
arrests mav show an increase. 



RADIO BROADCASTING 

PROGRAM ARRANGED 

With five State officials already booked for ad- 
dresses, the program of broadcasting during 
"North Carolina Week" over station WLAC, 
operated by the Life and Casualty Insurance 
Company, of Nashville, Tcnn . is being com- 
pleted. 

According to the tentative schedule, the week's 
broadcasting will be opened on Monday, October 
20, by W. A. Graham. Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture, who will have as hi-- subject: "North Caro- 
lina's Progress in Agriculture Since 1015." 

Other numbers on the program and the dates 



' ■ ■ • ; 

. t r . f t • ' • t 

. . . , < . . . , r, , 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an; 
made public immediately aft' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmtj 
regular tabulations of indus' 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav; 
Department in the past, but i 
plan as a permanent feature ]' 
mined upon. Through this <' 
ment and other booster or;! 
able to keep a closer touch } 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAIv 
QUAIL A 



14 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



of appearance follow: "North Carolina Highways 
as an Investment," Frank Page, Chairman of the 
State Highway Commission; Tuesday: address 
by Dr. A. T. Allen, Superintendent of Public 
Instruction; Wednesday: "Health, the State's 
Greatest Asset," Dr. Chas. O'H. Laughinghouse, 
secretary, State Board of Health; "North Caro- 
lina's Industrial Advance," Wade H. Phillips. 

Plans are also being made for additional speak- 
ers and for a number of musical and entertain- 
ment features for each evening during the week 
of broadcasting. Preliminary plans call for musi- 
cal numbers by groups of musicians from col- 
lege organizations. 



PERSONAL CANVASS 
TO WIND UP SURVEY 
STATE WASTE WOOD 



Mexican quail of the first [ 
buted this spring in North \ 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround; 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the 1 
of localities and that the bil 
have taken up with a flock ' 
calls frequently bring a respo ' 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Preparations are being made by the Division 
of Forestry of this Department for a personal 
canvass by forest and game wardens of wood 
using plants to complete the survey of non-uti- 
lized wood in North Carolina which is being car- 
ried on by the National Committee on Wood 
Utilization with the co-operation of this Depart- 
ment. 

According to a report received by Director 
Wade H. Phillips from Axel H. Oxholm, director 
of the national committee, approximately 56 per 
cent of the questionnaires mailed out in the sur- 
vey have been returned. A total of 1,790 ques- 
tionnaires have been sent to wood-using plants, 
and 1,015 have been returned with information. 

The canvass of the remaining firms will be 
made under the direction of State Forester J. S. 
Holmes, who will call in the services of forest 
and game wardens in the various sections of the 
State. He believes that it will be possible to 
obtain reports from all of the plants that have 
not yet been represented by reports. 

Tabulations and analyses of data will begin as 
soon as the canvass is completed, and the de- 
ductions gathered therefrom will be available for 
use by officials and individual concerns. From the 
survey, wood using plants and prospective devel- 
opments will be able to obtain an inventory of 
waste wood available for manufacturing pro- 
cesses and new markets may be created for 
materials for which there has formerly been 
no outlet or which have not been used effec- 
tively. 



One of the underlying motives behind the sur- 
vey is the conservation of the forests by encour- 
aging the complete utilization of the tree. 

"Perhaps you will be interested to know," Mr. 
Oxholm has written to Director Phillips, "that 
as a result of my recent study of wood utiliza- 
tion and forest economic conditions in Europe, I 
am convinced that the survey of non-utilized 
wood which the committee is carrying on is 
of far greater value than I at first anticipated." 



FORESTERS MOURNING 

DEATH OF J. G. PETERS 



Along with friends throughout the United 
States, foresters and other members of this De- 
partment are mourning the passing of James 
Girvin Peters, Chief of the Branch of Public 
Relations in the United States Forest Service, 
who died recently at Camden, Ark. 

Mr. Peters had been with the Federal Forest 
Service for more than a quarter of a century, 
having started in 1902. In 1910, he was placed in 
charge of State and private co-operative opera- 
tions and held that position through all of its 
developments. 

He was a close personal friend of State For- 
ester J. S. Holmes, who has been in constant 
contact with him for many years. Mr. Holmes 
assigns to his friend much of the credit for suc- 
cess in state work because of his ever-zealous 
championship of this angle of forestry practice. 



FOREST FIRE DAMAGE 

FOR SEPTEMBER LOW 



Preceded by epochal months in minimum for- 
est fire losses, the September report of the State 
Forest Service follows with one of the lowest 
records of the year. 

Only ten fires were reported during the month 
from the 39 counties maintaining warden organi- 
zations. These caused damages estimated at only 
$471 and spread over only 371 acres. 

Of the total of fires all, with the exception of 
one, were placed under the preventable class, the 
single exception being a fire caused by lightning. 
Incendiarists and smokers accounted for a major- 
ity of the burnings, the first group being respon- 
sible for four; and the second for three. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



- 

serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



^ 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



15 



LAST YEAR HANGS UP 
NEW MINERAL MARK 
FOR NORTH CAROLINA 



Production of minerals in North Carolina dur- 
ing 1927 reached a new mark with a value of 
over a million and a quarter dollars more 
than ever before in the history of the State, 
according to preliminary figures compiled by 
State Geologist H. J. Bryson in co-operation with 
the United States Bureau of Mines. 

The aggregate financial value of the mineral 
products for last year was $12,569,433 as com- 
pared with only $11,274,224, for 1026 which up 
until that time had been the banner year in the 
development of North Carolina minerals. 

From the tabulations prepared by Geologist 
Bryson showing a comparison for the two years, 
the greatest volume of increase in value of min- 
erals was in granited which jumped from $3,- 
802,017 in 1026 to $4,562,870 in 1027, an increase 
of approximately three quarters of a million dol- 
lars. 

Next in amount of increase was the miscellan- 
eous classification which jumped during the year 
from $199,991 to $793,373. Of chief consequence 
in this group was copper, which made up a 
larger part of this amount. Under this grouping 
is also placed talc and other minerals where in- 
formation is retained as confidential because of 
a limited number of producers. 

Brick and tile, which formerly have held first 
place in mineral production, according to the fig- 
ures, gave way to granite. The tabulation in- 
dicates a decrease in production of brick and tile, 
but the State Geologist believes that when final 
figures have been received for this industry that 
it will go to around the same figure recorded in 
1926. The production of these materials for that 
year was $4,225,653 and for last year it was 
$3,834,494. Other figures arc expected to add 
to the preliminary total since a number of 
firms arc yet to make reports. 

Following are the figures on production of the 
various minerals for the last two years: 

1927 1926 

Brick and tile $ 3,834,404 $ 4,225,053 

Kaolin 327,688 331,487 

Cement products „_ 671,242 

Coal 400,000 243,000 

Feldspar _' __ 612,214 602,020 

Gold 1,015 1,631 

Granite 4,562,870 3,802,017 



1927 1926 

Iron . . 81,753 33,045 

Limestone, marble, etc. - 477,316 338,811 

Mica 114,5.14 204,410 

Pottery 25,192 31,248 

Quartz 19,853 17,457 

Sand and gravel— 871,416 968,021 

Silver 3 13 

Talc, pyrophyllite 97,004 

Miscellaneous! 703,373 100,091 

Tolal __$12,569,433 $11,274,224 



WORTHY SEES GOOD 
SEASONS FOR OYSTER 
IN NORTH CAROLINA 



News received by F. S. Worthy, Washington, 
chairman of the Commercial Fisheries Committee 
of the Board of this Department, that the sup- 
ply of oysters from parts of Chesapeake Bay will 
be considerably curtailed this season leads him 
to think that a considerable part of the trade 
for the seafood from that section will come to 
North Carolina. 

For this and the reason that the North Caro- 
lina markets are enjoying a steady normal in- 
crease, Mr. Worthy believes that the present 
oyster season in this State will be one of the 
best ever experienced. 



COLLEGE CLASS USES 

TAX ANALYSIS AS TEXT 



"Your 'Analysis of North Carolina Taxes and 
Debts' fits in so well with my course in 'Engineer- 
ing Economics' and gives such a valuable pre- 
sentation of matters considered, that I wish to 
get thirty copies for the use of students," Dr. 
H. B. Shaw, director of the engineering experi- 
ment station, State College, writes Park Mathew- 
son, assistant director and statistician of the 
Department. 

"This will be valuable to them not only in 
their education, but also will impress them with 
the sound financing of the State and its conse- 
quent progress. 1 hope you can spare the copies 
for ih.^s" students. " 





.... 
, . .... 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an! 
made public immediately aft<[ 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w f 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departm( 
regular tabulations of indu 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State, 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but \ 
plan as a permanent feature J; 
mined upon. Through this i' 
ment and other booster or;* 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



V 



IMPORTED MEXICAIV 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North j 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an( 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround) 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close • 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock : 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



District No. 5, J. H. Stone, Wilmington, N. C, Assistant State Game Warden 

in Charge '"■'" 

Bladen W. R. Whitted Elizabethtown 

Brunswick T. H. Lindsey Southport 

Columbus Morrison Formyduval Vineland 

Cumberland Fred D. Williams Fayetteville 

New Hanover Jas. H. Morse Wilmington 

Robeson J. A. Barker Lumberton 

District No. 6, Geo. A. Nicoll, New Bern, N. C, Assistant State Game Warden 

in Charge 

Carteret Walter Smith Atlantic 

Craven L. E. Warrington New Bern 

Duplin H. E. Kennedy Magnolia 

Greene R. K. Britt Snow Hill 

Jones H. B. Hargett Trenton 

Lenoir C. R. Brown Kinston 

Onslow T. M. Henderson „ Jacksonville 

Pamlico John H. Pugh Oriental 

Pender Joe F. Johnson Burgaw 

Sampson, _ J. M. Barbrey Clinton 

Wayne H. A. Pike Goldsboro 

District No. 7, Chas. J. Moore, Washington, N. C, Assist't State Game Warden 

in Charge 

Beaufort Bryan Moreslender Blounts Creek 

Camden M.' C. Mitchell Old Trap 

Currituck J. J. Evans Grandy n. :. 

Edgecombe M. W. Haynes Tarboro 

Hyde Geo. T. Radcliff Leechville 

Martin J. W. Hines Oak City 

Nash -. W. C. Walston Rocky Mount 

Pasquotank _B. F. Emmett Elizabeth City 

Perquimans C. W. White Hertford 

Pitt F. E. Brooks Bethel 

Tyrrell J. S. Brickhouse Columbia 

Washington Harry Stell Plymouth 

Wilson I. A. Pearce Wilson 

District No. 8, F. A. Ruffin, Kcljord, N. C, Assistant State Game Warden 

in Charge 

Bertie B. F. Burkett Roxabel 

Chowan . H. T. Lay ton Edenton 

Gates C. W. Hinton Gatesville 

Granville J. L. Suit . Oxford 

Halifax C. T. Lawrence Scotland Neck 

Hertford T. N. Charles » Ahoskie 

Northampton J. H. Ramsay * __Seaboard 

Vance J. Harry Edwards Henderson 

Warren E. H. Pinnell Warrenton 

District No. 9, Raleigh District (Address) State Game Warden, Raleigh, N. C. 

Chatham R. L. Hatcher Pittsboro 

Durham E. G. Thompson Durham 

Franklin A. S. Wiggs Louisburg 

Harnett J. M. Withers Lillington 

Johnston W. D. Avera Smithfield 

Lee John D. Wicker Sanford 

Person E. D. Morton Roxboro 

Wake C. L. Beddingfield Raleigh 

NOTE — The above chart for information of all Wardens is to enable them to properly 
co-operate with other Wardens in the performance of their duties. 

Assignment of counties to the district is subject to change by the State Game Warden 
if the needs of the service require. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION 
AND INDUSTRY 

A Bi -Weekly Publication of the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 



VOL.V 



Raleigh, N. C, November 1, 1928 



No. 21- 







'. • 



{Courtesy V. S. Biological Survey) 
WINTER VISITORS 



7 



. • , . .... 

t r < ' . . 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY ) 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of rn 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begir 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departiru 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this ; 
ment and other booster orj 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAls 
QUAIL A' 



Mexican quail of the first ! 
buted this spring in North ! 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround; 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close • 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake c 
he has checked up on the lj 
of localities and that the bi:; 
have taken up with a flock \ 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 



11 



Public Utility Companies, Power 
Plants, and Plant Capacities 

Prepared by Division of Water Resources and Engineering 



1. Tidewater Power Company: 

1A — Wilmington Steam Plant 
IB— Whiteville Steam Plant - 



Hydro 



Horsepower 
Total 
Hydro Steam 



15,000 
300 



2. Virginia Electric Power Company: 

2A — Roanoke Rapids Hydro Plant 
2B — Roanoke Ropids Steam Plant 
2C — Tarboro Steam Plant 



7,800 



3. Carolina Power & Light Company: 

3A — Goldsboro Steam Plant 

3B— Raleigh Steam Plant 

3C— Locksville Hydro Plant *. 

3D — Cape Fear Steam Plant 

3E— Buckhorn Falls Hydro Plant 

3F— Gulf Steam Plant 

3G — Carbonton Hydro Plant 

3H— Blewetts Falls Hydro Plant 

31 — Norwood Hydro Plant 

3 J— Marshall Hydro Plant 

3K— Weaver Hydro Plant 

3L — Elk Mountain Steam Plant 

3M — Waterville Hydro Plant (under 

construction) * 

Miscellaenous Small Plants 



4. Duke Power Company: 

4A— Eno Steam Plant 

4B — Burlington Steam Plant 

4C — Reidsville Steam Plant 

4D — Greensboro Steam Plant 

4E— Mt. Airy Hydro Plant 

4F— Idols Hydro Plant 

4G — Buck Steam Plant 

4H — Mountain Island Hydro Plant _ 

41— Mt. Holly Steam Plant 

4J— North Wilkesboro Hydro Plant 

4K— Little River Hydro Plant 

4L — Gunpowder Creek Hydro Plant 

4M— Rink Hydro Plant 

4N— Oxford Shoals Hydro Plant ___ 
40 — Lookout Shoals Hydro Plant __ 

4P— Rhodhiss Hydro Plant 

4Q — Bridgewater Hydro Plant 

4R — Spencer Mountain Hydro Plant 

4S — Tuxedo Hydro Plant 

4T— Turner Hydro Plant 

Miscellaneous Small Plants 



1,350 
3,900 



1,600 
3,300 



1,350 

32,150 

83,000 

4,000 

3,350 



40,000 
1,800 



17,500 



QO'OOO 
2,550 



221,650 



34,000 
700 
200 

10,000 



1,000 
1,800 



100,000 



82,400 



400 

625 

500 

400 

56,000 

33,900 

48,000 

35,600 

1,000 

8,000 

8,400 

1,000 



50,000 



Total 
Steam 



15,300 



2,670 

2,050 

7,800 4,720 



64,200 



Carried Forward 



279,025 
279,025 



194,900 
194,900 



Under construction. 

Continued on page 12. 



Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity m refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



- 






CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Raleigh, N. C, November 1, 1928 



MARBLE DEPOSIT OF 
CHEROKEE COUNTY IS 
TO HAVE BIG OUTPUT 



Extensive developments in marble deposits of 
the extreme southwestern part of North Carolina 
around Andrews is being planned with prepara- 
tions now being carried out. 

J. A. Martin, of Andrews, has purchased and 
secured options on some of the best marble 
deposits in this section, and has already spent 
around $100,000 in preparing for marketing the 
marble and other products. Mr. Martin is an 
experienced engineer, coming to this State from 
Ohio. He has developed several large stone prop- 
erties for a number of large companies in this 
and other countries. 

His original purpose was to produce a marble 
suitable for a terrazzo flooring material, but after 
prospecting the property thoroughly by core- 
drilling, he saw possibilities for a larger develop- 
ment by producing building and monumental 
stone. 

In addition, several kilns will be built for 
turning out lime for building purposes and for 
land plaster. The chief material to be produced 
at first will be chips of terrazzo flooring. The 
developer states that he has already made con- 
tracts for his entire output of this material. 

After looking over the territory, State Geolo- 
gist H. J. Bryson says, "The extensive core-drill- 
ing has revealed several types of marble, namely: 
coarse-grained blue, mottled, 'Confederate gray,' 
coarse-grained white, and fine-grained white. At 
places the drills penetrated the blue marble 28 
feet without encountering a flaw. Some of the 
older reports state that the marble is highly 
jointed and broken but this is not the case with 
depth. The white marble was drilled 17 feet 
before a break or crack was found. 

"A great number of tests, as compression, ten- 
sile, absorption, polishing, etc., were made by the 
U. S. Bureau of Standards and the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology which showed the marble 
to be equal if not superior to much of the marble 



now produced in the United States. Compara- 
tive tests were made on the white and Italian or 
'Carrara' marbles. The standard tests showed 
that the white was superior to the 'Carrara' in 
compression and tensile strength and absorption." 
Kilns are already under construction and later 
equipment such as drills, saws, and polishing 
machines will be installed for the production 
of building and monumental stone. It is esti- 
mated that the completed plant will run the 
investment into several hundred thousand dol- 
lars. Some of the large industrialists of the coun- 
try are reported to be backing the proposition. 
To show the variety of building materials 
available in the vicinity, Geologist Bryson re- 
ported that high cost of building sands for 
the plant was overcome by obtaining a good, 
angular high silica sand from quartzite found on 
the property. The quartzite was mined and 
ground to the desired mesh much cheaper than 
sand could be delivered, he declared. 

Later, when the fire brick was needed to line 
the kilns, it was found that the price was high, 
and tests were made on the high alumnia-slica 
clay nearby. The tests showed large amounts of 
high grade fire clay which would stand 3,200 
degrees of temperature. 

"Instead of ordering tire brick," the geologist 
declared, "it was decided to use the clay on the 
property. These fire brick were then backed up 
.with a high alumina schist or slate which is also 
found on the property. This schist or slate 
probably gave origin to the high grade fire clay. 
"Other than producing the materials mentioned 
above, experiments will be carried on along other 
lines. If these tests prove worthy of commercial 
development, the possibilities in this field are 
great. It will mean the establishment of a large 
industry in that section." 



In the article appearing in the September 1 
issue of Conservation and Industry lolling of 
the quantity of paper to be used in "North Caro- 
lina — A Good Place to Live" the name of the 
Champion Fiber Company, Canton, N. C, which 
made a special laboratory run to supply the 
special grade required was inadvertently omitted. 
This makes the booklet a more typical North 
Carolina product. 



■ 



■ . . . 

< » 






• 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY i 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of n> 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begir 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft>| 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmi 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
Una and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this £! 
ment and other booster or:! 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED 



MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. _ 

Published at Raleigh, N. C, by ihe North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 



Wade H. Phillips Director 

Paul Kelly Editor 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



GRIMES ESTIMATES 
GAME FARM OUTPUT 
AT ABOUT 900 QUAIL 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround; 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close • 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bi 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingtc 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



An output of at least 900 quail and 3 SO pheas- 
ants is forecast for the first year of operation 
of the State Game Farm at Asheboro, accord- 
ing to a report by W. C. Grimes, manager, about 
the middle of September. 

At that time Mr. Grimes declared that the 
quail were still laying. He reported that SO 
pairs of the birds so far had produced more than 
1,200 eggs and that 1,186 pheasant eggs had 
been gathered. 

Success of operations at the farm is demon- 
strated by the fact that only 18 pheasants and 
58 quail have been lost at the farm from natural 
causes. The death of two turkeys is reported 
on account of crowded conditions. 

Some trouble from vermin is reported at the 
farm, and to offset this difficulty, Mr. Grimes is 
having the enclosure around the outside fence 
built up to a height of two feet with tin sheeting. 
He is also building additional pens to relieve the 
crowded conditions. 

A determined campaign is being waged by 
Mr. Grimes against the inroads of vermin. He 
declares that he has had to exercise a continuous 
vigil against the house cat, the barn rat, and the 
weasel 'in particular. 

In the face of a late beginning (the game farm 
was not started until March), the newness of the 
venture, and bad weather, it is felt that the first 
season of operation for the farm has been highly 
successful and illustrative of what may be ac- 
complished by breeding game birds in captivity. 



GEOLOGIST BRYSON 

DESCRIBES DEPOSITS 



The Blue Wing or Virgilina district was at one 
time the most important copper producing dis- 
trict of the State. The important mines of the 
district were worked to a depth of 350 to 500 
feet. No development work is being done in 
this area at the present time. 

The Virgilina copper district is located near 
the eastern border of the Piedmont Plateau in 
Person and Granville counties, North Carolina, 
and Halifax and Charlotte counties, Virginia. 
Each of the States contains approximately one- 
half of the ore-bearing area. The name of this 
area was taken from the village of Virgilina, a 
station on the Southern Railway situated on the 
State line near the center of the district. The 
most important ore deposits occur on two almost 
parallel flat-topped ridges which trend from 15 
to 20° east of north. The maximum elevation 
above the sea is 540 feet. 

Geology of District 

The Virgilina copper area lies in the so-called 
"Huronian Slate" belt which reaches clear across 
the State in a northeast-southwest direction. The 
rocks of the district are highly metamorphosed 
and are chiefly composed of gneisses and schists. 
There are two chief types, greenstone schists and 
quartzose sericitic schists or gneisses. Into these 
highly metamorphosed rocks there have been in- 
truded large masses of granite and less important 
masses of a more basic rock, probably gabbro. 
Also occasionally occur small diabase dikes. These 
igneous rocks were evidently intruded after the 
metamorphic action ceased as they are in a mas- 
sive condition except for the numerous joints 
founds in them. 

The metamorphic rocks were probably of both 
volcanic and sedimentary origin as is the case 
with the rocks of the entire "Huronian Slate" 
belt. The volcanic rocks were of both acid and 
basic variety. These rocks were mixed with sedi- 
mentary rocks as shales, sandstones, and con- 
glomerates. Some times the sedimentary rocks 
are predominant while at others the volcanic 
are most abundant. 

The granite instrusions are probably the 
youngest rocks of the district except probably 
the diabase dikes. It is also the most important 
of the intrusives. It is rather coarsely granular, 
highly quartzose, and at times decidedly por- 
phyritic. This rock is also important as it is the 
source of the ores. 



>unty write that the 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Veins 

The veins which carry the ore arc composed 
chiefly of quartz with locally considerable 
amounts of epidote and calcite. They vary in 
width from a few inches to IS or 20 feet and are 
possibly the true fissure veins. In length the 
veins range from a few hundred yards to four 
or even five miles. They strike northeast-south- 
west and dip at a steep angle toward the east. 
The ore is not evenly distributed in the veins 
but is concentrated locally into definite ore 
shoots. 

Ores 

The copper beating minerals occurring in the 
veins arc chiefly bornitc and chalcocite with 
small amounts of chalcopyrite. The oxidized pro- 
ducts derived from the above minerals also occur. 
The ores do not become richer with depth. "The 
chalcocite occurs in two distinct relations with 
the bornite secondary to and filling fractures in 
the bornite, and inter-grown, sometimes clearly 
crystallographically, with it. Hornite is the most 
important mineral in all the mines in the district 
except the Holloway, in which it is subordinate 
to chalcocite." 

Origin of the Ores 

It is rather difficult to give the origin of the 
ore but probably the granite was the source of 
the solutions. The country rock is too basic to 
have given the vast amount of quartz in the 
veins. Neither was the porphyry the source as 
it is cut by numerous quartz veins. It must be 
from a younger rock which is rather siliceous so 
the granite is the only rock that meets the re- 
quirements. The granite is the only rock of the 
region which could have furnished the acidic 
materials for the veins. 



GAME LICENSE SALES 

REACH SUM OF $50,000 



Remittances from hunting license agencies up 
to October IS had reached $55,000, according to 
a report from the office of Assistant Director J. 
K. Dixon. 

Although a definite comparison has not been 
made, it is believed that the rate of license issu- 
ance is slightly in excess of last year. A heavy 
sale of State licenses under the new schedule of 
$3.25 each is reported from most of the counties. 

With hunting seasons only partly open and the 



cold weather not yet started, officials think that 
the sale of licenses so far is very satisfactory. 
After opening quail and rabbit seasons on Decem- 
ber 1, the fields and woods of North Carolina 
are expected to receive the largest influx of 
hunters. License sales are expected to reach the 
peak immediately before and following this 
period. 



The Henderson Chapter of the Isaac Walton 
League of America has offered a reward of $15 
to the person in Vance County who is responsi- 
ble for the first conviction for violation of the 
game law protecting quail. This is one of a num- 
dcr of cases in which organizations of sportsmen 
and conservationists arc aiding actively in the en- 
forcement of the State game laws. 




Among the proud trophies of IT. /. Ray, Ashe 
County Game Warden, is the pelt of a white 
raceoon, shown in the above cut with those of 
several other animals. The 'coon was taken by 
the warden on Grandfather Mountain. 





' • « 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of n> 
ins in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft! 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmc 
regular tabulations of indus! 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this ; 
ment and other booster oxk 
able to keep a closer touch J 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED 



MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



MARION AIRPORT IS 
EXAMPLE OF RESULT 
SMALL CITY'S ZEAL 



Mexican quail of the first \ 
buted this spring in North j 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated am 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround: 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close • 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i, 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock ' 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



While a number of North Carolina's cities have 
established airports and others are launching 
movements which should soon materialize, the 
success of some in overcoming difficulties to pro- 
vide adequate facilities for the present and for 
growing demands is worthy of note. 

Marion, N. C, is one of the smaller cities in 
this State where the progressiveness and foresight 
of citizens have resulted in the establishment of 
an up-to-date air field. In describing the develop- 
ment of the field and its physical characteristics, 
L. Earl Browder, secretary of the Chamber of 
Commerce says: 

"Marion is one of the few thoroughly air- 
minded small cities in North Carolina. Almost 
every citizen here has had some part in helping 
to establish one of the finest airports in Western 
North Carolina. The movement to establish an 
airport was started by the Marion Chamber of 
Commerce last May, and although only five 
months have elapsed, the citizens have been thor- 
oughly sold on the project to the extent of ac- 
quiring by long period lease 227 acres of level 
farm land in the beautiful Catawba River valley. 
A large area of this land has been put in condi- 
tion and was dedicated to the public as "Francis 
Marion Field" on September 22-23. 

"An attractive program was arranged for the 
dedication by the airport committee. Three large 
army planes were secured for the occasion by 
defraying the expenses of the personnel and 
planes from Maxwell Field, Ala., and return. 
Civilian planes were invited from several State 
and one of the biggest attractions on the program 
was an attempted flight of a home-made mono- 
plane built at Bridgewater by a boy who is well 
known in Western North Carolina. Approxi- 
mately 15,000 people attended the event during 
the two days. 

"A small charge of 25 cents was charged for 
admission (children under 12 being excepted). 
The receipts were used toward development of 
the field. As a result the airport committee has 
paid all of its obligations and has on hand a 
large sum which is to be used immediately in 
further development. The airport is self-sup- 
porting and will be continued under the same 
policy at least for several years to come. 

"The Francis Marion airport comprises 227 



ESCALLOP INDUSTRY AMONG 
IMPORTANT FISHERY BRANCHES 



Investigators under the direction of Capt. J. A. 
Nelson, Fisheries Commissioner, are making a sur- 
vey of escallop grounds of this State preparatory 
to the opening of the season on January 1. 

The escallop, although one of the least known 
of the branches of the commercial fisheries indus- 
try to the average North Carolinian, is one of 
the most important sea foods of the State from 
the standpoint of returns to the fishermen. 

Captain Nelson declares that although the 
quantity of the shellfish taken in State waters 
is not great, the quality is so much esteemed 
that the value approaches that of the oyster. 
Another factor that makes the escallop im- 
portant to the commercial fisherman is the fact 
that the season comes at a time when other 
fisheries are slack and its returns are more in 
proportion to the amount invested than any 
other part of the industry. 

Still another point of significance in escalloping 
is its confinement to waters of two sounds, 
Bogue and Core, both in Carteret County. 

"Not only," says Captain Nelson, "is the 
escallop industry important to North Carolina, 
North Carolina is important to the escallop in- 
dustry. Whereas, according to latest available 
statistics this State ranks thirteenth for 
quantity and seventeenth for value of oysters, 
it ranked third for escallops, being exceeded 
only by Massachusetts and New York. 



acres of level land with the exception of 14 
acres of bench land that is used for automobile 
parking. Not all of the erea has been fully de- 
veloped, but it is the ambition of the airport 
committee to see every foot of it put in first class 
shape as the demand for a larger area makes 
development necessary. 

"Marion is located at the rim of the Blue Ridge 
and Black Mountain ranges which are sure to 
draw a large number of 'air tourists.' Linville 
Gorge is just eight airline miles from the airport 
while crystal clear Lake James, with its seventy- 
five hundred acres is between the two points. 
Lake Tahoma, another gem of a lake set almost 
directly at the foot of Mt. Mitchell is fast becom- 
ing famous as one of Western North Carolina's 
watering places. Other points of interest are: 
Little Switzerland and Wildacres, both of Mc- 
Dowell County." 



ot Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 






CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



The bay escallop which typically frequents 
shallow, grassy enclosed waters along the coast, 
is the commercial form in North Carolina. 
It is a rapid growing, prolific, hut not very 
hardy animal. Freshets and periods of severe 
cold arc destructive. In 1924, nearly all escal- 
lops of marketable size, except those on certain 
beds near Morehead City, were killed, presum- 
ably by heavy freshets. In 192S, when in- 
vestigations by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries 
were begun from the laboratory at Beaufort, 
escallops were very scarce except for a few 
small areas, but by the fall of 1926 they had 
become quite abundant. As thus indicated, 
fluctuations are great, but recovery may be 
rapid. 

"Contrary to expectations, the Bureau of Fish- 
cries investigator, Mr. J. S. Gutsell, found the 
bay escallop in North Carolina to be a fall 
spawner. Spawning begins rather late in the sum- 
mer, becomes active in the fall and continues in 
to the winter. Individuals from the spawning of 
mature escallops during one autumn arc mature, 
market-sized escallops the next season, that is 
when they are little more than a year old. This 
rapid growth and early maturity accounts for 
the fact that the industry recovered fairly well 
in the two years (after 1924), although it re- 
quired two generations to do so." 



Large escallops, according to the Commissianer, 
growing around Beaufort and Beaufort Inlet, 
sell tor M a gallon on the local market. Away 
from the inlet, where the water has less salinity, 
they grow in abundance but do not attain the 
size of those near salt water and have almost a 
standard price of SI per gallon. 

During the last biennium, Captain Nelson re- 
ported that the yield of escallops was 165,000 
gallons, selling at an average of about $2 a gal- 
lon. 



REFUGE KEEPER NAMED 



J E, King, of Guilford County, has been ap- 
pointed as keeper for the auxiliary game refuge 
established by the Department of Conservation 
and Development at Reedy Fork, Guilford Coun- 
ty- 
Plans have been made to enclose the 2,S00- 
acre preserve with a single strand of wire as re- 
quired by the State Game Law. Besides main- 
taining a regular patrol of the property Warden 
King's duties will also include keeping down ver- 
min and stocking the area from time to time 
with game birds and animals. 




Bustling activity is noted at this time of the year around the oyster markets and steaming plants 
of North Carolina. This photograph shows a house at Oriental, Pamlico County, one of the 
largest in the State. All indications point to a satisfactory oyster season. 






DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 

OF NEW IN 

A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have ' 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begir 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately aft 1 ' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w' 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmt) 
regular tabulations of indu;* 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys ha\ 
Department in the past, but \ 
plan as a permanent feature 1' 
mined upon. Through this it 
ment and other booster or; 1 
able to keep a closer touch f 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



IMPORTED MEXICAls 
QUAIL Ai 



Mexican quail of the first j 
buted this spring in North : 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated anj 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround; 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close • 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 
W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake ■ 
he has checked up on the 1 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 
F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



COURSES IN RAYONS 

AT STATE COLLGEE 

HELP NEW INDUSTRY 



With the increasing importance of rayon as one 
of the leading branches of the textile industry 
and the centering of attention on North Carolina 
as one of the future centers of large production, 
the need of a more intimate knowledge of the 
material has been emphasized. 

Since the rapid ascendency of rayon in 
the textile world, a course of study of the mater- 
ial has been taken up at the textile school of the 
North Carolina State College of Agriculture and 
Engineering at Raleigh under the direction of 
Dean Thomas Nelson. 

Recently, at the suggestion of Park Mathewson, 
statistician of the Division of Commerce and In- 
dustry of this Department, Dean Nelson has sent 
an outline of the rayon courses taught at the 
textile schools to the Manufacturers Record at 
Baltimore. 

The course includes the theory of manufacture 
of cupra, nitro, acetate, and viscose rayons; study 



of machinery used in manufacture such as spin- 
ning, washing winding, reeling, etc. ; handling of 
rayon; effect of water, heat, acids, alkalis, etc.; 
dyeing, affinity of various rayons for various 
classes of dyes; and manipulation of rayon, such 
as preparation of warp yarns for looms. The 
above lectures are illustrated with pictures, slides, 
and samples. 

Laboratory studies include: micro examination 
of longitudinal and cross sections; identification 
tests; oil extraction tests; skein oiling methods 
with various commercial spraying oils; testing 
effect of water, heat, acids, alkalis, etc., on rayons 
of various kinds; testing of scoured, bleached and 
dyed skeins for stretch, elasticity, and breaking 
strength; knitting and weaving of rayon fabrics; 
winding and preparation of warps for weaving; 
and collection of more important facts on ad- 
vances in rayon making, handling, etc. 

A collection of rayon cloth samples designed 
and woven by students in the State College 
School has been sent to Mr. Mathewson by Dean 
Nelson. This collection reflects forcefully the 
valuable contribution being made to the advance 
of knowledge of these materials at the College and 
of the skill of the students and efficiency of the 



VALUE OF GAME REPORTED TAKEN LAST SEASON BY NORTH 

CAROLINA HUNTERS 

No. Taken Each Total Value 

Rabbits 581,641 30^ $174,492.30 

Squirrels 513,018 30tf 153,905.40 

Deer 1,810 $25.00 45,250.00 

Coons 19,742 6.00 118,452.00 

Opossums 143,730 1H 107,797.50 

Mink-Skunk 7,514 6.50 48,841.00 

Wildcats 516 2.25 1,161.00 

Muskrats 11,077 1.00 11,077.00 

Quail 433,199. 50«# 216,599.50 

Turkeys 3,025 4.00 12,100.00 

Grouse-Pheasants 2,500 1.25 3,125.00 

Snipe 11,507 40tf 4,602.80 

Rails-Coots 1,225 25<f 306.25 

Woodcock 6,909 75«! 5,181.75 

Doves 74,287 30«S 22,286.10 

Geese 4,842 2.00 9,684.00 

Ducks 37,861 1.50 56,791.50 

Grand total $991,653.10 

NOTE: Carolina Mink $8.00— $9.00 

14.25— 16.00 Average $11.00 

$6.50 
Skunk 1.60— 1.80 

2.95— 2.95 Average 2.50 

These totals are from reports from 50,812 of the 139,170 licensed hunters of the State 
during the first season under the new North Carolina Game Law. Estimates of values 
made by U. S. Biological Survey. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he >; 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 






CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



FOREST FIRE DAMAGE IS 

33 MILLION IN COUNTRY 



GOVERNOR IN ADDRESS 

URGES CONSERVATION 



Thirty-three million dollars in value of materi- 
al forest wealth was the toll taken in the U. S. 
last year by fires, according to Maj. R. Y. Stuart, 
Chief of the Forest Service, U. S. Department of 
Apiculture, in calling attention to Fire Preven- 
tion Week. 

"Losses from forest fires represent a waste of 
wealth and resources," declared the forester, 
"that will affect not only the present generation 
but future generations of Americans as well. 
These fires are still many times greater than they 
need be, as forest fires are largely preventable. 

"The $33,000,000 damage to forests of the 
country last year was the result of approximately 
158,000 fires which broke out during the year. 
Nearly 90 per cent of these were caused by care- 
less smoakers, campers, incendiaries, brush- 
burners, of other human agencies. The huge loss- 
es do not take into account the damage to 
watersheds, the increased erosion and washing 
away of good soil, the loss of soil fertility, the 
destruction of game and wild life, the set-back 
in growth of timber, or the destruction of millions 
of young trees that would have been the basis 
of future timber crops. These losses can hardly 
be measured in dollars and cents." 



Gov. A. W. McLean, speaking at the opening 
(il the State Fair, during the latter p.irl of 
October, among other things said: 

"The State Fair should demonstrate the pur 
poses and the accomplishments of the State De- 
partment of Conservation and Development in 
connection with the conservation and exploita- 
tion of our natural and industrial resources with 
special reference to minerals, geology, fish, fores- 
try, and water resources. 

"Also, the purpose of the Division of Com- 
merce and Industry of the Department should be 
stressed, emphasizing the value and scope of the 
textile industry, including rayon, furniture, wood 
working, and clay products. 

"North Carolina cannot stand still without go- 
ing backward. At the present time the State's 
development is due largely to the efforts and en- 
terprises of its own people. We have been able 
to attract outside brain power and money power. 
We have, to a large extent, a fairly good balance 
in industry. The Department of Conservation and 
Development has just published the results of a 
survey showing our manufactured products to be 
worth $1,157,000,000 annually. Approximately 
the same amount is invested in our factories." 



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With the coming of cold weather, the tourist activity is increasing rapidly in the Sandhill section. 
This is a view of one of the numerous golf courses in a region that is famous for its recreational 
facilities. Resorts to suit every season are among the diversified tourist attractions (if the Old 
North State. 



. . . • . 

. ■ 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 

OF NEW IN 



10 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of in 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begir: 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately aft; 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmi 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
fkial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but ' 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through th's if 
ment and other booster or; 1 
able to keep a closer touch I 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICA1S 
QUAIL A! 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround; 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the i| 
of localities and that the bi i 
have taken up with a flock ' 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



MAPS OF AIRPORTS ARE 

PREPARED BY BUREAU 



Single sheet leaflets, carrying small-scale maps 
of various airports in North Carolina and other 
states, are one of the latest means of assisting in 
the development of commercial aviation under- 
taken by the U. S. Department of Commerce. 

Leaflets describing eight North Carolina fields 
have been received by the co-operative office of 
the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 
with the Division of Commerce and Industry of 
this Department. These include the following 
fields: Pope Field, Fayetteville ; Rocky Mount; 
Greensboro; Raleigh, municipal and Poindexter; 
Winston-Salem; Asheville; Tarboro and Wilming- 
ton. 

Besides the maps, the back of the sheets carry 
a tabulation of information regarding the landing 
fields including dimensions, the contour of the 
land, the nature of the surrounding territory, and 
a number of other helpful features. 



MIGRATORY FOWLS, REACHING 
COASTAL SECTION IN NUMBERS 



Reports from the coastal section of North Caro- 
lina indicate the presence of a large number of 
migratory waterfowls for the official opening of 
the season in this part of the country on Novem- 
ber 1. 

Eastern Carolina game officials over the last 
week or so have been sending word of the steady 
arrival of these birds for their winter stay in their 
section. 

Chase. J. Moore, Washington, and George A. 
Nicoll, New Bern, deputy State Game Wardens, 
declare that from all indications the number of 
migratory fowls in their section will come up 
fully to their expectations this season. 

Both of the officials say that the food supply 
for the visitors is plentiful and that a cold winter 
in nothern latitudes will doubtless guarantee un- 
excelled shooting along the Carolina sounds, wide- 
ly known as among the best winter duck, goose, 
and brant shooting grounds in the nation. 

Scores of inquiries, being received by the Game 
Division of this Department from sportsmen, in- 
dicate that the number of non-resident hunters 
in North Carolina this season will surpass that 
of years. Most of these inquiries are being re- 
ceived in reply to the national campaign of ad- 
vertising game resources which is now being car- 
ried on by this Department. 



FINIS IS WRITTEN FOR 

STATE'S YELLOW COON 



The State's yellow raccoon, reported to be the 
only one in captivity, at least in so far as has 
been learned, which was taken to the State Fair 
for exhibit purposes, is dead. 

The rather spectacular career of the animal is 
ended. He was confiscated in September by As- 
sistant State Game Warden F. A. Ruffin, of Kel- 
ford, in Halifax County, after being taken out of 
season. 

After being brought to Raleigh the animal es- 
caped from his cage in the State Museum and 
sought refuge in one of the large oak trees on 
the capitol grounds, where he was recaptured, 
after the aid of firemen had been summoned. 

The unique animal disappeared from the ex- 
hibitor's cage in the rear of the main fair build- 
ing the day before the opening of the fair. Sev- 
eral days later his body was brought to the De- 
partment after he had been treed and shot by a 
hunter in some woods near the fair grounds. 



GAME WARDEN OFFERS 

CROW KILLING POINTERS 



A suggestion as to the most effective means of 
disposing of crows has been advanced by G. A. 
Seawell, Richmond County Game warden. 

His system consists of tying a cat in a tree in 
the spring near the nest of the crow. When the 
parent bird discovers the intruder, Warden Sea- 
well declares, the disturbance which is raised will 
attract all of the crows in the neighborhood. 

Out of this gathering, he states, it will be a 
simple mater to dispose of a number of them. 



SPORTSMEN ORGANIZE 



One of the newest organizations of sportsmen 
and conservationists in North Carolina is the 
Beaufort County Game, Fish, and Forestry 
League. 

This organization was formed recently, and now 
has a membership of 138. A campaign is to be 
conducted soon during which the officers hope 
to build up the roster to more than twice the 
present number. 

Officers of the organization are: Jesse Haring- 
ton, president ; Leon Roebuck, secretary-treas- 
urer; and H. C. Carter, vice-president. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
flight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



1 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



11 



LARGE SAVING MADE 

POSSIBLE BY WORK 

OF BUREAU ENGINEERS 



A striking example of the service of the Divi- 
sion of Water Resources and Engineering is fur- 
nished by one of its accomplishments in co- 
operating with the State Highway Commission. 
The Division was called upon to make a de- 
tailed investigation of what would propably hap- 
pen in the event of a large flood passing through 
the opening in the new bridge on the Tar River 
in Granville. 

To have increased the opening by eliminating 
a certain amount of fill would have added $40,- 
000 to the cost of the bridge. This the Commis- 
sion was not anxious to do. Local interests pro- 
tested, asserting that if the fill were made and 
the opening constricted both the city and private 
property would suffer in the event of a large 
flood. 

After a thorough and elaborate study the Di- 
vision reported that, in its opinion, if certain pre- 
cautions were taken, notably, clearing and remov- 
al of the old county highway bridge, the back- 
water from floods in the future would not cause 
appreciable damage. Sooner than was expected 
the report was put to a severe test in the recent 
floods which were only a foot lower than the 
highest flood of record in 1919. 

The investigation of the Division was amply 
supported in that the backwater effect of the new 
bridge was even less than was reported would 
probably be the case, and in consequence the 
Highway Commission has been able to save ap- 
proximately $40,000 as a result of the investiga- 
tions of the division experts. 

In order to check the theoretical calculation at 
the time of the report with actual conditions three 
engineers were assigned to work at Greenville dur- 
ing the recent high water, making measurements 
and taking levels on the water surface. 



LOWLY CARP IS SOLD 

IN LARGE QUANTITIES 

BY CAOLINA GROUP 




The lowly carp, spurned by many as a food fish, 
is rapidly assuming an important place as an edi- 
ble product from North Carolina waters. 



This new sign at the entrance of the Mt. 
Mitchell Game Refuge shows some of the stock- 
ing operations that have been carried out there. 
The animals are bold in their knowledge of the 
protection afforded to them. Further stocking is 
being planned for this and other State Refuges. 



A new concern operating in Hyde County 
last summer, and resumed this fall, during the 
first week of business shipped nine tons of the 
German carp to eastern markets, according to a 
report by Charles J. Moore, Washington, As- 
sistant Game Warden. 

The fish are caught by seine from the main 
canal leading to the force pumps at Lake Matta- 
muskeet and placed in a pond to await the col- 
lection of a sufficient amount for shipment. 

They are shipped to New York alive in tank 
cars and marketed therefrom in the metropolis. 
According to Mr. Moore the fish are bringing 
the shippers between 25 and 25 cents per pound. 

The seiners have specific instructions to return 
all game fish that are found in the nets to the 
waters. Since many persons say that the vora- 
cious appetites of the carp are responsible for 
the destruction of game fish, a reduction of thi> 
species is welcomed by many sport fishermen. 



• 









DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of n. 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begir 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an| 
made public immediately aft 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmt 
regular tabulations of indu: 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav, 
Department in the past, but ' 
plan as a permanent feature ll 
mined upon. Through this ; ! 
ment and other booster or; 1 
able to keep a closer touch f 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAls 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North f 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround; 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close • 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake ■ 
he has checked up on the i| 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock ' 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Public Utility Companies, Power 
Plants, and Capacities — Cont'd 



Hydro 



Brought Forward __. 
5. Tallassee Power Company: 

SA— Falls Hydro Plant 

5B — Narrows Hydro Plant __ 
5C— High Rock Hydro Plant 
SD— Cheoah Hydro Plant ___. 
SE — Santeetlah Hydro Plant 



Horsepower 

Total 
Hydro Steam 

279,025 



28,900 
108,000 
44,100 
96,000 
66,000 



343,000 



M. Municipal: 



MA— Plymouth Steam Plant 

MB— Windsor Steam Plant 

MC— Scotland Neck Steam Plant _ 

MD— Tarboro Steam Plant 

ME — Greenville Steam Plant _. 

MF — Washington Steam Plant 

MG — Kinston Steam Plant 

MH — Newbern Steam Plant 

MI — Morehead City Steam Plant 

MJ— Beaufort Steam Plant 

MK— Rocky Mount Steam Plant . 

ML— Wilson Steam Plant 

MM — Louisburg Steam Plant 

MN — Spring Hope Hydro Plant _. 

MO— Elk Park Hydro Plant 

MQ— Bryson Hydro Plant 

MR— Franklin Hydro Plant 

MS— Highlands Hydro Plant ___. 

MT — Andrews Hydro Plant 

MU— Flat River Hydro Plant __. 



100 

210 

1,200 

2,440 

3,250 

2,000 

3,000 

3,220 

600 

360 

5,350 

6,000 

300 



350 

250 

500 

1,500 

250 

1,500 

2,500 



R. Rural and Miscellaneous Companies: 

RA — Farmville Steam Plant 

RB — Durha mSteam Plant 

RC— University of N. C. Steam Plant 

RD— Boone Hydro Plant 

RE— Shulls Mills Hydro Plant 

RF— Buffalo Creek Hydro Plant 

RG — Newlands Hydro Plant 

RH— Lake Lure Hydro Plant 

RI— Dillsboro Hydro Plant 

RJ— Murphy Hydro Plant 

RK— Cascade Hydro Plant 

RL — Lake Tahoma Hydro Plant 



6,710 



700 

3,000 

850 



300 
380 
200 
100 
5,200 
200 
500 
500 
300 



Total Public Utility and Municipal 
Add Manufacturing Plants 



7,680 



Grand Total, in operation or under con- 
struction Dec. 1, 1927 



865,865 
36,062 



901,927 



Total 
Steam 

194,900 



28,030 



4,550 



311,700 

248,988 



560,688 



Note: Letters and numbers at beginning of each line were used as keys to a map which 
accompanies this table, but which has not been used here. 



, w 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 




CONSERVATION 
AND INDUSTRY 

A Bi -Weekly Publication of the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development 



VOL.V 



Raleigh, N. C, November 15, 1928 



No. 22 




i**- 



EXHIBIT AT CRAVEN COUNTY FAIR 






DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begir 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an 
made public immediately aft' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmt 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
Una and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature ll 
mined upon. Through this if 
ment and other booster or;! 
able to keep a closer touch f 
activities in the interim b' 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAls 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first 
buted this spring in North 
supervision of Director Wad 



become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround: 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ■ 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the 1} 
of localities and that the bi : 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



CENSUS OF MANUFACTURES TOTALS IN NORTH 
CAROLINA COUNTIES FOR 1927 



COUNTY 



w 



State: 
1927 Total 
1925 Total 

Alexander. _. 

Alleghany— 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick- 
Buncombe— 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Caldwell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland — 
Columbus — 

Craven 

Cumberland 
Currituck- 
Dare 

Davidson.— 
Davie 

Duplin.. 

Durham 

Edgecombe- 
Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Green 

Guilford- 
Halifax 

Harnett 



M g 



■a"* 



C3 T) 



.=5 <J 

> -a 



o <_ 
Ho 



T3<« 

-° 2 
rj a 

3 a 



20 


775 


12 


108 


9 


123 


32 


1,174 


14 


394 


21 


1,128 


13 


235 


89 


3,494 


31 


3,431 



3008 204,767 $158,287,197 $562,086,283 $1,154,617,636 $592,531,353 
2614 182,234 134,237,097 550,706,965 1,050,434,117 499,727,152 

19 798 486,602 1,441,709 2,442,296 1,000,587 

(Can not show figures for this county without disclosing operations of an 

individual plant.) 
530,336 2,277,709 3,382,678 1,105,480 

71,844 83,580 252,862 169,282 

91,811 110,583 330,529 219,946 

848,570 2,220,491 4,106,008 1,885,517 

233,245 381,171 784,482 403,311 

631,633 1,687,943 2,858,560 1,170,617 

190,520 856,370 1,227,102 470,732 

3,779,256 10,271,003 19,283,135 9,012,132 

1,901,371 8,603,297 12,935,268 4,331,971 

(Can not publish statistics of this county without disclosing operation of an 

establishment.) 
66| 3,469| 2,257,6281 7,922,817| 13,311,30l| 5,388,484 

(No manufacturing stablishments listed in Camden County.) 
21| 188| 168,451 375,008| 995,446| 620,438 

(Can not show figures for this county without disclosing operation of an 

individual plant.) 

9,623,251 17,040,001 7,416,750 

1,564,783 2,595,089 1,030,306 

1,004,479 1,769,946 765,467 

3,283,199 4,205,519 922,320 

7,605 36,010 28,510 

9,474,044 15,366,573 5,892,592 

1,829,315 3,598,173 1,768,858 

2,710,680 5,357,321 2,646,641 

2,293,740 7,064,824 2,771,084 

(Can not show figures for this county without disclosing operations of an 

individual plant.) 
(Can not publish statistics of this county without disclosing operation of an 

establishment.) 
69| 5,564| 4,477,753| 11,945,890| 20,389,086| 8,443,196 

(Can not publish statistics of this county without disclosing operation of an 

establishment.) 



89 


5,437 


3,594,219 


34 


834 


493,965 


10 


526 


303,986 


15 


653 


303,986 


4 


26 


11,750 


52 


4,234 


3,052,108 


25 


1,735 


1,113,641 


39 


2,168 


1,499,976 


40 


2,155 


1,264,537 



15 


649 


62 


8,846 


36 


2,313 


103 


18,712 


13 


653 


125 


18,008 


4 


231 


5 


210 


22 


365 


3 


24 


200 


16,554 


41 


3,154 


33 


2,169 



458,920 

6,040,955 

2,471,045 

15,097,450 

437,102 

13,155,249 

126,793 

245,190 

263,355 

9,680 

14,457,664 

2,418,766 

1,495,135 



302,491 

36,971,405 

5,469,978 

102,396,261 

1,577,983 

39,514,928 

98,484 

83,077 

827,280 

14,650 

46,180,891 

6,282,149 

4,849,009 



1,120,584 

106,865,989 

8,871,238 

302,571,980 

2,329,558 

63,425,280 

276,729 

438,409 

1,402,746 

50,540 

79,768,852 

12,759,813 

8,673,420 



818,093 

69,894,584 

3,401,260 

200,175,719 

751,575 

23,910,352 

178,245 

355,332 

575,466 

35,890 

33,587,971 

6,477,664 

3,824,411 



CONTINUED ON PAGE 16 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Raleigh, N. C, November 15, 1928 



DIRECTOR OUTLINES 

INDUSTRIAL ADVANCE 

OF NORTH CAROLINA 



T Following is the text of an address delivered by 
Director Wade H. Phillips over Radio Station 
WLAC at Nasheville, Tcnn., on October 31, as 
part of the "North Carolina Week" program.] 



When Sir Walter Raleigh established the first 
English Colony in North America on Roanoke 
Island, he gave to North Carolina a prestige 
and a romance which has permeated the entire 
history of the State. 

Although the colony did not prove to be a 
successful venture, it lent an atmosphere to the 
succeeding generations; gave an enviable back- 
ground to a proud history of accomplishment ; 
and was the forerunner of a long string of 
leaderships which have continued to the present 
day. 

North Carolina does not claim for herself 
a monopoly of great natural resources. For 
variety and scope, however, she has been fa- 
vored by the Divine Creator at least on an 
equal with her sister states. It is in the char- 
acter and composition of her citizenship upon 
which the material progress and social posi- 
tion rests. 

The State had the good fortune to be peopled 
by early colonists who upheld the loftiest ideals 
of the European nations. Hardy pioneers found 
the State one in which they assured themselves 
that the fruits of honest toil and high ideals 
would return fitting rewards. How well they 
builded is exemplified today in a State that 
stands among the first in every respect in the 
American nation. 

North Carolinians are descended from a sturdy 
stock which has as its predominant strains 
English, Scotch, Irish, and Germans. They have 
become a cosmopolitan citizenship that incul- 
cates the best of the qualities of each; and 
whatever progress has been made is due to the 
energy and high ideals of the people. 

The varied and extensive natural resources 
are exploited for the advancement of the people. 
There is a State consciousness that makes a 



Tar Heel proud of his heritage and zealous 
that the highest traditions be upheld. The fact 
that more than 99 per cent of the citizenship of 
North Carolina is American-bbrn makes her 
possibly the most typically American of all 
the states. A mutual understanding and a clear 
conception of the duties of citizenship follow 
as natural results. 

Free From Strife 

Throughout the great industrial awakening 
and consequent expansion, the State has been 
noticeably free from industrial strife that often 
mars the tranquility of other localities. A popu- 
lation that enables all stratus of society to un- 
derstand the problems of their neighbors and the 
working man and capitalist to treat in har- 
mony and with an ease of understanding is a 
distinction of the State. 

Lying along the same parallel of latitude as 
the Central Mediterranean basin, which is con- 
sidered one of the most favored climatic zones 
on the globe, North Carolina affords a variety 
of climate, topography, and soil almost without 
parallel. 

North Carolina rises from the level coastal 
plains, only a few feet above sea level in the 
east, to the highest altitudes east of the Missis- 
sippi. The variety of climatic conditions is as 
wide as the contrast between the elevations of 
the several parts of the State. The coastal 
plains raise gradually from the sea until they 
meet the Piedmont district of Central Carolina, 
center of the greatest industrial activity of the 
State, and finally reach a climax in the Appa- 
lachians of the west, whose crowning peak is 
Mt. Mitchell (6,711 feet in elevation), the highest 
peak east of the Father of Waters. 

Every demand for recreational, health, and 
sporting facilities are met within the borders 
of this one State. Wrightsville, Carolina, At- 
lantic, and Nagshead Beaches arc known to 
thousands of pleasure seekers. The country im- 
mediately back of these ocean-side resorts forms 
one of the best districts in the United States 
for hunting. Big game, including bear, deer 
and other species make it a mecca for both Tar 
Heel and non-resident hunters. Smaller game 
such as wild turkeys, quail, doves, squirrels, 
and rabbits are found in profusion. Currituck, 
Albemarle, Roanoke, Pamlico, Core, and 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of n> 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begin 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately aft' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w" 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departm<j 
regular tabulations of indu;' 
prove an advertising feature | 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav. 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this -X 
ment and other booster or;| 
able to keep a closer touch f 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICA1S 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first j 
buted this spring in North ; 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround: 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the i{ 
of localities and that the bi i 
have taken up with a flock ' 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



Conservation and Industry 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

Published at Raleigh, N. C, by the North Carolina 
Department of Conservation and Development. Free 
on application. 

Wade H. Phillips Director 

Paul Kelly Editor 



Newspapers and other publications are invited to make 
use of contents, in whole or in part, and with or 
without credit. 



Bogue Sounds and the wide river mouths 
of this section are known throughout America 
as among the best migratory wildfowl shooting 
grounds on the continent. These waters are also 
known as among the richest fishing grounds in 
the country, both commercial and sport. The 
State has an ocean shoreline of approximately 
300 miles and more than 3,600 square miles of 
inland sounds. 

The Sandhill section, which includes such re- 
sorts as Pinehurst, Southern Pines, Aberdeen 
and others, present distinctive features for health 
and recreation. This district is a winter play- 
ground, only an overnight ride from the most 
populous centers of the country. Its typical 
beauty and mild winter climate are its outstanding 
characteristics. 

The mountains of North Carolina have long 
been famous as recreational and resort centers. 
This "skyland", a region of beauty and surcease 
from heat of lowlands in the summer, teems 
with multitudes of vacationists, who find sport 
and diversions of numerous varieties to suit 
any inclination. 

As a center of sports, it vies with any section 
of the country. Mountain streams are liberally 
stocked with game fish such as the brook and 
rainbow trout, small-mouth bass, pike and others. 
Large State and Federal game refuges with 
public shooting grounds surroundings are thick- 
ly populated with deer, turkeys, raccoons and 
other game. 

Close to 400,000 acres of National Forest 
lands are in this section, and are being admin- 
istered for the benefit of the public, both from 
an economic and recreational standpoint. 

Creating National Park 

The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 
an area of scenic grandeur that incorporates the 
culmination of beauty of the Appalachian Moun- 



tain system, is being acquired at this time. This 
will add other hundreds of thousands of acres 
to areas permanently dedicated to the public 
profit and pleasure. North Carolina and Tenne- 
ssee will share about equally the area in this 
park. 

Although another speaker during "North Caro- 
lina Week" has talked on the wonderful high- 
way system of the State, which has challenged 
the imagination and admiration of the nation, 
a mere mention of the effects of the road 
building program as an industrial asset may 
fittingly be brought into a discussion of the 
resources of the commonwealth. Typically an 
agricultural State, notwithstanding the remark- 
able industrial progress, the population of North 
Carolina has been drawn closer together by means 
of more than 7,500 miles of improved roads. In- 
dustry has been quickened, the farmer has been 
placed in close touch with the resident of the 
towns; and the city dweller may fraternize easily 
with his country neighbor while enjoying the fa- 
cilities for outing which surround him. 

Behind all of the progress of the State, a big 
factor has been an educated and enlightened pub- 
lic with an understanding of the opportunities 
surrounding them. The State spent approxi- 
mately 35 million dollars on public school edu- 
cation last year as compared with slightly more 
than one million in 1900. 

Material Prosperity Shown 

Material prosperity of the State is shown by the 
increase in property values from 1900 in which 
year they were $681,000,000; in 1910 $1,685,000, 
000 and $4,543,000,000 in 1926. During last fis- 
cal year $225,315,303 were paid in federal taxes 
to the United States government, North Carolina 
in this respect being surpassed only by the popu- 
lous states of New York and Pennsylvania. 

So efficiently does the government of North 
Carolina function that it boasts of the lowest per 
capita tax rate (with one exception) for the cur- 
rent maintenance of the State. This has been 
brougth about in spite of the broad scope of 
functions of the State Government in interest of 
public service and welfare. 

Resources in State and National banks in North 
Carolina increased from $150,000,000 dollars in 
1914 to $550,000,000 in 1928— a gain of 270 per 
cent in 14 years. The banking resources of the 
United States as a whole increased only slightly 
more than 100 per cent during the last 20 years. 

Between the two latest census periods, the in- 
crease in per capita wealth for North Carolina 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



3t he hs 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



was 238 per cent; and for the entire United 
States for the same time was only 61 per cent. 

Probably the most challenging material progress 
in North Carolina has been along industrial lines. 
Starting a trend toward manufacturing following 
the Civil War, which had left the State, along 
with its neighbors, in an impoverished condition 
and realizing that it would be necessary to build 
up payrolls in order to support a growing popu- 
lation, the onward march of industry has been 
virtually continuous. 

In 1860, only $9,500,000 was invested in manu- 
facturing enterprises; 14,217 workers were en- 
gaged in industrial pursuits; and the annual out- 
put of factories of the State amounted to only 
$16,500,000. By 1014 the number of workers had 
grown to 136,844 and the combined products of 
mills and factories amounted to $289,411,000. 
No estimate of the amount of capital invested in 
industry are available for that year. 

"Billion Dollar State" 

The year 1925 first entitled the Old North 
State to be termed the "Billion Dollar" State 
as applied to industry. By that time the invest- 
ments in manufacturing enterprises had reached 
approximately one billion dollars and the output 
of industry had grown to $1,050,434,000. The 



1927 census of manufactures shows still further 
progress with 204,767 persons on factory and mill 
pay rolls; a value of $1,154,617,636 placed on 
products; and the sum of $592,531,353 added to 
raw materials by manufacturing processes. 

Today, North Carolina has an invested capi- 
tal of more than one and a quarter billion dol- 
lare in manufacturing establishments. Accord- 
ing to the 1925 census of manufacturers, North 
Carolina led all Southern States in values added 
to raw materials by manufactures, the closest 
competitor being Texas, with Maryland, Virginia 
and Georgia coming next in order. 

North Carolina leads in the South in the num- 
ber of furniture factories and the value of their 
products:. The State holds first place in the 
country in the manufacture of wooden bedroom 
furniture. It also stands first among its South- 
ern neighbors in the amount of capital invested in 
industry; the number of operatives employed; va- 
riety of products; and with the exception of one, 
in the value of annual output of all factories. 

A glance at some of the superlatives belong- 
ing to North Carolina will convince the dubious 
of the success of industry in the State. It has 
the largest hosiery and towel mills in the world ; 
the largest overalls factory; and the second larg- 
est aluminum reduction plant. As compared with 




The Cherokee County courthouse at Murphy is a testimonial to the beauty and service of 
North Carolina marble. Material for this building was quarried in Cherokee County. A sub- 
stantial savings was accomplished by using the native stone. 



.... 
I 



• 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 

OF NEW IN 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



A quarterly summary of m 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Char 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begir 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately aft' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departing 
regular tabulations of indu: 
prove an advertising feature I 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys ha\ 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature ]! 
mined upon. Through this :' 
ment and other booster or; 1 : 
able to keep a closer touch I 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICANS 
QUAIL A 



Mexican quail of the first \ 
buted this spring in North ; 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround: 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close • 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake < 
he has checked up on the i 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



the United States, it has the largest denim and 
damask mills, the largest underwear factory and 
one of the largest pulp mills. More tobacco pro- 
ducts are made in one North Carolina city than 
any other in the world. 

Leadership in the number of active spindle 
hours in textile mills has rested in North Caro- 
lina for some time. There are more mills that 
dye and finish their own products than any other 
Southern State. Its textile mills consume 60 
per cent more cotton than is grown in the State. 

With all of the achievements in the exploita- 
tion of the natural resources of the State, the 
latent possibilities are greater than they have ever 
been. New developments are constantly present- 
ing themselves with each succeeding enterprise. 

Mineral Development 

Although looked upon for many years as mere- 
ly a "nature's sample case" of minerals, the de- 
velopment of this type of raw materials has 
gone forward at a surprising rate during the last 
few years. The possibilities along this line are 
wrapped up chiefly in the non-metallics. In 1916 
the total value of mineral products was $4,746,- 
674; in 1920, $8,117,916; in 1924, $10,163,435; 
and in 1927, more than $12,500,000. The State 
is credited with having the largest number of na- 
tive minerals (284), of which many were first 
identified in North Carolina. 

Within the Old North State are the only com- 
mercial deposits of pyrophyllite, a mineral simi- 
lar to talc, in the United States. North Caro- 
lina is the largest producer of scrap mica and 
feldspar in the country ; the largest producer of 
residual kaolin; and the second largest copper 
producing State in the South. The largest open- 
faced granite quarry in the world is in the State. 
Although the public does not usually associate 
coal with North Carolina, there are estimated by 
geologists to be approximately 80,000,000 tons of 
"black gold" ready for exploitation. 

Forest resources of North Carolina are among 
the most extensive and varied in the United States. 
The number of different species of trees is su- 
perior to that of any other State of the Union, 
with the exception of Florida and Texas. There 
are 166 different kinds of plants native to North 
Carolina that normally grow to tree size, and 
this does not include a number of introduced 
trees that are now growing wild. 

The annual value of forest products of the 
State amounts to more than $100,000,000 annu- 
ally. The great range in types of lumber may be 
better realized when it is said that the variety of 



trees range from that of the sub-tropics near the 
coast to the forest growth typical of the Cana- 
dian growth in the mountains. The longleaf, 
shortleaf, loblolly, and other pines furnish a large 
part of the lumber prepared for market. Gum 
and other hardwoods of the lowlands are found 
in plentitude, while the spruce, white pine, hem- 
lock, and other northern growth is abundant 
enough to form the basis for numerous industries. 
Oak, popular, chestnut and other hardwoods form 
a farge part of the lumber supplies. 

Electricity Helps 

Abundant and cheap electric power is one of 
the underlying reasons for the rapid industrial 
development in North Carolina. Of all of the 
United States, only three exceed North Carolina 
in the amount of developed water power, these 
being New York, California and Oregon; of 
which only one of these is east of the Mississippi 
River. 

With a total capacity of 1,462,615 horsepower 
of water and steam power, either installed or un- 
der construction, North Carolina is one of the 
leaders in electrical developments. In total out- 
put of plants, the State is first in the South, West 
Virginia being the closest competitor. 

While the capacity of the plants has been in- 
creased, the distribution has kept pace until today 
every section either has high tension transmission 
lines or is within easy access. Latest figures 
show that 85 of the 100 counties has electric 
power in sufficient volume for manufacturing 
purposes. 

Industrial development in North Carolina is 
distinctive when compared with other sections. 
Although some sections, notably the famous Pied- 
mont, have gained a high state of industrial 
development, manufacturing is confined to no 
particular area. The distribution of power, 
the sources of raw materials, and the availability 
of labor, are conditions influencing the location of 
industries. Congested industrial areas are un- 
known since virtually any part of the State is 
suitable for the profitable operation of manufac- 
turing enterprises. 

A distribution of industry that is unique in 
America is found in North Carolina, giving the 
worker the advantage of uncrowded living con- 
ditions, and an opportunity to enjoy the best of 
living conditions, cheap necessities of life and a 
freedom of city restraint often denied to those 
living in crowded industrial cities, and promoting 
a healthy and vigorous wage-earning force. 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 






CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



Still Goes Forward 

While looking back upon a glorious and in- 
spirational past, North Carolinians have never 
been contented to rest in the contemplation of 
the deeds of their forefathers nor even in the 
realization of the accomplishments of the present 
day. They are stedfastly looking to the future 
to prove themselves worthy of their heritage. 
In the industrial development of the State this is 
as true as in the social life. 

The State Department of Conservation and 
Development was established in 1925, by the 
General Assembly, upon the recommendation of 
Gov. A. W. McLean to work out and establish 
a program that will not only safeguard the nat- 
ural resources of the State for the permanent in- 
terest of the people in assuring their wisest 
use, but to encourage the exploitation of existing 
opportunities. 

Already we claim for this Department credit 
for arousing increased public concern in 
the natural resources in which the pub- 
industrial lines. A surveys to determine oppor- 
tunities for development have been made or are 
in process of being carried out. 

One of the features of the undertakings of the 
Department is a survey of all of the industries 
and natural resources of North Carolina, a 
preliminary report of which will be ready for 
publication by the end of this year. This will 
be in the nature of an inventory of raw ma- 
terials suitable for use in manufacturing pro- 
cesses with a study of the extent to which they 
have already been exploited for the common 
good. It is designed to point out to residents of 
this and other states the opportunities for 
additional developments of industry— the fields 
not already occupied and those in which there 
is room for expansion. 

Studying Resources 

Angles of study included in this survey in- 
clude forestry, geology, fisheries, water resources, 
game, climate, transportation, labor and other 
factors affecting industry. The information gath- 
ered through the research will be available for 
use of industries, trade and booster organiza- 
tions, and to anyone interested in any feature. 
The Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment invites inquiries regarding these resources 
and any factor affecting the industrial growth of 
the State. 

A cause of outstanding pride for all North 



Carolinians has been the good government of 
State affairs. Officials of the commonwealth have 
continously labored with a full consciousness of 
a public trust. 

To Governor A. W. McLean goes the credit 
of establishing during his administration a State 
Budget law and to see its fruition into a practi- 
cal working system covering the various divisions 
of the State government. During his administra- 
tion, the Budget Commission has not only bal- 
anced State expenditures and directed them 
along the most effective lines, but has affected 
an actual saving to the taxpayers of more 
than two million dollars. 

The opcation of the budget has not only es- 
tablished and maintained confidence of people 
of the State, but has impressed outsiders so 
forcibly with the earnestness and efficiency of 
government that there has been no hesitancy in 
the establishment of new industries, which are 
given the assurance that the tax monies are well 
applied and that the burdens from levies are 
wisely and equitably distributed. The State 
Government is one of the few that does not 
levy a property tax for the maintenance of 
State functions. 

While administering State affairs with an 
efficiency that assures a maximum return for 
money spent, North Carolina has been consid- 
erate of the social needs of its people. It has 
accepted the demands of its public charge and 
has not submerged the welfare of its people 
to a mere financial consideration. Consequently, 
many permanent improvements in educational, 
charitable, and public welfare work that have 
not yet been made by some States are an 
accomplished fact in North Carolina. We pride 
ourselves in this State on the humanitarian side 
of government. In 1927, the State spent $1,856, 
261 on the operation and maintenance of chari- 
table institutions. 

While the limit of time has precluded this 
address from covering many angles that show 
the accomplishments of the State, it has en- 
deavored to give a glance at a number of them. 
For additional information regarding North Caro- 
lina, we invite you to address the Department 
of Conservation and Development, Raleigh, N. C. 



Judge: "How many times have you been be- 
fore me?" 

Speeder: "Never, your Honor. I've often 
tried to pass you but the old bus will only do 
fifty-five." 



.'.••• 



. 

....... • . . , 

. .. ..... • . . << • ' 



. . ,.. . « 

; 

. . . • . . 
. . . • 

t r . 



DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of n. 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begir 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately aftf 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w 1 " 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmt 
regular tabulations of indu; 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 



tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this i 
ment and other booster or;l 
able to keep a closer touch 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A> 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



GEOLOGIC MAKING STORY 

TOLD IN NEW PUBLICATION 



GAME ASSOCIATION HEAD 

PRAISES NORTH CAROLINA 



"The Story of the Geologic Making of North 
Carolina," a publication recently prepared by 
State Geologist H. J. Bryson, and issued by this 
Department, has met a long-standing need and 
demand in this State. 

This publication discusses the origin, processes, 
ages, areas, life, and to some extent, the economic 
products of the different geological formations of 
the State. Its main theme is to acquaint the pub- 
lic in general with the outstanding geological facts 
concerning North Carolina. 

An especial effort has been made by the au- 
thor to present the "story" in such a manner as 
will interest high school students and be suitable 
for use as a text in science departments. Since 
its issuance several, including some college classes, 
have ordered supplies for use by students. 

The "story" is appropriately illustrated with 
views of various mineral formations and mining 
activities, and also of sketches showing the forms 
of life which inhabited the land during various 
periods in the geological history. 



"The statement which accompanied your letter 
of the 25th, regarding the amount of game killed 
in North Carolina of various species for the last 
season, is of the highest importance," Carlos 
Avery, President of the American Game Protec- 
tive Association, writes to Conservation and 
Industry. 

"I want to congratulate your State on the rapid 
strides it is taking toward placing the conserva- 
tion of wild life on a firm and sound basis." 

Mr. Avery was a pioneer in the collection of 
accurate statistics regarding the kill of game. 
He obtained the passage of a law in 1919, in Min- 
nesota, requiring all hunting licensees to make 
a report of game killed with the forfeiture of a 
license for the following year as a penalty for 
non-compliance. This plan has been followed in 
that and other states ever since. 



Timber typical of the Canadian climate, such 
as spruce, balsam, beech, birch, and maple are 
found in the mountains of North Carolina; in 
the extreme eastern part of the State, such tropi- 
cal trees as the palmetto and others are found. 



Mexican quail of the first | 
buted this spring in North ;' 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround: 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the i| 
of localities and that the bi ; 
have taken up with a flock ' 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 




Progress in North Carolina is not only reflected in industry, but it extends to every phase in 
the life of the State. Educational advancement is one of the greatest objects of pride. The two 
photographs, the above and that on the opposite page, show a contrast in school buildings. 
Above is presented the new school house at Hemp, Moore County. 



3 fPe 



ot Fensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



serious question whether or not he has 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
slight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 




CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



NON-UTILIZED WOOD 

SURVEY REVEALS BIG 

WASTE OF FORESTS 



Progress of the survey of non-utilized wood in 
North Carolina by the National Committee on 
Wood Utilization, with the co-operation of this 
Department, is beginning to point out definitely 
the practical service which it will render to the 
State. 

Preliminary figures compiled from returns from 
between 60 and 70 per cent of the wood using 
plants show a total of more than 25,000 freight 
car loads of non-utilized wood available in 
North Carolina for use in manufacturing pro- 
cesses, according to an announcement by Direc- 
tor Wade H. Phillips, from totals supplied by 
the National Committee. 

This material consists, to a large extent, of 
slabs, sawdust, and other left-over materials from 
wood-working industries, not all of which may 
be used economically and on a paying bassis by 
industry, but of which doubtless a large per cent 
can be put to serve useful purposes. Transporta- 
tion and other features enter into consideration 
when the utilization of the material is considered. 



A personal canvass by County Game and For- 
est Wardens is now being made in all of the coun- 
ties of the State, to complete the reports from 
wood-using plants. It is believed that in 1 1 i i - 
manner returns can be had from all. 

Figuring on the average content of a freight 
car to be around IS thousand board feet of lum- 
ber, the survey tabulation shows wood amount- 
ing to approximately the same quantity contained 
in 375 million board feet of lumber either not 
utilized or wasted. In other words this volume 
of wood virtually equals the total amount of 
standing timber in two counties of the State, the 
approximate average being around 200 million 
board feet to the county. 

One of the outstanding results of the survey 
is expected to be a lessening of the drain on the 
forest resources of the State by employing for- 
merly wasted wood in the manufacture of ma- 
terials that do not require the highest type of 
tree products. The scope of possibilities is shown 
from the fact that unused materials amounting 
to the total standing timber in two whole counties 
await exploitation and industrial development. 
Establishment of industries with increased capi- 
tal and pay rolls, and establishment of markets 
from materials which have formerly not brought 
returns are other results to be anticipated. 




This photograph shows the school building at Hemp, which was supplanted by the one on the 
opposite page. Such examples as these are common throughout the State, where modern, fire- 
proof buildings have taken the place of old frame structure. 



. . ,.. . , 








DEPARTMENT I 
QUARTERLY 

OF NEW IN 



A quarterly summary of n> 
ing in the State has been adop 
of Commerce and Industry a 
The summaries will be made 
son, Assistant Director. 

Blank questionnaires have 
Mr. Mathewson to 102 Chan 
and trade representatives of th 
ing for reports since the begir 
year. 

Information gathered from 
will be tabulated in totals an' 
made public immediately aft' 
is proposed by this means to 
the industrial development w* 
to show its trend. 

It is the belief of Departmt 
regular tabulations of indu: 
prove an advertising feature 
ficial to the entire State. I 
increasing confidence of indus 
lina and the recognized opp 
tinued development. 

Several of these surveys hav 
Department in the past, but 
plan as a permanent feature 1 
mined upon. Through this ;* 
ment and other booster or;| 
able to keep a closer touch f 
activities in the interim b 
biennial censuses. 



IMPORTED MEXICAN 
QUAIL A 



10 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



SIXTY FOUR ARRESTS ARE 

MADE IN EASTERN DISTRICT 



Sixty-four arrests in less than a month and a 
half of active operation of game wardens, during 
the current season, is the record established in 
District No. 7, Charles J. Moore, Assistant State 
Game Warden. 

Convictions were secured in all of the cases 
where prosecutions were pushed, according to Mr. 
Moore. Leading in arrests on charges of game 
law violations was Beaufort County, in which 16 
were reported. Other counties where a number 
of arrests have been made include Edgecombe 
with 11; Nash, 11; Martin, 10; and Hyde 6. 

The number of arrests in this district reflect, 
according to the Assistant State Warden, the ac- 
tivities of the wardens rather than a condition 
of law observance, which he declares is good and 
constantly growing better. 



PLANS FOR FORMAL 

OPENING COMMERCE 

OFFICE BEING MADE 



Mexican quail of the first j 
buted this spring in North ; 
supervision of Director Wad 
become quickly acclimated an 
selves readily at home. 

Reports from a number of 
they are very much alive and 
pering in their new surround 
stances, deputy game comr 
and sportsmen who assisted 
of the birds have kept close ' 
ties where the quail were rele 
back to look after their welfa 

W. A. Queen, Raleigh spor 
in the distribution in Wake i 
he has checked up on the ij 
of localities and that the bi:| 
have taken up with a flock ' 
calls frequently bring a respo 

F. S. Worthy, Washingto 
Board of Conservation and I 
that quail distributed in B 
thriving. 

Sportsmen of Granville county write that the 
quail are flourishing in their county and that 
some of the birds have begun to lay. They 
believe that the distribution has already proved 
highly successful and that hunters of their section 
will benefit greatly by the increased sport to be 
provided. 



State officials and leaders in the commercial 
and industrial fields in North Carolina have been 
invited to attend a banquet to celebrate the form- 
al opening of the district office of the U. S. 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce at 
Charlotte, C. Grant Isaacs, district manager, 
announced in Raleigh recently. 

Dr. Julius Klein, director of the federal bureau, 
will be a guest at the meeting, Mr. Isaacs said. 
The manager of the district office and a party of 
Charlotte business and commercial leaders, in- 
cluding Clarence Keuster, secretary of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, and William Nebel, president 
and general manager of the Neble Knitting Com- 
pany, extended a personal invitation to Gov. A. 
W. McLean; Wade H. Phillips, director of con- 
servation; and Park Mathewson, foreign trade 
secretary of the Conservation Department, to at- 
tend the formel opening ceremonies. . 

The Charlotte branch office of the domestic 
and foreign bureau is the twenty-fifth to be es- 
tablished in the United States, and its territory 
will include the two Carolinas, Mr. Isaacs said. 
The office was established at the request of State 



of Pensylvania shows extensive activity in refor- 
estation on the part of a number of individual 
lodges and of the Grand Lodge. One of the 
features of this program is a memorial grove in 
which each tree is named in honor of one of the 
268 members of the order, who were either killed 
in action or died of wounds or in camp. 



HOLMES IS ELECTED 

TO HEAD FORESTERS 

ORGANIZATION OF U. S. 



State Forester J. S. Holmes was honored at 
the recent meeting of the National Association of 
State Foresters by being elected president for the 
coming year. 

The organization is composed of state foresters 
and other representatives of the permanent staffs 
of the various forestry departments invited by 
members. Others who are eligible to attend meet- 
ings of the body includes members of governing 
bodies in each state, such as forestry boards or 
commissions or the superior officer to whom the 
State Forester reports. 

Recognition coming to Mr. Holmes, through 
election of this place, could have been no more 
appropriately placed than upon the recipient, who 
for around a score of years has filled his position 
with the State of North Carolina with credit and 
dignity. He began in 1909 and his service has 
been continuous since that time. 

Under his direction and with his advice, a 
forest service that has attracted the notice of the 
nation has been built up in North Carolina. 
He has devoted much time to the solution of fun- 
damental problems of forestry as well as to 
organization of a force to carry out a compre- 
hension program. Forest research, fire preven- 
tion, and reforestation are among his major fields 
and these the State Service has advanced. 

Mr. Holmes has also been ective in a number 
of national organizations, besides the one which 
has recently bestowed the honor upon him. 

He has been so much wrapped up in his subject 
that the principles of forestry have become an 
animated part of his life. 

officials and industrial and commercial leaders of 
the section. 

Service of the office, according to its manager, 
will be available for the promotion of the for- 
eign and domestic commerce and industry of the 
section. It will bring the benefits of the work 
of trade representatives of the federal bureau 
in countries all over the world directly to the ap- 
plication of problems in the State. 

The Raleigh branch office of the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce, according to 
Mr. Isaacs, will continue to operate at the De- 
partment of Conservation and Developement 
through the Charlotte district office. 



serious question whether or not he has any 
superior as an all-round game bird. Possessed 
of remarkable vitality, he does not succumb to 
flight gunshot wounds. Being clean-limbed, with 
powerful thighs, he. is exceptionally fleet of foot. 
If winged only, the pheasant falls running, and 
here the dog is put to his severest test." 



CONSERVATION AND INDUSTRY 



11 



LIST OF INDUSTRIES 

OF NORTH ACROLINA 

HAS BEEN PREPARED 



An industrial directory of North Carolina, 
believed to be the most complete and the first of 
its kind issued, prepared by Park. Mathewson of 
the Commerce and Industry Division of this De- 
partment, has just come off the press and is now 
available for distribution. 

The directory lists more than 3,000 industrial 
establishments, besides carrying other information 
that is valuable to industry in the State. 

Industrial firms are arranged in tables, divided